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HORTICULTURAL CROPS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY HORTICULTURE DATA 2005

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HORTICULTURAL CROPS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY HORTICULTURE DATA 2005 Powered By Docstoc
					  HORTICULTURAL CROPS DEVELOPMENT
             AUTHORITY




HORTICULTURE DATA 2005-2007 VALIDATION
               REPORT




              Date: APRIL2008
ACRO YMS A D ABBREVIATIO S ............................................................................ 4
ACK OWLEDGEME T A D DISCLAIMER ............................................................... 5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................. 6
1.0 I TRODUCTIO ...................................................................................................... 9
   1.1         Methodology ............................................................................................................ 10
   1.2         Domestic Market Validation............................................................................... 11
   1.3         Limitations/Challenges ....................................................................................... 12
2.0 HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTIO DATA REVIEW A D VALIDATIO BY
CROP ................................................................................................................................ 13
   2.1 FRUITS AND NUTS ...................................................................................................... 13
       2.1.1 Bananas................................................................................................................................ 13
       2.1.2 Mangoes ............................................................................................................................... 15
       2.1.3 Avocado ................................................................................................................................ 16
       2.1.4 Citrus .................................................................................................................................... 17
       2.1.4 Passion Fruits ...................................................................................................................... 18
       2.1.5 Pineapples ............................................................................................................................ 19
       2.1.6 Pawpaw ................................................................................................................................ 20
       2.1.7 Melons .................................................................................................................................. 21
       2.1.8 Temperate Fruits ................................................................................................................ 21
       2.1.9 Minor Fruits .......................................................................................................................... 23
       2.1.10     Nuts .................................................................................................................................. 24
          2.1.10.1      Macadamia Nuts ................................................................................................... 24
          2.1.10.1      Cashew Nuts ......................................................................................................... 25
          2.1.10.3      Ground Nuts .......................................................................................................... 25
   2.2         VEGETABLES ............................................................................................................ 26
       2.2.1        Cabbages ............................................................................................................................. 26
       2.2.2        Kales ..................................................................................................................................... 27
       2.2.3        Tomatoes ............................................................................................................................. 28
       2.2.4        Onions .................................................................................................................................. 29
       2.2.5        Carrots .................................................................................................................................. 29
       2.2.6        French Beans ....................................................................................................................... 30
       2.2.7        Spinach ................................................................................................................................. 30
       2.2.8        Garden Peas/Field peas ..................................................................................................... 31
       2.2.9        Snow/Snap peas ................................................................................................................. 31
       2.2.10          Irish Potatoes ................................................................................................................. 32
       2.2.11          Chillies.............................................................................................................................. 33
       2.2.12          Asian Vegetables ............................................................................................................ 33
       2.2.13          Other Vegetables ........................................................................................................... 35
       2.2.14          Indigenous Vegetables .................................................................................................. 37
       2.2.15          Herbs, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ........................................................... 39
       2.2.16          Other Herbs and Spices Production.............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
   2.3         EMERGING CROPS/SPECIAL CROPS .............................................................. 40
   2.4         FLORICULTURE ....................................................................................................... 41
3.0 DOMESTIC CO SUMPTIO ................................................................................ 46

                                                                                                                                                               2
4.0 SOURCES OF DATA: HORTICULTURAL EXPORTS ....................................... 49
    4.1      KEPHIS....................................................................................................................... 49
    4.2      HCDA (Fresh Horticultural Exports)................................................................ 49
    4.3      Kenya Customs (Kenya Revenue Authority) ............................................... 50
    4.4      Kenya National Bureau of Statistics ............................................................... 50
    4.5      Horticultural Produce Production (Ministry of Agriculture) .................. 50
5.0 CHALLE GES ........................................................................................................ 51
6.0 WAY FORWARD ..................................................................................................... 55
A      EX I – Data on Horticultural produce and Sources of Information ..................... 57
Annex II – Table on Volumes and Values ...................................................................... 62
A      EX III – Letter from Permanent Secretary to large farms ..................................... 64
A      EX IV: Volume of major flowers cuttings and plants produced ............................ 67
A      EX V – List of Team member .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.70
Annex VI: Terms of Reference ........................................................................................ 71
A      EX VII - References ................................................................................................. 72




                                                                                                                                           3
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AIRC       Agriculture Information and Resource Centre
KNBS       Kenya National Bureau of Statistics
DAO        District Agricultural Officer
EPC        Export Promotion Council
ERS        Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation
FPEAK      Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya
GDP        Gross Domestic Product
Ha         Hectare
HCDA       Horticultural Crops Development Authority
KARI       Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
KFC        Kenya Flower Council
KHDP       Kenya Horticulture Development Programme
KEPHIS     Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services
KRA        Kenya Revenue Authority
KPA        Kenya Ports Authority
MT         Metric Tonnes
MoA        Ministry of Agriculture
NGO        Non Governmental Organization
PSDA/GTZ   Private Sector Development in Agriculture
SRA        Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture
UN         United Nations
EUROSTAT   European Statistics (Import Data)
USAID      United States Agency for International Development




                                                                           4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND DISCLAIMER
        This report has been authored by the members of the technical team on
“Validation of Horticultural data. The Team was formed after presentation of the
report by the Task force on Horticultural Markets and Market Infrastructure when
it was realized that the data required validation. The team was supported by Mr.
F K Wambugu, a consultant who was contracted to work with the team. The
members comprised Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA); Kenya
Plant Health Inspection Service (KEPHIS); Kenya Horticultural Development
Programme (KHDP) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The team by invitation
also sought views from Mr. C. Kyengo of FPEAK who was assigned by the CEO
and T. Runyora-Market Analyst/Statistician of KHDP to help in custom data
analysis.
     On behalf of the Team, I would like to thank all those individuals and
organizations who supported the exercise, whether in providing the relevant data
and information, financing of the work, or in any other way. Special thanks to Dr
Romano Kiome - Permanent Secretary Ministry of Agriculture, Mr Joseph Kibe -
Chairman HCDA Board,, Dr Alfred Serem - Managing Director HCDA Mr Tom
Bonyo –Director Land and Crops. Nehemiah Chepkwony all of MOA for the
guidance and advice during the process. Last but not least, the committee
wishes to sincerely thank all those persons who were met and interviewed during
the study for taking time from the very busy schedules to offer a variety of
information and data that enabled this study to reach this far. It is not possible
to mention each person by name, but, on behalf of members of the Team I wish
to convey special thanks to each and everyone.
   Finally, it must be stressed that opinions expressed herein are purely those of
the Team members who take full responsibility for any errors of commission or
omission that may be found in the report.


F.K.WAMBUGU
Lead Consultant
For and on behalf of the validation Team




                                                                                5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report reviews the production data by area, volume and value of horticulture in the
country and also updates data on exports and the domestic market data. To achieve
this, various data/ information sources were used which included: Research findings and
recommendations; Seed Industry Catalogues; Handbooks on Horticultural production;
Domestic and Export Production and Market Information/Data from MoA, KRA, KEPHIS,
HCDA, KHDP, KNBS; among others. Reports from various stakeholders and Interviews
with farmers and other stakeholders in the value chain.


The methodology included desk review of MOA District and Provincial horticulture
annual reports from 2001-2007, literature from various stakeholders and specific
interviews with leading farmers, exporters, processors and other stakeholders in
the value chain. Field visits to selected provinces districts and local markets were
also made.


It is important to note that the task was interrupted by the post election crisis as
data was not readily available. Data from some provinces may require additional
visits for deeper verification. The time allocated for the exercise was also
limiting. Information was not forth coming even after sending out request letters
to large scale farms.
From the study it emerges that there is an urgent need to establish a data
coordination centre with appropriate tools (such as Geographical Positioning
System GPS, software for analysis of production data). The centre will be fed
with data from data collection centres to be established at all levels.


It is imperative to strengthen networking between different stakeholders to
enhance sharing of information.




                                                                                      6
Summary of Domestic and Export Horticultural Products -Volumes and Values

Table 1: Overall production volumes (‘000’ MTs) and values (Million Kshs)
                     Quantity '000' MTs                    Value Million KES
 Product
                2005       2006         2007       2005           2006          2007
 Vegetables 4,533,352    4,327,375    4,337,883 46,221,364     45,627,283    48,191,578
 Fruits      2,463,984   2,478,570    2,547,339 34,184,178     37,349,857    39,338,356
 Nuts          97,582     116,571      102,035  4,407,100      5,224,260      4,600,200
 Flowers      102,348     113,461      114,878  16,375,728     22,692,268    27,570,600
 Total      7,197,266 7,035,977 7,102,135 101,188,370 110,893,668 119,700,734
Sources; MOA, and Compiled by validation Team




Table 2: Horticulture exports 2005 – 2007
                        Quantity '000' MTs              Value Million KES
 Product              2005     2006     2007          2005    2006      2007
 Flowers                    97       107        108   21,428   24,821   29,715
 Fruits, fresh              19        21         20   1,308    1,539    1,380
 Vegetables, fresh          68        74        137   14,330   15,515   17,378
 Nuts                       11        10         12    843      753      893
 Processed
 vegetables                 26        19         29   2,392    1,756    2,814
 Processed fruit            86        73         97   4,594    5,001    5,276
 Total                     307       304        403   44,895   49,385   57,456

Source: KRA and compiled by KHDP

Resulting from the validation, it emerged that:
    •   The total domestic horticultural production in 2005 was 7,197,266 MT
        valued at KShs 101,188,370,000 while exports volume was 307,402 MT
        valued     at    KShs      44,893,926,025     making    a   total   of   KShs
        146,6082,296,025
    •   In year 2006 due to adverse weather conditions, the total volume
        produced decreased to 7,035,977 MT valued at KShs 110,893,668,000 in
        the domestic market while exports realised KShs 49,384,556,130
        making a total of KShs 160,278,224,130
    •   For the year 2007 the provisional data for production is estimated at
        7,102,135    MT valued at KShs. 119,700,734,000. The exports for this period


                                                                                    7
    recorded KShs 57,457,246,413 against a volume of 402,930 tons. The
    total value of horticulture was KShs 177,157,980,413
•   It is important to note that there has been a marked increase in the
    volume of product types and volumes handled by supermarkets,
    greengrocers and other outlets in Nairobi.




                                                                      8
1.0   INTRODUCTION

Over the last two decades, Kenya’s horticultural sub sector has attracted a lot of
interest from a wide range of stakeholders including the Government of Kenya,
private sector entrepreneurs, donors and NGOs among others. The sub-sector
has become an important source of income generation for rural farm households,
traders and investors. It is also an important source of government revenue,
foreign exchange earnings and employment, all of whom contribute to the
national goal of poverty reduction and food security.


The Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture (SRA) and the Economic Recovery
Strategy (ERS) recognised the role that the horticulture sub-sector offers in
realisation of economic growth then and in the Vision 2030. Availability of quality
data and information is important for enhancement of growth. In this regard,
streamlining data collection, analysis and its evaluation and enhancement of
dissemination is imperative in order to accelerate investment decision making
and economic development. Accuracy, reliability and timeliness of data are
critical elements in the formulation of development strategies and informed
planning.


Various challenges exist in data collection, analysis and dissemination processes
right from the production areas to utilization level. For example, the direct and
indirect contribution of horticulture to the GDP and employment has not been
adequately quantified. Currently, there are also no standardized guidelines for
collection, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of data/information at
the field and national level for use by all the stakeholders/industry and policy
formulators. This situation requires urgent attention to ensure that horticulture
data in the public domain is reliable, and the challenge is on technocrats privy to
the primary information to take a more pro-active role.




                                                                                 9
The data from the Ministry of Agriculture provincial reports has in the past been
obtained through the frontline extension staff. who provide estimates on the
area under the various crops and yields. The computed values are based on the
farm gate prices.


Data obtained from other institutions and stakeholders in the industry involved in
data capture, for example, production, imports, and exports and processing,
appear inconsistent and sometimes incompatible. It was also observed that there
is no proper documentation of horticultural produce handled in the domestic
markets by the appropriate local authorities responsible for markets thereby
limiting appropriate planning and projection of revenue for the local authorities.
The size of markets also depends on the quantities of produce availed from
production or planned. This has therefore necessitated the use of market reports
authored by consultants.

1.1     Methodology


All district and provincial reports for the period 2001 – 2007 were critically
reviewed and analysed in order to provide the historical trends as well as to
identify the gaps and inconsistencies. The data from the Domestic Market and
Market Infrastructure Taskforce Report (Ministry of Agriculture, 2007) was also
used.


Selective returns from some of the leading growers in the country were
scrutinised in order to ascertain the productivity (tonnage/hectarage) and to
compare similar information from the wider industry (small holding) used in
formulating MOA annual reports. Literature related to production and updates,
domestic market and exports market reports by KHDP, Kenya Gatsby Trust,
Consultants and Ministry of Agriculture reports were also used.




                                                                               10
For cut flowers using the weights captured for exports by HCDA, KEPHIS and
KRA the team arrived at (estimated) hectarage based on average yields per sq.
metre. Efficiency and profitability in production/quantity is determined by the
quality and number of stems per sq. metre. As far as small holders are
concerned it is a much bigger task, but volumes recorded by exporters were
useful in determining overall national hectarage.

1.2    Domestic Market Validation


Data accrued from the Taskforce report on Domestic Market and Market
Infrastructure was scrutinised by bringing on board additional information
obtained from Kongowea , Wakulima , Gikomba and Kangemi markets, leading
supermarkets, leading dealers of potatoes, herbs and spices and leading green
grocers with direct procurement from large scale growers. It was evident that
the data from the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) does not include large scale
farms. The team estimates that this may exceed 10 percent of reported data for
some crops like lettuce, spring onions, leeks, babycarrrots, sugar/snap/snow
peas, baby corn, broccoli, sweet melons, solo,        paw paws, Strawberries,
pineapples, and other miscellaneous vegetables used in pre-packs.


The validation of the data has been done through the following:
•   Literature Review of
          District and Provincial reports of MOA
          Various research recommendations by KARI
          Seed Industry Catalogues and yield expectations
          Various handbooks on Horticultural production by MOA,HCDA,JICA and
          others
          Domestic and export production and Market reports from MoA, KRA,
          KEPHIS, HCDA, KARI, KNBS, KHDP, Tegemeo and some large scale
          farms.



                                                                             11
            Periodic bulletins and reports from KHDP and other stakeholders on
            production and marketing.
            Technical Information by seed companies in conjunction with other
            players(Seminis, East African Seeds, Kenya Seed company, Hydrotech
            among others)
            Market reports done by consultants, institutions – e.g. KHDP,
            Tegemeo, Market Economies Development Ltd (MED), Innovative
            Enterprise Support Co Ltd (IESCO), MOA reports on production and
            reports by MOLG from planned markets.
•   Questionnaires administered to large and medium scale farmers, exporters
    and processors.
•   Specific interviews with leading farmers, exporters, processors and other
    stakeholders in the value chain.
•   Field visits in identified areas with shortcomings as well as local domestic
    markets. Nyanza, Rift valley and Western provinces were not visited due the
    prevailing conditions in the field.


1.3       Limitations/Challenges


During the validation exercise the following were noted as challenges in data
capture
      •    Mix up of units of measure in values and volumes,
      •    The   estimated    figures     which   are   sometimes    exaggerated   or
           underestimated,
      •    Delayed dissemination of information from the field to the headquarters
           and vice versa,
      •    Lack of a data bank and centralised coordination,
      •    Poor information flow,
      •    Difficulties in obtaining information from the large farms,
      •    Lack of resources to carryout periodic farm surveys,


                                                                                   12
      •    Lack of skills in data collection and analysis by the field staff,
      •    Lack of efforts and financial resources in utilising available information at
           the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development
           (Kasarani)
      •    Reluctance by some supermarkets who are handling considerable
           amount of produce from growers and supplied through a selected
           company to offer information. Most of the produce bypasses the
           wholesale markets.
           However, Uchumi, Mugoya and Zucchini among others provided useful
           information to enable us project the percentage of produce (handled by
           passing directly) the wholesale markets.



2.0       HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTION DATA REVIEW AND VALIDATION
          BY CROP

The horticulture industry has registered significant growth in the recent past. The
horticulture production data in public domain does not seem to reflect the true
picture of this growth. This is further confirmed by the documented
recommended yields as well as the price trends as reflected by key industry
analysis reports and demonstrations undertaken by seed suppliers and donor
funded projects in conjunction with MOA.


2.1 FRUITS AND NUTS
This includes all the fruits and nuts irrigated and rain fed


2.1.1 Bananas

The key production areas include Central, Nyanza and Eastern Provinces.
Bananas have emerged as a major income earner and food item in most parts of
the country. The crop is used for cooking and dessert and is the most affordable
fruit both in rural and urban households. This crop has emerged as a major


                                                                                     13
income earner and food item in almost all the provinces. There is increasing
demand for the crop and the farmers are now growing the high yielding disease
free varieties raised from tissue culture. Marketing agents are also offering
upgrades, handling and transportation services thereby improving quality.


The demand for planting material is high especially for the new varieties. Tissue
culture seedlings are available at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and
Technology (JKUAT), National Horticulture Research Centre -Thika, Africa
Harvest in Maragua and other private farms in Thika and Kiambu.


A scrutiny of Eastern province revealed that very high yields were being achieved
against what had been reported (i.e. 8.0 tons/ha) which is characteristically low
in view of extensive use of irrigation and high yielding tissue culture seedlings.
Banana production under irrigation is practised in various parts of the province
e.g. Mbooni (Makueni), Mitunguu (Meru) and Central province (Kirinyaga,
Maragua). The irrigation and use of tissue culture technology were viewed to
have had strong positive impact on the overall yield of the crop in the country.
On average a bunch weighing 15 – 20 kg fetches Kshs 200 - 300 depending on
the size. The hectarage for Nyanza Province was revised downwards as the
Province revised the figures provided earlier.
On analysing the reports on the banana industry the adopted figures were
national yield for 2005 up-to 2007 as 15 tons/ ha while the average national
validated price was Kshs 12.00 /kg in 2004 and rising to Kshs 15/kg in 2007.




                                                                               14
           Table 3: Banana Production 2005 – 2007
           Achieved Area (Ha)                    Production (MT)                       Value (Kshs. 000)
Province     2005      2006     2007         2005        2006        2007         2005          2006             2007
Central      16,051   15,540    16,784     240,765     233,100     251,760     2,889,180     3,263,400        3,021,120
Coast         7,357    5,715     5,613     110,355      85,725      84,195     1,324,260     1,200,150        1,262,925
Eastern       9,853   12,834    13,912     147,795     192,510     208,680     1,773,540     2,310,120        3,130,200
Western      12,591   12,645    12,735     188,865     189,675     191,025     2,266,380     2,655,450        2,865,375
Nyanza       34,401   32,396    26,469     516,015     485,940     397,035     6,192,180     6,803,160        5,995,525
Rift
Valley        3,005    2,870     3,103      45,075      43,050      46,545      540,900       602,700          698,175
Nairobi         27        42       15          405         630         225        4,860         8,820            3,375
North
East           448       476      485        6,720       7,140       7,275       80,640        99,960          109,125
Total       83,733    82,518   79,116    1,255,995   1,237,770   1,186,740   15,071,940    16,943,760     17,085,820




           2.1.2 Mangoes

           Mangoes are produced by both large and small scale farms. They are produced
           for both export and domestic consumption. A large proportion of the fruits are
           also processed into juice and fruit concentrates. The main varieties grown
           include Sabine, Ngowe, Boribo, Apple, Kent, Haden, Dodo, Tommy Atkins and
           Van Dyke. The main producing areas are in Eastern, Central and Coast
           Provinces. The apple and some of the exotic varieties were identified as the most
           popular. The main processors include Milly Fruit Processors Ltd, Kevian and
           Premier Foods Ltd.


           The main threat to production is pests especially the mango weevil and the fruit
           fly. For better quality mangoes production, a coordinated IPM programme for
           pest control is essential. Other value addition initiatives need to be explored (e.g.
           the frozen mango which was reported to have a potential niche market). Eastern
           province reported 20 – 22 tons/ha. This is attributed to the adoption of high
           yielding varieties, irrigation and improved husbandry practices.
           On reviewing the reports the adopted values were 12 tons/ha as National yields
           for all provinces except Eastern where 21 tons/ha was adopted after



                                                                                                         15
        confirmation from leading farmers and traders. The national price was agreed on
        as Kshs 10.00/kg in 2004 rising to Kshs 16.00/kg in 2007. Growers who have
        their fruits ready in September or October realised very high prices especially
        export oriented variety e.g. apple mango.


        Table 4: Mangoes Production 2005-2007

                 Hectarage (Ha)                Production (MT)                    Value (Kshs.000)
Province      2005     2006       2007      2005      2006       2007         2005         2006           2007
Central        854       876       847     12,810    13,140      10,164     192,150      197,100      152,460
Coast         9,350    9,092      9,020   112,200   109,104   108,240      1,122,000    1,636,560    1,623,600
Eastern       4,580    4,153   11,250      91,600    86,060   236,250      1,374,000    1,245,900    3,543,750
Western        537       552       561      6,444     6,624       6,732      64,440       99,360      107,712
Nyanza        1,355    1,467       658     16,260    17,604       7,896     162,600      264,060      126,336
Rift
Valley         785       837       954     11,775    12,555      11,448     176,625      188,325      183,168
N/Eastern      277       287       287      3,324     3,444       3,731      33,240       51,660       55,965
Total       17,738    17,264   14,557     254,413   248,531   384,461     3,125,055    3,682,965    5,792,991



        2.1.3 Avocado


        This is an important fruit for both export and local consumption and processing
        for oil. The main varieties grown are Hass and Fuerte with the latter being the
        main variety grown for export market. However, the market demand has shifted
        to Hass hence currently this variety is being established more than Fuerte. The
        fruits are also being processed into oil. The main producing areas include
        Central, Eastern, Western and Nyanza provinces with Central province being the
        leading producer. The main export market for avocado is Europe and the Middle
        East. After review the validated yields and prices are 13 tons/ha and Kshs
        15.00/kg respectively. There has been a dramatic increase in domestic
        consumption.




                                                                                                     16
          Table 5: Avocado Production 2005-2007

                Hectarage (Ha)                 Production (MT)                    Value (Kshs.’000’)
Provinc
e            2005     2006       2007        2005      2006       2007        2005         2006          2007
Eastern      1,770    1,682      1,682      23,010    21,866     21,866     345,150      327,990        327,990
Western      553.6       558       563       7,197     7,254      7,319     107,952      108,810        109,785
Central      2,175    2,411      2,411      28,275    31,343     31,343     424,125      470,145        470,145
Rift
Valley       1,979    1,880        984      25,727    24,440     12,792     385,905      366,600        191,880
Nyanza       1,106    1,334      1,436      14,378    17,342     18,668     215,670      260,130        280,020
Coast          120       124       124       1,560     1,612      1,612      23,400       24,180         24,180
Nairobi         10         6         3        130         78         39       1,950        1,170           585
Total        7,714    7,995      7,203   100,277     103,935     93,639   1,504,152   1,559,025    1,404,585



          2.1.4 Citrus


          The fruit is grown mainly for fresh consumption and processing. There is general
          trend of decreased production in Central, Coast, Rift valley Provinces which is
          attributed to citrus greening disease. Some of the citrus grown include oranges
          (Valencia late, Washington navel, Minneola, Pixie), lemons, and lime, tangerine
          and grape fruit. The adopted values for yield are 8 tons/ha and             price at Kshs
          20.00/kg.




                                                                                                   17
          Table 6: Citrus Production 2005-2007

                        Area (Ha)                Production (MT)                 Value (Kshs.’000)
 Province      2005       2006    2007      2005      2006      2007        2005       2006        2007
Coast           8,200      7,763   6,059     65,600    62,104   48,472    1,312,000   1,242,080    969,440
Eastern         2,520      3,380   2,302     20,160    27,040   18,416      403,200     540,800    368,320
Nyanza            484        388     144      3,872     3,104    1,152       77,440      62,080     23,040
Western           115         17      26        805       616      208        16100      12,320      4,160
Rift Valley     3,250      2,195   2,190     26,000    17,560   17,520      520,000     351,200    350,400
Central           190        129     167      1,520     1,032    1,336       30,400      20,640     26,720
N/Eastern          33         29      37        264       232      296        5,280       4,640      5,920
Total         14,792     13,901 10,925     118,221 111,688 87,400        2,364,420 2,233,760 1,748,000




          2.1.4         Passion Fruits

          Passion fruits are grown for both the export and domestic markets. It is a very
          popular fruit in the domestic market either used as fresh fruit or for processing
          into juices. The major challenge in passion fruit production is lack of clean
          planting materials free from Fusarium wilt which is rampant in the country. KARI
          has been researching and has established a screening lab to facilitate production
          of clean planting materials.


          Other efforts have been through the PSDA/ GTZ who in collaboration with the
          Ministry of Agriculture, HCDA and KHDP especially in Rift Valley, Central and
          Eastern Provinces are also assisting farmers groups in enhancing production of
          clean planting materials. The leading passion fruit processors include Kevian Ltd,
          Milly processors and FIPS Ltd, Ruaraka. Extensive juice extraction is carried out
          at household and cottage industries. Subsequent to this there were outbreaks of
          diseases. It is expected that new plantings in Central Province will come to
          bearing in 2008 and beyond.


          The adopted values are 12.5 tons/ha as national yield and Kshs 30.00/kg as
          national price not withstanding higher yields have been reported in the Rift
          valley.

                                                                                               18
              Table 7: Passion Fruits Production 2005-2007

                      Hectarage (Ha)              Production (MT)                   Value (Kshs’000’)
Province         2005        2006    2007     2005     2006     2007         2005         2006           2007
Eastern               550    1,098   1,311     7,425   14,823   16,388        222,750     444,690        491,625
Central           1,018        967   1,317    13,743   13,054   16,463        412,290     391,635        493,875
Western               218      211     235     2,725    2,638       2,938      81,750      79,125         88,125
Rift Valley           988    1,027   1,180    13,338   13,864   14,750        400,140     415,935        442,500
Nyanza            1,109      1,054   1,054    13,863   13,175   13,175        415,875     395,250        395,250
Coast                  61       63       80      763      788       1,000      22,875      23,625         30,000
Total            3,944       4,420   5,177    51,857   58,342   64,714      1,555,680   1,750,260    1,941,375




              2.1.5         Pineapples

              Pineapples are grown for local and export markets as fresh and processed
              products. Smooth Cayenne is the commonly grown variety and has high brix
              content. The processed products include sliced and frozen/vacuum packed rings,
              cubes, etc as well as juices. Central Province is the main producer with the bulk
              coming from Delmonte K Ltd and Kakuzi Ltd. Other production areas include
              Homabay, Malindi, Kisii Kericho and Thika by small scale growers. The figures
              adopted are 15 tons/ha for national yields in the smallholder category and 45
              tons/ha for large scale producers. The national price was taken as Kshs 15/kg.




                                                                                                    19
Table 8: Pineapples Production 2005-2007


                     Hectare (Ha)                       Production (MT)                         Value (Kshs’000’)
Province     2005       2006         2007      2005          2006         2007        2005            2006           2007
Coast        992        1,022        963       14,880       15,330        14,445     223,200         229,950        216,675
Central      5,856      6,738        6,592    262,196       292,070   313,880       3,932,940       4,381,050       4,708,200
Western      2,609      2,479        1,662     39,135       37,185        24,930     587,025         557,775        373,950
Rift
Valley       2,694      2,040        2,069     40,410       30,600        31,035     606,150         459,000        465,525
Eastern      105         88           29       1,575         1,320         435        23,625         19,800          6,525
Nyanza       2,902      2,757        2,956     43,533       41,355        44,340     652,995         620,325        665,100
Total       15,158     15,124       14,271    401,729      417,860    429,065       6,025,935      6,267,900    6,435,97



2.1.6       Pawpaw


The fruit is grown for fresh consumption and processing. It is a popular fruit in
desserts and production of wine locally. Good quality fruits are produced in the
lower warm parts of the country mainly in Eastern and Coast provinces. Farmers
are growing improved varieties and have adopted improved crop management
standards to achieve better returns. The varieties grown include mountain, solo,
sunrise, Hawaii and local varieties. Adopted figures for yield and prices are 30
tons /ha and Kshs 15.00/Kg respectively.


Table 9: Pawpaw Production 2005-2007

                      Area (Ha)                     Production (MT)                         Value (Kshs’000’)
Province     2005       2006         2007       2005     2006                          2005       2006
Central       405         385         408       12,150       11,550        12,240     182,250        173,250         183,600
Coast        1,180       1,215       1,169      35,400       36,450        35,070     531,000        546,750         526,050
Eastern      4,180       4,347       4,347     125,400      130,410       130,410    1,881,000      1,956,150       1,956,15
Western       495         506         509       14,850       15,180        15,270     222,750        227,700         229,050
Rift
Valley        421        530          584      12,630        15,900    17,520        189,450         238,500         262,800
Nyanza        690        567          656      20,700        17,010    19,680        310,500         255,150         295,200
N/Eastern      77        103          115       2,310         3,090     3,450         34,650          46,350          51,750
Total         7,448      7,653        7,788   223,440       229,590   233,640       3,351,600       3,443,850       3,504,60




                                                                                                   20
2.1.7        Melons


The main production areas are Eastern, Central, Coast and Rift Valley Provinces.
Melons are grown mainly for local market and limited exports.                     The crop
performs well under irrigation. Water melon and sweet melons are the main
types grown in Kenya. It was also observed that the production of the sweet
melon is usually done by large scale growers due the special care and technology
needed for its production. The adopted yield and price are 20 tons/ha and kshs
30.00/kg respectively.
Table 10:       Melon Production 2005-2007

                Hectarage (Ha)              Production (MT)               Value (Kshs.’000')
 Province
              2005 2006 2007             2005    2006     2007         2005     2006       2007
 Coast          739      722      620    14,780   14,440    12,400    443,400    433,200    372,000
 Eastern        120      413      413     2,400    8,260     8,260     72,000    247,800    247,800
 Rift
 Valley         150     148      188      3,000     2,960     3,760    90,000     88,800    112,800
 Central         57      75       65      1,140     1,500     1,300    34,200     45,000     39,000
 N/Eastern      220     239      245      4,400     4,780     4,900   132,000    143,400    147,000
 Nyanza                  34       34                  680       680               20,400     20,400
 Western                 11       47                  220       940                6,600     28,200
 Total       1,286    1,642    1,612     25,720   32,840    32,240    771,600   985,200    967,200

NB: The committee noted the recent increase in the production of sweet melons by medium
/large farms in Kibwezi and Embu and Recommend that data on the sweet and water melons
should in future reports be separated.


2.1.8        Temperate Fruits

Temperate fruits are best suited to cool climate and are grown in the high
altitude cool areas in Central, Rift Valley and Coast Provinces and include apples,
plums, pears and peaches. The adopted yields and prices for these fruits are as
follows;




                                                                                           21
Table11: Yields and Prices
Crop                         Yield (MT)/Ha            Price (Shs)/Kg
Apples                       18                       25
Plums                        16                       8
Pears                        14                       9
Peaches                      16                       12


Table 12: Temperate Fruits Production 2005-2007

                Area (Ha)             Production (MT)                  Value (KSh.)
Province   2005   2006    2007     2005    2006     2007          2005    2006      2007
Apples
Central    112     103    40       2,016     1,854         720   50,400    46,350        18,000
Rift
Valley      59     81      97     1,062      1,458     1,746      26,550    36,450       43,650
Coast       40     41      41      720        738       738       18,000    18,450       18,450
Eastern     28     28      20      504        504       360       12,600    12,600        9,000
Total      239    253     198     4,302      4,554     3,564     107,550   113,850       89,100
Plums
Central
           352     652    695      5,632     10,432    11,120    45,056    83,456        88,960
Rift
Valley      99     84      91     1,584       1,344     1,456    12,672     10,752        11,648
Eastern     92     88      65     1,472       1,408     1,040    11,776     11,264         8,320
Total      543    824     851     8,688      13,184    13,616    69,504    105,472       108,928
Pears
Central    493     608    329      6,902     8,512      4,606    62,118    76,608        41,454
Coast       6       6      8         84        84        112      756       756           1,008
Rift
Valley     252    115     118      3,528      1,610    1,652     31,752    14,490        14,868
Total      751    729     455     10,514     10,206    6,370     94,626    91,854        57,330
Peaches
Central     52     53     53        832       848          848    9,984    10,176        10,176
Rift
Valley      26     43     33       416        688       528       4,992     8,256         6,336
Total       78     96     86      1,248      1,536     1,376     14,976    18,432        16,512




                                                                                    22
              2.1.9      Minor Fruits

              These are grown on very small hectarage and include Grapes, Strawberries,
              Guavas, Loquats, Tree Tomatoes (Tomarillos) and Custard Apples.
              The adopted Yields and Prices are as follows;


              Table 13: Yields and Prices
              Crop                      Yield (MT)/Ha           Price (KShs)/Kg

              Guavas                    5                       15
              Tree Tomato               8                       15
              Custard Apple             5                       20
              Loquat                    6                       6
              Grapes                    3                       35
              White Sapote              15                      16
              Strawberries              6                       40



              Table14: Minor Fruits Production 2005-2007

                         Hectarage (Ha)                    Production                  Value (Kshs.)
  Province
                     2005    2006      2007       2005        2006      2007      2005     2006      2007
Guavas
Coast                   25       26      26         125         130       130       1,875     1,950     1,950
Rift Valley             96      140     146         480         700       730       7,200    10,500    10,950
Eastern                107      113     179         535         565       895       8,025     8,475    13,425
N/Eastern               23       29      29         115         145       145       1,725     2,175     2,175
Total                  251      308     380       1,255       1,540     1,900     18,825    23,100    28,500
Tree
Tomatoes
Rift Valley            368      317     474        2,944       2,536     3,792     44,160    38,040    56,880
Central                 40       35      42          320         280       336      4,800     4,200     5,040
Eastern                 14       24      71          112         192       568      1,680     2,880     8,520
Total                  408      376     587       3,376       3,008     4,696     50,640    45,120    70,440
Custard
Apple
Coast                   52       54      46         260         270       230       5,200     5,400     4,600
Eastern                  8       11      10          40          55        50         800     1,100     1,000
Rift Valley             57       47      52         285         235       260       5,700     4,700     5,200
Total                  117      112     108         585         560       540     11,700    11,200    10,800
Loquats
Rift Valley             84       87          79     504         522       474       3,024     3,294     2,844
Central                  5        6           7      30          36        42         180       216       252
Eastern                 66       47          39     396         282       234       2,376     1,974     1,404



                                                                                                 23
                     Hectarage (Ha)                              Production                      Value (Kshs.)
 Province
                 2005    2006      2007                    2005     2006         2007      2005      2006      2007
Total              155      140      125                     930      840          750      5,580     5,484     4,500
Grapes
Central                  3         2                2             9       6          6         315         210          210
Rift Valley             48       186              218           144     558        654       5,040      19,530        22890
Coast                  144       148              148           432     444        444      15,120      15,540       15,540
Eastern                           41               36                   123        108                   4,305        3,780
Total              195           377              404           585   1,131       1212      20,475     39,585       42,420
Strawberries
Central                42            38           38            252        228       228     10,080      9,120        9,120
Rift Valley             2             2            8             12         12        48        480        480      1,920
Total                  44            41           39            264        240       276    10,560      9,600       11,040
OTHERS
Rift Valley            18            53           52            270     795         780       4,320     12,720       12,480
Eastern                21            28           24            315     420         360       5,040      6,720        5,760
Total                  39            81           76            585   1,215       1,140      9,360     19,440       18,240



         2.1.10              Nuts

         2.1.10.1            Macadamia Nuts

         High yielding improved varieties of macadamia were introduced in the early 90's
         in the coffee zones of Central and Eastern provinces. Macadamia are mainly
         marketed as in-shell and shelled through Kenya Nut, Equatorial nut (Kenya Farm-
         Nut), Afri China, Saw Africa and Mt. Kenya Nut and Agricultural Commodities Ltd
         companies. The adopted yield is 7 Ton/ha and price is Kshs. 40 to 60/kg.


         Table 15: Macadamia Production 2005-2007

                        Area (Ha)                           Production (MT)                  Value (Kshs.’000’)
  Province     2005        2006           2007          2005     2006     2007          2005        2006        2007
   Central      947        1,158          1,097         6,629    8,106    7,679        397,740     486,360     307,160
   Rift
  Valley        344           310          434          2,408      2,170     3,038     144,480     130,200       121,520
   Eastern     1,300         1,407        1,210         9,100      9,849     8,470     546,000     590,940       508,200
  Coast                        60           60                      420       420                   21,000        25,200
  Total        2,591         2,875        2,801     18,137        20,125    19,607    1,088,220   1,228,500      962,080




                                                                                                              24
2.1.10.1      Cashew Nuts


Cashew nuts are grown in the Coast province. It is currently being promoted by
Kenya    Horticultural   Development    Programme     through     the   Cashew   nut
Productivity Enhancement Programme which is coordinated by the Ministry of
Agriculture (MOA) and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). The
programme supports campaigns to establish new orchards to replace old ones.
The main marketers and processors include Millennium Management Ltd (Kilifi),
Equatorial nuts, Kenya Nut Company (Thika), Wonder nuts and Cottage
Processors (Mombassa). The validated yields and prices are 1 Ton/ha and KShs
45 /Kg respectively.


Table 16: Cashew nut Production 2005-2007

                  Area (Ha)                Production (MT)        Value (Kshs 000,000)
           2005     2006    2007       2005     2006     2007     2005    2006    2007
Cashew     28,223   27,602  27,750     28,223   27,602   27,750    1,270   1,242   1,249
Nuts



2.1.10.3      Ground Nuts

These are grown mainly in Nyanza (Homa Bay, Parts of Kisii, Rachuonyo, Siaya),
western (Kakamega, Bungoma, Busia) and Rift Valley (Baringo, Koibatek). It is
used to blend with other nuts to process snacks, chocolates among other
processed products. The adopted yield was 3 tons/ha while the price was Kshs
40/kg.




                                                                                  25
          Table 17: Groundnuts Production 2005-2007

                      Hectarages                   Production                  Value (Kshs.’000’)
Province
             2005       2006     2007     2005        2006    2007       2005        2006
Nyanza       15,850     18,175   13,420   47,550     54,525   40,260   1,902,000   2,181,000    1,811,700
Western                  3,790    3,800              11,370   11,400                454,800       456,000
Rift
Valley       1,168       939      981      3,504     2,817    2,943     140,160     112,680       117,720
Eastern        56         44       25       168       132       75        6,720       5,280         3,000
Total       17,074      22,948   18,226   51,222    68,844   54,678    2,048,880   2,753,760   2,388,420




          2.2    VEGETABLES


          Vegetables form an important part of the diet and play a major role in the
          nutritional balance. Different types and varieties are grown all over the country
          depending on the rainfall and availability of irrigation. The popularity and
          demand for indigenous vegetables has continued to increase due to campaigns
          on their medicinal and nutritional value.

          2.2.1 Cabbages

          Cabbage is a major vegetable grown all over the country mainly for the domestic
          market. The main production areas are Rift Valley (Narok, Nakuru, Molo,
          Kericho,); Nyanza (Kisii); Central (Nyeri, Nyandarua,Kiambu); Coast (Wundanyi)
          and Eastern (Meru, Embu) provinces among other cool climate areas. In recent
          years, high yielding hybrid varieties have been introduced and adopted by the
          farmers. Most growers have embraced the use of improved technologies for
          production. It is noted that higher yields have been achieved in both Central and
          Eastern Provinces especially where irrigation takes place. Our validation has also
          taken into account rain fed production which is also extensively carried out
          especially in higher altitudes of Nyeri, Meru and Nyandarua.




                                                                                               26
           Average yields per hectare and Prices per Kg.
           Province                        Production (MT) per Ha     Price Kshs per Kg
           Central                         25                         5
           Coast                           15                         15
           Eastern                         25                         7
           Rift Valley                     25                         5
           Western                         18                         14
           Nyanza                          20                         8
           Nairobi                         30                         10




           Table 18: Cabbages Production 2005-2007
                 Hectarage (Ha)                  Production (MT)                   Value (Kshs’000’.)
Province
              2005     2006      2007         2005      2006      2007          2005        2006        2007
Central       9,562    9,641    14,370      239,050   241,025  359,250      1,195,250   1,205,125   1,796,250
Coast           156      161       208        2,340     2,415     3,120        32,760      33,810      46,800
Eastern         790      649     1,743       19,750    16,225    43,575       118,500     113,575     305,025
Western         806      487       559       14,508     8,766    10,062       188,604     113,958     140,868
Nyanza        1,896    3,152     1,433       37,920    63,040    28,660       303,360     504,320     229,280
Rift          7,289    6,433     6,549      182,225   160,825  163,725        911,125     804,125
Valley                                                                                                818,625
Nairobi         30           36       30       900      1,080       900         9,000      10,800       9,000
Total       20,529       20,559   24,892   496,693   493,376    609,292    2,758,599 2,785,713 3,345,848



           2.2.2 Kales

           Kales are grown under rain fed and irrigation. The vegetable is widely utilized in
           many parts of the country. The main producing areas include Central (Kiambu,
           Nyeri, Nyandarua), Nyanza (Kisii, Migori and Bondo), Rift valley (Molo, Nakuru,
           Bomet, Narok). Adopted yield and price are 15 tons/ha and Kshs 10.00/kg
           respectively.


                                                                                                27
               Table 19: Kales Production 2005-2007
                      Hectarage (Ha)                Production (MT)                  Value (Kshs.’000’)
 Province
                  2005    2006     2007        2005      2006      2007        2005        2006         2007
 Central          5,898     6,738    5,696      88,470   101,070    85,440      884,700   1,010,700     854,400
 Coast              519       936      452       7,785    14,040     6,780       77,850     140,400      67,800
 Eastern          1,420     1,586    1,069      21,300    23,790    16,035      213,000     237,900     160,350
 Western          3,072     2,053    3,557      46,080    30,795    53,355      460,800     307,950     533,550
 Nyanza           8,450     8,862    8,680     126,758   132,930  130,200     1,267,575   1,329,300   1,302,000
 Rift Valley      7,372     8,570    8,649     110,580   128,550  129,735     1,105,800   1,285,500   1,297,350
 N/Eastern           18        19       27         270       285       405        2,700       2,850       4,050
 Nairobi             68       135      120       1,020     2,025     1,800       10,200      20,250      18,000
 Total          26,817     28,899   28,250    402,263   433,485   423,750    4,022,625   4,334,850      4,237,500



               Although it has been reported that Nyanza leads in production, we are of the
               view that this requires further investigations on the ground with Special
               emphasis around the lake, Kisii and the sugarcane belt.

               2.2.3 Tomatoes

               This is an important vegetable grown for domestic consumption. It is used both
               fresh and processed. Tomatoes are grown under both rain fed and irrigation
               conditions. Lately farmers have extensively adopted high yielding varieties and
               modern technologies. The adopted yields and prices are 30 tons/ha and Kshs 25
               /kg respectively.


               Table 20: Tomato Production 2005-2007
                         Area (Ha)                Production (MT)                    Value (Kshs.’000’)
Province
                2005       2006    2007      2005      2006      2007         2005          2006         2007
Coast              864      1,096     902     25,920   32,880     27,060       648,000       822,000      676,500
Eastern          1,968      1,532   1,205     59,040   45,960     36,150     1,476,000     1,149,000      903,750
Central          4,362      3,700   3,477    130,860  111,000   104,310      3,271,500     2,775,000    2,607,750
Nyanza           6,132      7,074   6,495    122,640  141,480   194,850      3,066,000     3,537,000    4,871,250
Western          1,803      1,179   1,213     36,060   23,580     36,390       901,500       589,500      909,750
Rift Valley      5,012      4,509   5,159    150,360  135,270   154,770      3,759,000     3,381,750    3,869,250
Nairobi             62         68     125      1,860    2,040      3,750        46,500        51,000       93,750
N/Eastern          540        384     350     16,200   11,520     10,500       405,000       288,000      262,500
Total          20,743     19,542 18,926     542,940 503,730 567,780        13,573,500 12,593,250 14,194,500



                                                                                                   28
              2.2.4        Onions

              Onions are mainly grown for domestic consumption in Bungoma, Kisii, Loitokitok,
              Narok, Nyeri, and Taveta. The demand for onions is higher than the current
              production level. Production is mainly under irrigation with little quantities being
              produced under rain fed conditions. Onions have a relatively long shelf life but to
              improve on the quality of marketed produce, there is need to train farmers on
              harvesting and post harvest handling. The Adopted yield and price are 15
              tons/ha and Kshs. 35/kg respectively.




              Table 21: Onion Production 2005-2007
                          Area (Ha)                  Production (MT)                   Value (Kshs.’000’)
 Province        2005       2006      2007     2005      2006       2007        2005         2006          2007
Coast               196        259       259     2,940     3,885      3,885      102,900      135,975       135,975
Eastern             590      1,738     1,738     8,850    26,070     26,070      309,750      912,450       912,450
Central             948        539       583    14,220     8,085      8,745      497,700      282,975       306,075
Western           1,034        674       904    15,510    10,110     13,560      542,850      353,850       474,600
Nyanza            1,931      1,975     2,523    28,965    29,625     37,845    1,013,775    1,036,875     1,324,575
Rift Valley       1,483      1,747     1,709    22,245    26,205     25,635      778,575      917,175        897225
Nairobi              18         28        35       270       420        525        9,450       14,700        18,375
N/Eastern           195        140       161     2,925     2,100      2,415      102,375       73,500        84,525
Total            6,395      7,100     7,908    95,925 106,500 118,680         3,357,375 3,727,500 4,153,800

              2.2.5        Carrots


              Carrots are largely grown for domestic market with limited quantities of baby
              carrots exported in pre-packs. Production of carrots is largely under rain fed. The
              crop is consumed fresh or processed. The adopted yield and price are 14 tons/ha
              and Kshs 15/kg respectively.




                                                                                                      29
Table 22: Carrot Production 2005-2007
                       Area (Ha)                 Production (MT)                 Value (Kshs.’000’)
Province
              2005      2006     2007       2005      2006     2007         2005       2006          2007
Western           29         50      36         406      700       504        6,090     10,500       7,560
Central        1,299      1,409   2,769      18,186   19,726   38,766       272,790    295,890    581,490
Rift Valley      920      1,062     981      12,880   14,868   13,734       193,200    223,020    206,010
Coast             14         15      23         196      210       322        2,940      3,150       4,830
Eastern          281        180     355       3,934    2,520     4,970       59,010     37,800      74,550
Nairobi           19         20       5         266      280        70        3,990      4,200       1,050
Nyanza           175        240     316       2,450    3,360     4,424       36,750     50,400      66,360
Total         2,737      2,974   4,485      38,318 41,664 62,790           574,770 624,960 941,850




2.2.6 French Beans



French beans were initially grown exclusively for export market, mainly to the
European Union but over the years, the vegetable has gained popularity in the
domestic market. The crop is grown under irrigation in Central, Rift Valley and
Eastern Provinces. The adopted yield and price are 10 tons/ha and Kshs 30/kg
respectively.


Table 23: French Beans Production 2005-2007
                      Area (Ha)                   Production (MT)                  Value (Kshs.’000.)
 Province      2005     2006       2007       2005     2006     2007          2005       2006       2007
 Central        4,903    4,282      4,518     49,030   42,820   45,180      1,470,900 1,284,600 1.355,400
 Rift             674      603        851      6,740    6,030     8,510       202,200    180,900    255,300
 Valley
 Nairobi            7          7        2          70       70        20        2,100      2,100          600
 Eastern        1,420      1,262    2,362      14,200   12,620    13,620      426,000    378,600      408,600
 Total          7,004      6,154    7,733      70,040   61,540    67,330    2,101,200   1,846,200   2,019,900



2.2.7 Spinach


The crop is mainly grown under rain fed and some cases using irrigation. Spinach
which has an increasing demand is a popular vegetable in urban centres. The


                                                                                           30
              crop is highly perishable and hence is usually grown near market outlets. The
              Adopted yield and price are 13 tons/ha and Kshs 10/kg respectively.



              Table 24: Spinach Production 2005-2007

                       Hectarage (Ha)                 Production (MT)                 Value (Ksh.’000'.)
 Province
                  2005     2006      2007        2005      2006      2007        2005       2006        2007
Western                49       24        30         637       312       390       6,370      3,120       3,900
Coast                  64       66        88         832       858     1,144       8,320      8,580      11,440
Central             1,200    1,410     1,554      15,600    18,330    20,202     156,000    183,300     202,020
Rift Valley           771      915     1,810      10,023    11,895    23,530     100,230    118,950     233,090
Nairobi                43       68        80         559       884     1,040       5,590      8,840      10,400
Eastern                 0       80       106           0     1,040     1,378           0     10,400      13,780
Total              2,127    2,563     3,668      27,651    33,319   47,684      276,510 333,190 474,630

              2.2.8 Garden Peas/Field peas


              Fresh Garden peas are a popular vegetable in the domestic market particularly in
              the urban centres. It is grown under rain fed conditions in the cool areas of the
              country. There is an increasing demand for fresh shelled peas in the export
              market. The Adopted yield and price are 5 tons/ha and Kshs. 30.00/kg
              respectively for the unshelled peas.


              Table 25: Garden Peas Production 2005-2007
                     Hectarage (Ha)                 Production (MT)                  Value (Kshs 000)
Province
                 2005    2006     2007          2005     2006     2007         2005        2006        2007
Central           4,600    5,546    8,077       23,000   27,730    40,385      690,000     831,900    1,211,550
Rift Valley       1,674    1,988    3,182        8,370    9,940    15,910      251,100     298,200      477,300
Nairobi              32        5        5          160       25        25        4,800         750          750
Coast                 3        4        4           15       20        20          450         600          600
Eastern             615      532      541        3,075    2,660     2,705       92,250      79,800       81,150
Total            6,924    8,075 11,809         34,620   40,375 59,045       1,038,600 1,211,250 1,771,350




              2.2.9 Snow/Snap peas


              Snow/snap peas are mainly grown for export with the key destination being the
              European Union market. The crop is grown mainly under irrigated conditions.


                                                                                                   31
The major producing areas are Central (Nyeri), Eastern (Meru,) and Rift Valley
(Nakuru) provinces. The Adopted yield and price are 6 tons/ha and Kshs 45/kg
respectively.



Table 26: Snow /Snap Peas Production 2005-2007

                     Hectares                     Production                         Value in (Kshs.’000’)
Province        2005   2006         2007     2005    2006              2007         2005      2006        2007
Central          566       778      1,135    3,396          4,668       6,810     152,820      210,060          306,450
Rift
Valley          464        466       450      2,784       2,796         2,700     125,280      125,820          121,500
Eastern         520        853       876      3,120       5,118         5,256     140,400      230,310          236,520
Total         1,550      2,097     2,461     9,300      12,582        14,766     418,500      566,190          664,470



2.2.10          Irish Potatoes

Irish potatoes are the second most important food crop in the country after
maize. They play a major role in food security and alleviation of poverty through
income generation. Currently there has been an increase in the volumes
processed as chips and crisps. There is increased adoption of improved varieties.
Diseases and pests have had a notable negative impact on the performance of
potatoes. The Adopted yield and price are 20 tons/ha and Kshs 5/kg respectively

Table 27: Irish Potato Production 2005-2007
Province                         Area (Ha)                      Production (MT)                               Value (Kshs.’00
                2005       2006      2007        2005               2006        2007           2005             2006           20
Western          2,514     2,108     3,710      50,280          42,160          74,200       251,400          210,800       371,
Central         59,720    55,574    52,041    1,194,400      1,111,480     1,040,820        5,972,000        5,557,400     5,204,
Rift Valley     41,425    39,020    39,637     828,500         780,400       792,740        4,142,500        3,902,000     3,963,
Coast              10         10        10            200            200          200          1,000            1,000          1,
Eastern         27,116    21,451    12,933     542,320         429,020       258,660        2,711,600        2,145,100     1,293,
Nairobi            25        505        25            500       10,100            500          2,500           50,500          3,
Nyanza           1,220     2,086     1,258      24,400          41,720          25,160       122,000          208,600       125,
Total         132,030    120,754   109,614   2,640,600      2,415,080      2,192,280     13,203,000      12,075,400      10,961,




                                                                                                        32
2.2.11          Chillies

Chillies are grown under rain fed and irrigated conditions for both domestic and
export markets. Commonly grown varieties include long, bullet, thin and African
Birds eye chillies. The main producing areas are Eastern, Central, Rift Valley and
Coast Provinces. The adopted yield and price are 10 ton/ha and KShs 25 /Kg
respectively.


Table 28: Chillies Production 2005-2007

Province           Area (Ha)                Production (MT)               Value (Kshs.’000’)
                2005   2006      2007     2005     2006       2007      2005      2006           2007
Rift
Valley           283       130     114    2,830    1,300      1,140    70,750    32,500         28,500

Coast            128       132     176    1,280    1,320      1,760    32,000    33,000         44,000

Western          286       144     109    2,860    1,440      1,090    71,500    36,000         27,250

Central            3         3       3       30       30        30        750       750            750

Eastern          554       443     443    5,540    4,430      4,430   138,500   110,750        110,750

Nyanza            32       200     233      320    2,000      2,330     8,000    50,000         58,250

Total       1,286      1,052     1,075   12,860   10,520   10,750     321,500   263,000        268,750




2.2.12          Asian Vegetables

The Asian Vegetables category includes Brinjals, Karella, Dudhi, Okra, Turia,
Valore and other minor vegetables. Initially they were grown mainly for export,
however a big proportion of these vegetables are now consumed locally. They
are grown both under rain fed and irrigated conditions. There is high potential
for production of these vegetables under irrigation. The adopted yield and price
figures are as follows;


                                                                                          33
            Table 29:Yields and Prices

            Crop               Yield (MT)/Ha            Price (Shs)/Kg

            Brinjals           20 tons/ha               20/=   per   kg
            Karella            12 tons/ha               25/=   per   kg
            Dudhi              13.5 tons/ha             20/=   per   kg
            Okra               8 tons/ha                25/=   per   kg
            Turia              7 tons/ha                20/=   per   kg
            Tindori            8 tons/ha                25/=   per   kg
            Valore             7 tons/ha                25/=   per   kg
            Ravaiya            20 tons/ha               25/=   per   kg


            Table 30: Asian Vegetables Production 2005-2007

  Crop            Hectares (Ha)             Production (Tons)                Values (Kshs.’000’)
             2005     2006      2007     2005     2006      2007          2005       2006        2007
Brinjals
Central          83       85      130      1,660     1,700       2,600      41,500     42,500      52000
Western          29       30       20        580       600         400      14,500     15,000     10,000
Coast           205      211      221      4,100     4,220       4,420     102,500    105,500    110,500
Rift
Valley         171      162      174       3,420     3,240       3,480      85,500     81,000     87,000
Nairobi          0        0       10           0         0         200           0          0      5,000
Eastern        340      323      234       6,800     6,460       4,680     170,000    161,500    117,000
Total          828      811      789     16,560    16,220      15,780     414,000    405,500    381,500
Karella
Central         22       23       12         264       276         144       6,600      6,900      3,600
R. Valley        8       26       35          96       312         420       2,400      7,800     10,500
Coast           22       23       23         264       276         276       6,600      6,900      6,900
Eastern        320      304      204       3,840     3,648       2,448      96,000     91,200     61,200
Total          372      376      274      4,464     4,512       3,288     111,600    112,800     82,200
Dudhi
Central         34       32       18         459       432         252      11,475     10,800      6,300
Eastern        139      132      142       1,877     1,782       1,988      46,913     44,550     49,700
Coast            4        4        3          54        54          50       1,350      1,350      1,250
Total          177      168      163      2,390     2,268       2,290      59,738     56,700     57,250
Okra
Coast          179      184      184       1,432     1,472       1,472      35,800     36,800     36,800
R. Valley      259      246      121       2,072     1,968         968      51,800     49,200     24,200
Eastern        425      404      243       3,400     3,232       1,944      85,000     80,800     48,600
Total          863      834      548      6,904     6,672       4,384     172,600    166,800    109,600
Turia



                                                                                           34
 Crop           Hectares (Ha)                 Production (Tons)              Values (Kshs.’000’)
           2005     2006      2007        2005      2006      2007       2005        2006        2007
Coast         26        27       27          182       189       189        4,550      4,725       4,700
Eastern       87        66       66          609       462       462       15,225     11,550      11,550
Total        113        93       93         791        651      651       19,775     16,275      16,250
Valore
Eastern       160         157     139        745       585      973        14,027      8,775     24,325
Tindori
Central                     7     10                    70       80                    2,000       2,000
Eastern        46         390     31        230      4,779      310         4,213      9,205       7,750
Total          46         397     41        230     4,849       390        4,213     11,205       9,750




          2.2.13          Other Vegetables

          These include Cucumbers, Courgettes, Cauliflower, lettuce, shallots, capsicums,
          Cauliflower, Asparagus, Baby Corn, Brussels Sprout, Broccoli and others. These
          vegetables are grown in small quantities under irrigation and rain fed conditions
          for specialised markets in urban centres and the Hotel Industry. The main
          production areas are Central, Rift Valley, Eastern and Coast provinces. The
          adopted yield and price are as follows


          Table 31: Yields and Prices


           Crop                     Yield (MT)/Ha       Price (Shs)/Kg

           Capsicum                 10                  30
           Spring onion             12                  6
           Cucumber                 15                  35
           Courgettes               10                  25
           Cauliflower              17                  45
           Lettuce                  12                  25
           Asparagus                8                   50
           Radish                   8                   25
           Baby Corn                8                   20
           Pumpkin                  30                  50
           Butternut                25                  40
           Runner beans             35                  45
           Broccoli                 8.5                 85
           Sweet corn               9                   29




                                                                                           35
             Table 32: Other Vegetables Production 2005-2007

                        Area (Ha)            Production (MT)                 Value (Kshs.’000’)
  Province
                2005      2006    2007   2005     2006      2007     2005         2006          2007
Capsicum
Nairobi           11       12      15     110       120     150       3,300        3,600          4,500
Central          117      156     213    1,170     1,560   2,130     35,100       46,800         63,900
Western          114      117     117    1,140     1,170   1,170     34,200       35,100         35,100
Coast            142      146     178    1,420     1,460   1,780     42,600       43,800         53,400
Eastern          139      453     301    1,390     4,530   3,010     41,700      135,900         90,300
Rift Valley      170      160     115    1,700     1,600   1,150     51,000       48,000         34,500
N/Eastern         32       26      31     320       260     310       9,600        7,800          9,300
Nyanza             0        5      20      0         50     200         0          1,500          6,000
Total            725     1,075    990    7,250    10,750   9,900    217,500      322,500        297,000
Spring
Onion
Coast             4         4       4       48       48       48     288           288            288
Central          221      195     100     2,652    2,340    1,200   15,912       14,040          7,200
Nyanza            0        98      98        0     1,176    1,176      0          7,056          7,056
Rift Valley      840      843    1,098   10,080   10,116   13,176   60,480       60,696          79056
Total           1,065    1,140   1,300   12,780   13,680   15,600   76,680       82,080         93,600
Cucumber
Central          44        41     10      440      410      150     15,400       14,350          5,250
Coast            11        14     14      110      140      140      3,850        4,900          4,900
Nairobi           0         1      8        0       0       120        0            0            4,200
Eastern           5        10     10       50      100      100      1,750        3,500          3,500
Rift Valley       7        10     10      140      200      150      4,900        7,000          5,250
Total            67        76     52      740      850      660     25,900       29,750         23,100
Courgettes
Rift valley       24       54      79     240      540      790      6,000       13,500         19,750
Central          184      177      75    1,840    1,770     750     46,000       44,250         18,750
Coast             15       15      15     150      150      150      3,750        3,750          3,750
Nairobi            0        5       9      0        50       90        0          1,250          2,250
Total            223      251     178    2,230    2,510    1,780    55,750       62,750         44,500
Cauliflower
Coast             10       10     10      170      170      170       7,650        7,650         7,650
Rift Valley       10       12     13      170      204      221       7,650        9,180         9,945
Central          112      115     45     1,904    1,955     765      85,680       87,975        34,425
Nairobi            0        1      2       0        17       34         0           765          1,530
Total            132      138     70     2,244    2,346    1,190    100,980      105,570        53,550
Lettuce
Nairobi           10       12      12     120      144      144      9,600       11,520         11,520
Central           27       28      63     324      336      756     25,920       26,880         18,900
Coast             38       42      38      96      336      304      7,680        8,400          7,600
Rift Valley       30       33      25     360      396      300     28,800       31,680          7,500
Total            105      115     138     900     1,212    1,504    72,000       78,480         45,520
Asparagus



                                                                                           36
                     Area (Ha)               Production (MT)              Value (Kshs.’000’)
 Province
                2005   2006    2007     2005      2006      2007   2005        2006          2007
Rift Valley      24     36      41       720      1,260      328   61,200     113,400       16,400
Radish
Rift Valley       0       2       7       0        16       56        0         400         1,400
Central           8       8       8      64        64       64      1,600      1,600        1,600
Coast             7       9       9      56        72       72      1,400      1,800        1,800
Total            15      19      24     120       152      192      3,000      3,800     4,8003,800
Baby Corn
Central          23      16      12     184       128        96     3,312      2,560         1,920
Eastern          16      16      30     112       128       240     2,240      2,560         4,800
Rift Valley      43      84     164     344       672      1,312    6,880     13,440        26,240
Total            82     116     206     640       928      1,648   12,432     18,560        32,960
Pumpkin
Rift Valley     153     171     209     2,295    2,565     6,270   68,850     76,950        313,500
Central           0       0       0       0        0         0        0          0              0
Nyanza            0       0       0       0        0         0        0          0              0
Eastern           0       0       0       0        0         0        0          0              0
Coast            49      50      50      735      750       750    22,050     22,500         22,500
Total           202     221     259     3,030    3,315     7,020   90,900     99,450        336,000
Runner
beans/Broad
beans
Rift Valley     124     116     172     4,340    4,060     6,020   173,600   182,700        270,900
Eastern         131     107     105     4,585    3,745     3,675   183,400   161,035        165,375
 Central         0      100     100       0      3,500     3,500      0      150,500        157,500
Total           255     323     377     8,925   11,305    13,195   357,000   494,235        593,775
Butter Nut
Squash
Central           0      44      30      0        497      325        0        9,940         7,500
Eastern          56      61      47     518       546      302     10,360     10,920         6,040
Nyanza            0       3       4      0         75      100        0        3,000         4,000
Total            56     108      81     518      1,118     727     10,360     23,860        17,540
Broccolli
Eastern                           20                         160                              13,600
RVP                               20                         160                              13,600
Central                           32                         256                              21,760
                                  72                         576                              48,960



            2.2.14      Indigenous Vegetables


            The indigenous vegetables include Amaranthas, Mitoo, Spider weed, Cowpeas,
            Murenda, and Black-Nightshade among others. The vegetables are commonly
            grown in Nyanza, Western, Rift Valley, and Coast provinces mainly for home
            consumption and local urban markets. They are popular due to their high


                                                                                       37
nutritional and medicinal value. The local demand for these vegetables is still
largely unsatisfied. Seeds of high yielding varieties of amaranths, spider plant
and black nightshade are now available. The adopted yields and prices are 8
tons/ha and Kshs 15 /kg respectively.


Table 33: Indigenous Vegetables Production 2005-2007

                  Hectarage (Ha)                   Production (MT)                     Value (Kshs.’000’)
Province   2005       2006         2007     2005        2006         2007       2005            2006          200
Coast         402        414         177     3,216        3,312       1,416      48,240          49,680      21,24
Western
             5,235      4,427       1,523   41,880       35,416      12,184     628,200         531,240     182,76
Rift
Valley       1,283      1,036       1,038   10,264        8,288       8,304     153,960         124,320     124,56
Nyanza
             3,121      4,266       6,395   24,968       34,128      51,160     374,520         511,920     767,40
Nairobi
                  -          3        20           -           24       160            -           360        2,40
Total
           10,041     10,146       9,153    80,328      81,168       73,224   1,204,920    1,217,520      1,098,36



*There are no indigenous vegetables reported from Central and Eastern
provinces though it is known that there are major producers in these areas.




                                                                                           38
2.2.15       Herbs, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants



These crops are grown for their culinary, aromatic and therapeutic properties.
For culinary purposes, herbs and spices are used in very little quantities. Some
herbs, though wildly growing are utilized for herbal teas, medicinal purposes and
food flavouring. Herbs and spices are mostly grown in small scale for both
household and commercial purpose. The potential for Herbs and spices
production is high but has largely not been exploited due to various constraints,
such as lack of information on utilization. Other Herbs and Spices Production
include coriander, leeks, celery, garlic, parsley, turmeric, ginger, gherkins and
mint. They are grown for household consumption as well as for commercial
purposes. The adopted yield and price are as follows;




Table 34: Yield and Prices

Crop              Yield (MT)/Ha    Price (KShs)/Kg

Coriander         5                50
Leeks             7                40
Celery            6                40
Garlic            15               60
Parsely           7                100
Tumeric           8                50
Ginger            8                80
Gherkins          4                10
Mint




                                                                               39
       Table 35: Herbs Production 2005-2007

                   Area (Ha)             Production (MT)              Value (Kshs.’000’)
Province
              2005    2006   2007     2005    2006    2007       2005       2006         2007
Coriander
Rift Valley    24      40      66      120      200     330       6,000     10,000     16,500
Central       278     272     116     1,390    1,360    580      69,500     68,000     29,000
Nairobi         0      22      18        0      110      90         0        5,500      4,500
Eastern        15      18      18       75       90      90         0        4,500      4,500
Coast           7       7       7       35       35      35       1,750      1,750      1,750
Total         324     359     225     1,620    1,795   1,125     77,250     89,750     56,250
Leeks
Rift Valley   118     114     352      826      798    2,462     33,040     31,920     98,560
Central        25      26      26      175      182     182       7,000      7,280      7,280
Coast          16      16      22      112      112     154       4,480      4,480      6,160
Total         159     156     400     1,113    1,092   2,798     44,520     43,680    112,000
Celery
Central       112      106     12      672      636      72      40,320     38,160      2,880
Garlic
Rift Valley   103     106      79     1,545    1,590   1,185     92,700     95,400     71,100
Eastern       120      92      24     1,800    1,380    360     108,000     82,800     21,600
Western        40      41      66      600      615     990      36,000     36,900     59,400
Total         263     239     169     3,945    3,585   2,535    236,700    215,100    152,100
Mint
Central        1        2       2       8       16       16     280,000     640,000    640,000
Parsley
Central        1       1        1       7        7       7      700,000    700,000    700,000
R.Valley       0       0        0       0        0       0         0          0          0
Total          1       1        1       7        7       7      700,000    700,000    700,000
Turmeric
Coast          55      55      55      440      440     440      22,000     22,000     22,000
Others –
Coast
Ginger        120      124     124     960      992     992      76,800     79,360     79,360

       2.3    EMERGING CROPS/SPECIAL CROPS

       These include Mushroom, Vanilla, Muringa, Aloe, tea tree, Jatropha and
       Artemisia. They play a major play role in provision of income, nutrition and
       health. Cultivation of these crops provides the most economical way to utilise low
       potential agricultural land and by products that would otherwise be wasted.
       Production of mushrooms has been readily adopted in peri-urban areas due its
       niche market through the supermarkets and hotels. Aloe and Artemisia are
       grown for their medicinal value and have gained popularity. Data on these crops


                                                                                      40
has not been captured and in future they should be included in District and
Provincial reports.

2.4    FLORICULTURE


The floriculture industry has been recording the highest growth in both volume
and value in comparison to the fruits and vegetables. Cut flowers, cuttings and
plants have been exported every year with the climax starting from year 2001
when 44.462 tons valued at Kshs 9.57 billion reaching a record of 108.375 tons
worth Kshs 29.715 billion in year 2007.Further growth is expected in the future
with more value addition and renewal of varieties as well as replacements in
response to reasonable return on investment, favourable production conditions
and developed infrastructure. Kenya is currently a major exporter of cut flowers
to the EU. It contributes about 32% of all flowers imported to the EU followed by
Columbia and Israel among others. The main market for our cut flowers and
cuttings are Holland, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy,
Scandinavian Countries and the Russian Federation.Australia,Japan,USA,Middle
East are also emerging as potential markets. It is estimated that over 500,000
people (including 100,000 flower farm workers) depend directly on the flower
industry. There are over 150 flower farms (excluding the small holders). To
enhance standards and ethical business practices most flower growers operate
under flower labels approved by their buyers. Locally they subscribe to Kenya
Flower Council code of practice and KENYAGAP under FPEAK.


Flowers production areas are in the Rift Valley (Naivasha, Laikipia, Nakuru,
Kajiado, Kericho, Trans Nzoia, Uasin Gishu, Nandi), Central (Nyandarua, Kiambu,
Murang’a, Maragua, Thika), Eastern (Machakos, Meru Central and Embu) and
Nairobi Provinces.




                                                                              41
Most smallholder production is undertaken in Nyandarua, Nakuru, Naivasha,
Kiambu, Thika, Nyeri, Meru, Machakos, Maragwa and Muranga. Their flowers are
mainly exported by medium scale exporters although part of the production act
as fillers for bouquets exported by large exporters. Smallholders also target the
domestic market especially heavier flowers, fillers and plants.It is estimated that
there are over 5,000 smallholders growing for the domestic and export markets.
Most smallholder growers export their cut and filler flowers through large,
medium and small scale exporters. The flowers have to meet export quality
standards. The smallholders also target local market outlets( - hotels, offices
and social functions). Large and medium scale growers have high management
standards and invest heavily on technical skills.          They utilize a high level of
technology, for example, greenhouses, net shading, pre-cooling and cold storage
facilities,   drip   irrigation,   artificial   lighting   to   increase   day   length,
grading/packaging sheds and refrigerated trucks. Quality and social standards
apply to the flowers destined to the main markets in Europe especially
supermarkets where social standards at production are a requirement by the
buyers.
The future of the industry will be influenced by adding value to the flowers
through bouquets and varietals change, increased efficiency in production and
maintaining quality and social standards. This is one route to increase our
competitiveness.      Quality and social standards incentives provided by our
competitors may be an issue that the industry can deal with taking into account
our strengths. In order to empower the production of smallholders, KHDP and a
Dutch project in conjunction with MOA and HCDA are supporting the farmers
with training on improved technologies and post harvest management practices.




                                                                                     42
Table 36: Volume in MTs of top 15 cut flowers, uprooted cuttings, slips
and plants exports 2005 – 2007



           2005                                2006                              2007

ROSES                 61,072        ROSES              63,418        ROSES                  66,308
                                    MIXED                            MIXED
MIXED FLOWERS         7,043         FLOWERS             8,321        FLOWERS                9,504
CARNATIONS            3,540         CARNATIONS          2,900        HYPERICUM              3,213
HYPERICUM             1,781         HYPERICUM           2,857        CARNATIONS             2,632
ALSTROMERIA               949       CUTTINGS            1,090        CUTTINGS               1,724
CUTTINGS                  838       LILIES               949         LILIES                 1,054
GYPSOPHILLA               793       ALSTROMERIA          928         VERONICA                810
                                    STATICE
CUT FOLIAGE               756       LIMONIUM             803         ALSTROMERIA             806
LILLIES                   747       VERONICA             761         GYPSOPHILLA             752
                                                                     STATICE
VERONICA                  692       GYPSOPHILLA          756         LIMONIUM                712
STATICE
LIMONIUM                  501       ERYNGIUM             389         ARABICUM                522
LISIANTHUS                408       ZANTEDESCHIA         374         ERYNGIUM                440
ERYNGIUM                  319       ARABICUM             344         CUT FOLIAGE             387
ORNITHOGALUM              286       CUT FOLIAGE          312         ORNITHOGALUM            337
ZANTEDESCHIA           246          MOBBYDICK            289         ZANTEDESCHIA            314
OTHERS                1,242         OTHERS              1,988        OTHERS                 1,678
TOTAL                81,215         TOTAL              86,480        TOTAL                  91,193
Source: HCDA compiled by KHDP


Table 37: Estimated area of production, volume and value 2005-2007


              Area (Ha)                Production (MT)                     Value (Kshs.’000’)
          2005    2006     2007     2005      2006      2007        2005          2006             2007

Flowers   2,729   3,026    3,063   102,348   113,461   114,878   16,375,728    22,692,268        27,570,600


Source; MOA, Validation Team




                                                                                            43
Table 38: Volumes in kgs of top 15 fruits and vegetables exported 2005

                                       Volume-2005

                Fruits                                     Vegetables

AVOCADO                   15,242,756    BEANS                            43,402,242

MANGO                      1,002,129    PEAS                              6,219,148

PASSION FRUIT              1,036,255    MIXED VEGETABLES                  5,756,938

PINEAPPLE                   275,767     OKRA                              1,542,018

APPLE                        34,798     AUBERGINES                        1,327,063

BANANA                       17,229     CHILLIES                             784,615

PINEAPPLES                   12,156     KARELLA                              696,770

ORANGES                      10,613     BROCCOLI                             390,838

MIXED FRUITS                 10,425     ONIONS                               262,781

PAWPAW                       10,079     OTHER ASIAN VEGETABLES               243,245

MELON                          5,223    VALORE                               223,276

SOUR SOP                       5,100    BABY CORN                            195,895

CUSTURD APPLE                  3,965    DUDHI                                133,479

GRAPES                          590     CARROTS                              112,836

KIWANOS                         270     TROPICAL SALAD                        66,023

OTHERS                          532     OTHERS                               304,009

TOTAL                    17,667,887     TOTAL                           61,661,176
Source HCDA (Excludes Khat/Miraa).Compiled by KHDP




                                                                        44
Table 39: Volumes in kgs of top 15 fruits and vegetables exported 2006


                                       Volume-06



                Fruits                                     Vegetables

AVOCADO                   12,960,176    BEANS                                 35,648,539
MANGO                      1,182,181    MIXED VEGETABLES                      12,144,015
PASSION FRUIT              1,069,350    PEAS                                   6,600,486
PINEAPPLE                   150,842     AUBERGINES                             1,337,752
MIXED FRUITS                 10,539     OKRA                                   1,019,886
BANANA                         6,367    CHILLIES                                724,575
PAWPAW                         5,408    KARELLA                                 541,941
BETEL NUTS                     5,280    BABY CORN                               305,129
MELON                          4,853    VALORE                                  209,619
PINEAPPLES                     3,872    BROCCOLI                                185,880
SOUR SOP                       3,457    TROPICAL SALAD                          102,367
CUSTURD APPLE                   978     DUDHI                                    98,057
APPLE                           725     COURGETTES/ZUCCHINE                      88,942
LEMON                           437     CARROTS                                  63,646
JACK FRUIT                       95     ONIONS                                   57,668
OTHERS                           40     OTHERS                                  204,105
TOTAL                    15,404,599     TOTAL                                59,332,604
SOURCE: HCDA and compiled by KHDP (Excludes Miraa/Khat)




                                                                        45
Table 40: Volumes in kgs of top 15 fruits and vegetables exported 2007


                                        Volume-2007

                Fruits                                        Fresh Vegetables
AVOCADO                    13,184,490     BEANS                                       52,178,513
PASSION FRUIT               1,291,885     MIXED VEGETABLES                            16,112,492
MANGO                         962,999     PEAS                                         9,478,656
PINEAPPLE                      73,483     AUBERGINES                                   1,693,197
BANANA                         16,094     CHILLIES                                     1,009,870
MIXED FRUITS                    7,265     OKRA                                          628,141
PAWPAW                          3,783     KARELLA                                       456,748
APPLE                           1,500     BABY CORN                                     401,499
PINEAPPLES                      1,565     VALORE                                        235,493
MELON                           2,339     BROCCOLI                                      204,922
CUSTURD APPLE                   1,382     COURGETTES/ZUCCHINE                           131,050
PEARS                             720     DUDHI                                         106,655
LIME                              592     ONIONS                                         84,470

GUAVAS                            189     OTHER ASIAN VEGETABLES                         82,749
LEMON                             188     LEEKS                                          58,209

OTHERS                            301     OTHERS                                        344,071
TOTAL                     15,548,774      TOTAL                                  83,206,733
Source: HCDA compiled by KHDP (Excludes Miraa/Khat)



3.0     DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION

During the Task force on Markets and Market Infrastructure an estimate on
domestic consumption was undertaken for the year 2006.This has been updated
to include the year 2007 as well as amendments for 2006.Border trade between
the East African Community partner States is not captured adequately due to use
of an official routes and under declaration by the traders.




                                                                                 46
          Table 17: Estimated Domestic Consumption of Horticultural Produce

                                                                                                                                      Domesti
               Production(MTs)       Estimated Imports(MTs)                  Exports                                                      c
                                                                                                  Implied                  Implied    Consum
                                                                                                 domestic    Domestic     domestic    ption as
                                                                                                consumpti   Consumptio    consumpt     a % of
                                                                                                    on      n as a % of      ion      producti
Commodity      2006        2007      2006           2007            2006               2007        2006     Production      2007         on
                                                                A: Fruits
Bananas      1,237,770   1,186,740    17,916         8                7                  53     1,255,679      102%       1,186,695      100%
Pineapples    417,860     429,065        -          121              155                  16     416,620       100%         429,170      100%
Mangoes       248,531     384,461        -                          1,182               3,160    205,986        99%         381,301      100%
Citrus        111,688      87,400     26,832        2,938             1                   78     114,624       102%          90,337      103%
Avocado       103,935      93,639        -                         12,960              15,116    86,490         87%          78,523       84%
Paw Paws      229,590     232,440        -                            5                    2     229,585       100%         232,438      100%
Passion        58,342      61,305        -                          1,069               1,135    54,181         97%          60,170       98%
Fruits
Water         32,840      27,060      3,600          7                   5               14      36,435        111%          27,051      100%
Melon
Others         38,008      35,302     5,980        6,632             25             579           48,001      114%           41,355      117%
Subtotal     2,478,564   2,537,412   54,328        9,705           15,409          20,153       2,447,601     102%        2,526,964      100%
                                                         B: Vegetables
Irish        2,415,080   1,968,020     -            24                   -              765     2,098,160      100%       1,967,279      100%
Potatoes
Cabbages      493,376     609,292       -           29               13                 39       489,218       100%         609,282      100%
Kales         433,485     423,750       -                             -                          433,485       100%         423,750      100%
Tomatoes      503,730     567,780       6          4,269              1                   35     328,746       101%         572,014      101%
Carrots        41,664      62,650       -                            64                 1,570    41,600        100%          61,080       98%
Onions        106,500     118,620    25,363       15,477             58                16,293    131,805       124%         117,804       99%
(bulb)
Garden        40,375      59,045          -       1          2,064      5,506     35,736     95%      53,540         91%
Peas
French        61,540      63,580         263                 30,603     38,644    33,116     52%      24,936         39%
Beans
Spinach       33,319      47,463        -         0            30         6       33,939     100%     47,457         100%
Asian         35,757      26,616      1,628                  1,836      2,001     16,074      99%     24,615          93%
Vegetables
Chillies       8,850       8,750         215     37           725        1,608     8,340     99%       7,179         82%
Other         164,938     160,459        17      897         25,739     96,486    79,022     75%      64,870         40%
Vegetables
Subtotal     4,338,614   4,053,375   27,492     8,296        61,133    162,953   3,729,241   99%    3,898,718        96%
                                                        C. FLOWERS
Flowers      113,461           114,878          684          107,040   108,375     6,421     6%     7,187             6%
                                          -
                                                          D: Nuts
Peanuts       68,844      54,678     3,338     21,865          -          3       72,182     105%     76,540         140%
Macadamia     20,125      18,186                                        6,910     15,221      69%     11,276          62%
Other         27,602      27,750         85    6,606         9,820                17,782      64%     34,356         124%
Nuts
Subtotal      116,571     100,614    3,423                  9,820       28,775     66,582    94%       71,839        71%
GRAND        7,047,210   6,806,279   85,243    18,001      193,402     320,256   6,298,222   98%    6,486,023        95%
TOTAL




                                                                                                                48
4.0    SOURCES OF DATA: HORTICULTURAL EXPORTS

4.1    KEPHIS


The data is derived from invoices of exporters against which phyto-sanitary
certificates are issued for Phyto-sanitary requirements. The focus here is mainly
on the number of items/ the quantities/units.        The assumption is that the
invoice is the same as the one handled by the HCDA and the KRA (Kenya
Customs). However some of the importing countries may not require the
certificate.

4.2    HCDA (Fresh Horticultural Exports)


Export data is obtained through analysis of invoices presented by the
horticultural exporters for issue of export certificates as required under CAP319.
The invoices from the exporter may include both FOB and C+F values. The
programme for inputting data does not discriminate (separate) FOB & C+F
values.   Consequently, the accrued data is not compatible in terms of value, but
suffice as far as volume is concerned. It is therefore necessary to address this
issue and agree with the exporters on an all inclusive invoice indicating freight
charges separately where consignment is CIF and FOB value (i.e. FOB+Freight
charges and insurance if applicable).


The output is therefore a summary of all the produce broken down into cut-
flowers, cuttings and cut-foliage, vegetables by type – mainly fresh but captures
processed beans (canned, frozen, bottled);Fresh fruits mainly avocados, passion
fruit, mangoes, pineapples and other minor fruits.


Macadamia nuts are partially covered especially those in shell. HCDA should
seriously consider listing produce as per appropriate HS code. Both the KNBS,
Central Bank of Kenya and others receive primary data on fresh horticultural
produce exports monthly and annually. However due to incompatibility and non
capture of some of the produce it is the subject of validation and review in order
to improve accordingly.

4.3    Kenya Revenue Authority (Customs Department)


An invoice of the exporter plus a C63 form and bill of lading/Airway bill is
prepared by the forwarding agent. The C63 captures produce by tariff
(Harmonised System) and based on an FOB value and where C&F is indicated on
the exporters invoice the freight is indicated when completing the C63.However
when capturing imports both FOB and C&F value are also shown on the
C63.However all exports statistics are compiled on an FOB basis.


The Kenya Customs captures all export and import data whether fresh,
processed, dried or otherwise, international and regional. This is therefore all
inclusive and is governed by the Customs Act. The data on exports/imports
derived from the customs is utilised in compiling the Statistical Abstract, the
leading Economic Indicators the annual Economic Surveys and Central Bank
monthly Review. All exporters must by law declare the exported products.



4.4    Kenya National Bureau of Statistics

The KNBS compiles the final export/import trade data for the Economic Survey
and the Statistical Abstract among other reports and availed for purchase
through Government Printers and the Bureau. The reports are also available in
their library. Institutions may also receive this data electronically on request.

4.5    Horticultural Produce Production (Ministry of Agriculture)


The data on production of all crops listed/declared as horticulture are compiled
by the Officers of the Ministry of Agriculture at divisional, district and provincial



                                                                                    50
levels and thereafter compiled by the Horticulture Division of the MOA.
Inadequate tools and training on data collection and analysis compromises the
quality of the data.       It is therefore paramount to note that horticulture
production for the domestic market and a portion of the exports is domiciled at
smallholder production.


The absence of cooperation from medium and large scale growers has limited
the MOA ability to have an all inclusive data. However during validation some of
the data was captured after thorough discussions and analysis of available
returns. The committee agreed to adjust by 2 or more0% the production of
some products (spring onions, lettuce, leeks, baby carrots, sugar and snow peas,
broccoli. Data on specific produce contracted directly by the buyers eg high class
green grocers and large supermarkets may not be captured.




5.0      CHALLENGES

1. Lack of standardized unit of measure in reporting
       i.    Mix up of units- acres and hectares;
      ii.    Volumes of flowers reported in both kilograms and stems
      iii.   Use of Kshs and K£ - e.g. in Coast province, reporting is still done in
             Kenyan pounds
      iv.    Export values reported in combination of both FOB and CIF - HCDA
             reports contain a mixture of both FOB and CIF; Customs reports in
             FOB for exports and imports are in C&F.
      v.     HCDA and KEPHIS data are not similar; KEPHIS figures are unique
             situation because of the phytosanitary requirement and appear to
             capture higher figures(volumes and units) than HCDA




                                                                                 51
Recommendations:
      •   Values should be quoted in Kenya shillings and no further reporting
          using Kenya pounds.
      •   Unit of measure for production areas should be in Hectares and not
          acres
      •   Training of HCDA data input clerks on
                     1. Units of measure
                     2. Importance of product differentiation when inputting
                         data
                     3. Use of the correct invoice values
                     4. Analysing of the data before distribution
      •   Monthly average exchange rates applied by the Kenya Customs to be
          used to calculate values in Kshs where the export invoices are in
          foreign currencies
      •   HCDA to harmonize with customs on the standard unit to be used ie
          FOB; as well as classifying produce according to the HS coding. HCDA
          then has to liaise with the exporters to get FOB value where C&F is
          used. The exporter should make clear what the FOB value of the
          product.
      •   Institutional collaboration and networking in data collection and
          distribution
      •   Flower exporters to indicate both weight and stems on the invoice
      •   Volumes/quantities of produce marketed domestically should be done
          in tons (not bags or crates or any other unit)


2. The level of accuracy of figures obtained from the MOA reports
  •   Lack of data collection facilities and guidelines
  •   Poor data collection and analysis skills amongst the field staff
  •   Methods of estimation of production area are not standard




                                                                              52
     •   Ownership of the report – responsibility, supervision, verification and
         emphasis on the quality of the reporting requires the originator own up
         the contents
     •   Lack of training on data collection and its importance.


Recommendations
         •   Training of all the operators on the data collection chain
         •   Communicate the standard unit of measure
         •   Government to provide the necessary tools/facilities for this measure
             e.g. templates
         •   Standard data collection methods for production areas to be clearly
             defined communicated/ sensitized and enforced at all levels – i.e. from
             the location, division, district and province.
         •   Monthly reporting at location to be enforced and taken seriously,
         •   Data validation to begin at the division and move on to the district
             and provincial level.
         •   The personnel on data collection and analysis should on performance
             contract


3.       Large scale/ private farms are not willing to disclose production
         information
         The large farms should supply all their production data to a centralised
         unit where they will be assured of confidentiality. The MOA, KEPHIS and
         HCDA should cooperate in order to achieve this.


4.       Delayed information dissemination
         The information should be availed as soon as it is compiled with specific
         times and deadlines to be useful to the users.




                                                                                 53
5.      Lack of a reliable data bank for the industry - A specific institution to
        be responsible for all the horticultural data. The team recommends The
        Ministry of Agriculture. All institutions involved in the primary data
        collection should collaborate. This recommendation does not prevent
        institutions involved in primary data collection on the industry from setting
        up facilities to gather data. HCDA should improve on the export data
        prepared and released monthly/annually.


6.      Poor information flow and feedback mechanism - Annual/ national
        consolidated information/data does not flow back to the provinces,
        districts, divisions and other MOA departments. This must be undertaken
        to any shortcomings.


7.      Cross border trade - Some imports and exports are unaccounted for in
        the MOA total data capture. The MOA officers should liaise with the Kenya
        Customs and KEPHIS.HCDA officers are already at some of these points.


Recommendation
KEPHIS and KRA already involved in data collection at borders and closer
collaboration within the institutions will ensure that all this data is captured in the
national figures. It would appear what is even captured data is understated e.g.
onions, cashew nuts, bananas, melons, oranges, passion fruits


8.      Periodic crop surveys are not carried out
     o Equip the line staff to enable them carry out crop surveys routinely in their
        daily activities as they undertake extension work.
     o The resources required to carry out these surveys are immense when
        done per crop Utilising manpower resources from learning institutions by
        collaborating in data collection and mapping of resources should be
        explored.


                                                                                    54
      o Establish networks between collaborating institutions for ease of
          data/information sharing.


6.0       WAY FORWARD


Way forward to enable and sustain accurate data collection and
reporting
      •   Establish a data coordination centre with GPS tools
      •   Establish data collection centres at all levels
      •   Training of all relevant personnel at all levels
      •   Develop a data sharing systems in the industry.
      •   Harmonize the units of measure in data collection.
      •   Conduct periodic surveys on production.
      •   Stakeholders’ cooperation in providing accurate data.
      •   Data should be validated for accuracy, quality and completeness regularly
          and at all levels.
      •   Reports at headquarters, province, Districts should circulate to enable the
          originators assess their presentation


To create awareness of the need of availing reliable, realistic and
timely data/information
      •   Develop a data bank
      •   Enhance field surveys
      •   Enhance information flow
      •   Give timely information/reports
      •   Train staff on data collection


The validation team further recommends that
      •   Large scale farm data be addressed immediately




                                                                                  55
•   Verification of missing data on specific crops from Central, Rift Valley,
    Eastern and Nyanza is pursued immediately to enable completion of
    baseline for the Annual Horticulture Production report. This verification if
    feasible should be undertaken in may_-June 2008.
•   The validation report should be made available to the PDAS with sufficient
    copies for Districts
•   HCDA has made considerable effort in capturing and streamlining the
    sources of fresh produce data especially on volumes but encounter
    problems on values. There is therefore need for high level analysis and
    constructive approach with other stake holders in order to reach
    consensus. This should be done on continuous basis. In order to
    improve HCDA”S capacity as a source centre of information/data
    on the sub-sector it is recommended that HCDA source external
    assistance to fine tune this.
•   In order to reconfirm the domestic consumption volume and value it is
    recommended that the KNBS undertake a household consumption survey
    in urban and rural areas in order to ascertain consumption per head of
    fresh fruits and vegetables
•   The HCDA should assign a team to undertake surveys on inflows of
    produce into major urban centres and source. This will enable market
    planners to make decisions on sizes and location. This exercise should be
    done in conjunction with Local Authorities. Efforts made so far are not all
    inclusive.




                                                                             56
           ANNEX I – Data on Horticultural produce and Sources of Information

CROP              Local &    Farm                Vegetable      HCDA Bulletins EA Seed Co.
                  Export     Management          Seeds Hand
                  Vegetables Hand Book of        Book -
                             Kenya-MOA           Seminis
Cabbage           40-100     10 tons/ha          45-113         40-100 tons/ha    16-32 tons
                  tons/ha                        ton/acre
Chinese Cabbage                                                                   10 tons
Kales                             3-5tons/ha                    15 tons/ha
Cauliflower                                      7-10 tons/ha                     16-32 tons
Broccoli                                         8-10 tons/ha
Spinach                           4-8 tons/ha    3 tons/ha                        6-10 tons
Brussels Sprouts 20 tons/ha
Lettuce           10-14                                                           12-24 tons
                  tons/ha
Onion             17 tons/ha      15-17tons/ha   24 tons/acre                     10-28 tons
Tomatoes          20-100                         20-25 tons/acre 20-100 tons/ha   28-70 tons
                  tons/ha
Carrots           4-20 tons/ha 8-10tons/ha       14 tons/ha                       12-36 tons
Garden Peas       4-6 tons/ha     4-6 tons/ha                                     1.5 -2.5 tons
Baby corn         10 tons/ha
Sweet corn                                       4-5 tons/ha                      8-12 tons
Courgettes                        10-12tons/ha   4 tons/ha
Cucumber          25-30           25tons/ha      7-10 tons/ha                     8-16 tons
                  tons/ha
Squash                                                                            8 - 20 tons
Snow peas         4-5 tons/ha                    4 tons/ha      4 - 5 tons/ha
Field Beans                                                                       1 ton
Broad Beans                                                                       0.6 -1.5 tons
French beans      4-8 tons/ha                    5 tons/ha      9-12 tons/ha      3-6 tons
Irish potatoes    40 tons/ha      20-25tons/ha
Asparagus                                                                         2 tons
Brinjals/Egg plant 20-25                         49 tons/ha                       16-32 tons
                   tons/ha
Karella            10-15tons/ha
Dudhi             15-20
                  tons/ha
Okra              8-15 tons/ha                   3 tons/ha      8 -15 tons/ha     5 tons
Capsicums                                        10 tons/ha
Chillies          8-15 tons/ha 5-11 tons/ha      3 tons/ha      7 -10 tons/ha
Snake gourd       8-10 tons/ha
Turia             7-14 tons/ha



                                                                                             57
CROP            Local &     Farm          Vegetable       HCDA Bulletins EA Seed Co.
                Export      Management    Seeds Hand
                Vegetables Hand Book of   Book -
                            Kenya-MOA     Seminis
Guwar           5-8 tons/ha
Tindori         8-10 tons/ha
Valore          7-14tons/ha
Tinda           10 tons/ha
Leeks                                     7 tons/ha                          12 - 28 tons
Parsley                                                   50 tons/ha         4 - 9 tons
Radish                                    32-36 tons/ha   15 -35 tons/ha     4 - 6 tons
Butternut                                 14.3-21.4       5 - 7 tons/ha
                                          tons/ha
Swiss chard                               36 tons/acre                       10 - 24 tons
Beet                                                                         8 -16 tons
Drumstick
Indigenous
Vegetables
Spider plant    1 bag/acre
                seeds
                100bags/acre
                leaves
Mitoo/Miroo     1.5bags/acre
                 120bags/acre
                 leaves
Murenda          1.5bags/acre
                 seeds
                 60 bags/acre
                 leaves
African spinach 1 bag/acre                                1 bag/acre seeds
                 seeds
                 120                                      120 bags/acre
                 bags/acre                                leaves
                 leaves
Black nightshade 1 bag/acre                               1 bag/acre seeds
                 seeds
                 166                                       60 bags/acre
                 bags/acre                                leaves
                 leaves
Cowpea                                                    0.5-1 ton/ha
Ginger
Green ginger    10tons/ha                                 10 tons/ha
Dried ginger    15-25% fresh                              15- 25% of dried
                wt                                        wt
Cardamoms
Cumin



                                                                                      58
CROP            Local &    Farm                   Vegetable    HCDA Bulletins EA Seed Co.
                Export     Management             Seeds Hand
                Vegetables Hand Book of           Book -
                           Kenya-MOA              Seminis
Garlic          12-15                                          17 tons/ha
                tons/ha
Chamomile
Coriander
Lemongrass      40-60
                kg/year
Mints           20 tons/ha
Thyme           8-12 tons/ha
Rosemary        Fresh 8-12                                     8 - 12 tons/ha
                tons/ha
                Dried 2 -2.5                                   2 - 2.5 tons/ha
                tons/ha
Marjoram        Fresh 10-15
                tons/ha
                Dried 4 tons
Chives          3 tons
Sweet basil                                                    15 - 20 tons/ha
                                                               (fresh)
                                                               3 - 4 tons/ha
                                                               (dried)
Dill
Celery
Leeks


Fruits
Watermelon                     20-30 tons/ha      54 tons/ha   10 - 15 tons/ha
Apple                          20kgs per tree
Avocado                        250-200kgs per                  8 - 10 tons/ha
                               tree
Banana                         15-20 tons/ha                   35 - 40tons/ha
Cashew nut                     15-20kg per year
Pineapple                      30-40 tons                      100 tons/ha
Coconut                        30 nuts per tree
Mango                                                          15 tons/ha
Passion Fruit                  10 tons/ha                      15 -20 tons/ha
Pawpaw                         25 tons
Macadamia                                                      40 -70kgs/per
                                                               tree
Flowers
Gladiolus                                                      400,000



                                                                                     59
CROP                  Local &    Farm           Vegetable    HCDA Bulletins EA Seed Co.
                      Export     Management     Seeds Hand
                      Vegetables Hand Book of   Book -
                                 Kenya-MOA      Seminis
                                                             spikes/ha
Morbydick                                                    30-35
                                                             stems/m2/season
Roses                                                        200 stems/sq.mt
Carnations                                                   200-300
                                                             stems/m2/season
Alstroemeria                                                 180-300
                                                             stems/m2/season
Statice                                                      150-180
                                                             stems/m2/seasn
Lisianthus                                                   50 stems/sq. mt
Tuberose                                                     50-60
                                                             stems/m2/season
Solidastar                                                   80-100
                                                             stem/m2/season
Arabicum                                                     30-35
                                                             stems/m2/season
Anthurium                                                    600-750 dozen
                                                             flowers/week
Easter lily
Eryngium
Orchids                                                      18-22 spray/plant
                                                             1.5 million
                                                             sprays/ha
Leather leaf fern                                            20
                                                             fronds/plant/year
Ornithogalum
Coloured calla lily
Delphinium
Bupleurum
Gerbera                                                      200-250
                                                             stems/m2/two
                                                             years
Chrysanthemum                                                58-76 stems/m2
Rudbeckia
Gypophila                                                    greenhouse
                                                             30,000-
                                                             40,000stems/100
                                                             0m2
                                                             open field
                                                             35,000-45,000
                                                             stems/1000m2




                                                                                   60
CROP         Local &    Farm           Vegetable    HCDA Bulletins EA Seed Co.
             Export     Management     Seeds Hand
             Vegetables Hand Book of   Book -
                        Kenya-MOA      Seminis
Solidago                                            64 stems/m2
                                                    flush
                                                    2-3 stems per
                                                    plant
Aster                                               greenhouse
                                                    1000m2 8,000-
                                                    10,000
Carthamus
Molucella                                           2-3 stems per
                                                    plant
Ammi
Veronica
Agapanthus




                                                                          61
         Annex II – Table on Volumes and Values

                                Volume(MTs)                              Value ('000' KES)
Crop                  2005          2006          2007        2005             2006            2007
                                               Fruits
Bananas             1,255,995    1,237,770      1,186,740   15,071,940      16,943,760       17,085,820
Mangoes              254,413      248,531        384,461    3,125,055       3,682,965         5,792,991
Avocadoes            100,277      103,935         93,639    1,504,152       1,559,025         1,404,585
Citrus               118,221      111,688         87,400    2,364,420       2,233,760         1,748,000
Passion Fruits        51,857       58,342         64,714    1,555,680       1,750,260        1,941,375
Pineapples           401,729      417,860        429,065    6,025,935       6,267,900         6,435,975
Pawpaws              223,440      229,590        233,640    3,351,600       3,443,850         3,504,600
Melons                25,720       32,840         32,240     771,600         985,200           967,200
Peaches                1,248        1,536          1,376      14,976          18,432            16,512
Pears                 10,514       10,206         6,370       94,626         91,854            57,330
Plums                  8,688       13,184        13,616       69,504         105,472           108,928
Apples                 4302         4554          3564        107,550        113,850           89,100
Guavas                 1,255        1,540         1,900       18,825         23,100            28,500
Tree Tomatoes          3,376        3,008         4,696       50,640         45,120            70,440
Custard Apple           585          560           540        11,700         11,200            10,800
Loquarts                930          840           750         5,580          5,484             4,500
Grapes                  585         1,131         1,212       20,475         39,585            42,420
Strawberries            264          240           276        10,560          9,600            11,040
Others                  585         1,215         1,140        9,360         19,440            18,240
Sub-Total           2,463,984    2,478,570     2,547,339    34,184,178     37,349,857        39,338,356
                                             Vegetables
Cabbages             496,693      493,376       609,292     2,758,599       2,785,713        3,345,848
Kales                402,263      433,485       423,750     4,022,625       4,334,850        4,237,500
Tomatoes             542,940      503,730       567,780     13,573,500      12,593,250       14,194,500
Onions                95,925      106,500       118,680     3,357,375       3,727,500        4,153,800
Carrots               38,318       41,664        62,790      574,770         624,960          941,850
French Beans          70,040       61,540        67,330     2,101,200       1,846,200        2,019,900
Spinach               27,651       33,319        47,684      276,510         333,190          474,630
Garden/Field Peas     34,620       40,375        59,045     1,038,600       1,211,250        1,771,350
Snow Peas/Snap
Peas                   9,300       12,582        14,766      418,500         566,190          664,470
Irish Potatoes      2,640,600    2,415,080     2,192,280    13,203,000      12,075,400       10,961,900
Brinjals              16,560       16,220        15,780      414,000         405,500          381,500
Karella                4,464        4,512         3,288      111,600         112,800           82,200
Duthi                  2,390        2,268         2,290       59,738          56,700           57,250
Okra                   6,904        6,672         4,384      172,600         166,800          109,600
Turia                   791          651           651        19,775          16,275           16,250
Valore                  745          585           973        14,027           8,775           24,325
Tindori                230        4,849         390         4,213        11,205         9,750
Capsicum              7,250      10,750        9,900       217,500       322,500       297,000
Spring
Onion/Shallots       12,780      13,680        15,600       76,680        82,080        93,600
Cucumber               740         850           660        25,900        29,750        23,100
Courgettes            2,230       2,510         1,780       55,750        62,750        44,500
Cauliflower           2,244       2,346         1,190      100,980       105,570        53,550
Lettuce                900        1,212         1,504       72,000        78,480        45,520
Asparagus              720        1,260          312        61,200       113,400        15,600
Radish                 120         152           192         3,000         3,800         4,800
Baby Corn              640         928          1,648       12,432        18,560        32,960
Chillies             12,860      10,520        10,750      321,500       263,000       268,750
Pumpkin               3,030       3,315         7,020       90,900        99,450       336,000
Runner Beans          8,925      11,305        13,195      357,000       494,235       593,775
Indigenous Veg       80,328      81,168        73,224     1,204,920     1,217,520     1,098,360
Butter Nut Squash      518        1,118          727        10,360        23,860        17,540
Brocolli                                         576                                    48,960
Coriander              1,620       1,795        1,125      77,250        89,750         56,250
Leeks                  1,113       1,092        2,798      44,520        43,680        112,000
Celery                  672         636           72       40,320        38,160          2,880
Garlic                 3,945       3,585        2,535      236,700       215,100       152,100
Mint                     8           16           16       280,000       640,000       640,000
Parsley                  7            7            7       700,000       700,000       700,000
Turmeric                440         440          440       22,000        22,000         22,000
Ginger                  960         992          992       76,800        79,360         79,360
Cow Peas                868         290          467       13,020         7,720          6,350
Sub Total           4,533,352   4,327,375    4,337,883   46,221,364    45,627,283    48,191,578
                                             Nuts
Macadamia            18,137      20,125        19,607     1,088,220     1,228,500      962,780
Cashew Nut           28,223      27,602        27,750     1,270,000     1,242,000     1,249,000
Ground Nuts          51,222      68,844       54,678       2,048,880     2,753,760    2,388,420
Sub Total            97,582     116,571      102,035      4,407,100     5,224,260    4,600,200

Flowers              102,348     113,461      114,878     16,375,728    22,692,268   27,570,600
Grand Total         7,197,266    7,035,977   7,102,135   101,188,370   110,893,668   119,700,734




                                                                                      63
          ANNEX III – Letter from Permanent Secretary to large farms


                                      REPUBLIC OF KENYA




                             MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
                          Office of the Permanent Secretary
Telegraphic Address “MINAG” NAIROBI                                   KILIMO HOUSE
Telex: 22766                                                       CATHEDRAL ROAD
Telephone 718870/9                                                   P. O. Box 30028
Fax: 725774                                                                 NAIROBI
                                                          Date: 9th January, 2008
When Replying Please Quote
Ref: MOA/CORP/12/20/27


To All Horticulture Producers and Processors
       Flowers
       Vegetables
       Fruits
       Herbs and Spices

RE:    ANNUAL HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING DATA

During the presentation of the Annual Economic Survey report by the Minister for
Planning and National Development, it clearly emerged that horticulture
continues to be a pivotal industry in our country. The sub-sector therefore
requires to be regularly monitored and a report prepared on the status of its
performance. Our field officers and the regulatory agencies have to closely focus
on the performance of the small-scale production and the export market
respectively. The analysis of the sub-sector will however not be complete without
a component of the horticulture produce processing firms and the performance
in the medium as well as large scale producers.


In this regard we require the following annual performance data for 2006-2007
as follows;



                                                                                 64
             Hectarage under various crops.
             Production/output for the crops.
             The values of the out put (farm gate prices).
             Type of produce processed.
             Source of the processed produce.
             Quantities processed.
             Processing Capacity.


A commentary on the performance of the industry during the year is very
appropriate. A reporting format is also attached.


The reports should be submitted immediately to enable the Ministry to capture
the same in the Annual 2007 report.


The data will be handled and treated with the confidentiality it deserves. Our
continued collaboration is highly appreciated.




Romano M. Kiome (PhD, MBS)
PERMANENT SECRETARY


C.c          Dr. Chagema Kedera,
             Managing Director,
             Plant Health Inspectorate service,
             NAIROBI.

             Dr Alfred Serem,
             Managing Director,
             Horticultural Crops Development Authority
             NAIROBI.


             Provincial Directors of Agriculture



                                                                           65
REPORTING FORMAT

1). PRODUCTION DATA

Crop      Hectarage      Production      Total           Production   Number of Employees
                         Per Unit        Production      Value at
                         Area            Per Crop        Farm Gate
                                                         Price
                                                                      Casual   Permanent




2.) PROCESSING DATA

Produce     Quantities      *Source of      Processing         Number of Employees
            Processed       Processed       Capacity
                            Produce
                                                               Permanent       Casual




*The source of the processed produce should be categorized as
follows;
      Name of Small-scale Producer Group/s
      Name of medium/Large scale Producer/s
      Own farm/s




                                                                                     66
         ANNEX IV: Volume of major flowers cuttings and plants produced

Commodity           2007       Commodity             2006          Commodity          2005
Roses             66,307,788   Roses               63,418,056   Roses               61,072,180
Mixed Flowers     9,503,894    Mixed Flowers       8,321,033    Mixed Flowers       7,043,249
Hypericum         3,212,667    Hypericum           2,857,312    Carnations, Std     2,603,142
Carnations, Std   2,162,377    Carnations, Std     1,820,114    Hypericum           1,781,429
Cuttings          1,253,805    Carnations, Spray   1,080,354    Alstromeria          949,420
Lilies             984,329     Lilies               864,141     Carnations, Spray    936,688
Veronica           810,029     Veronica             761,256     Gypsophilla          792,878
Alstromeria        805,732     Gypsophilla          755,893     Cut Foliage          756,183
Gypsophilla        752,165     Cuttings             753,546     Veronica             691,834
Carnations,
Spray              469,591     Statice Limonium     748,918     Arum Lillies         661,722
Eryngium           439,905     Alstromeria          472,627     Cuttings             469,078
Arabicum           439,178     Alstro               455,790     Statice Limonium     438,208
Statice
Limonium           412,851     Eryngium             388,968     Lisianthus           408,167
Cut Foliage        387,427     Zantedeschia         373,543     Eryngium             319,020
Chrysan.
Cuttings           374,167     Arabicum             343,665     Ornithogalum         286,028
Ornithogalum       337,146     Cut Foliage          312,026     Zantedeschia         246,280
Zantedeschia       314,209     Mobbydick            288,707     Chrysan. Cuttings    198,421
                                                                Car.Cutting
Limonium           299,079     Ornithogalum         279,364     Unrooted             170,703
Mobbydick          213,386     Chrysan. Cuttings    275,732     Arabicum             164,136
Lisianthus         189,902     Lisianthus           213,615     Mobbydick            130,911
Craspedia          141,031     Bupleurum            186,833     Agapanthus           119,188
Bupleurum          140,187     Craspedia            185,866     Papyrus              97,648
Agapanthus         118,220     Agapanthus           132,576     Molucella            91,426
Molucella          97,772      Celosia              119,446     Calla                87,830
Solidago           85,222      Molucella            108,135     Bupleurum            85,135
Car.Cutting
Unrooted           84,366      Phlox                99,804      Ammi Majus           75,428
Saundersisiae      82,932      Calla                84,700      Craspedia            72,418
Ammi Majus         81,310      Rudbeckia            81,120      Limonium             62,930
Ammi Visnaga       77,485      Ammi Visnaga         58,126      Rudbeckia            47,317
Calla              69,453      Philox               57,618      Solidaster           46,513
Amaranthus         58,312      Solidago             57,460      Solidago             44,242
                               Car.Cutting
Solidaster         58,207      Unrooted             57,453      Ammi Visnaga         39,857
Papyrus            45,993      Papyrus              55,646      Delphinium           36,988
Phlox              37,306      Limonium             54,272      Carthamus            33,484
Commodity        2007     Commodity           2006         Commodity      2005
Allium           36,396   Amaranthus          52,929   Scabiosa           27,148
Scabiosa         36,231   Ammi Majus          46,228   Celosia            26,389
Dianthus         35,777   Solidaster          26,858   Montbretia         24,012
Philox           22,914   Carthamus           23,987   Amaranthus         21,514
Gerbera          22,708   Scabiosa            22,643   Tanacetum          9,784
Celosia          19,624   Million Stars       18,031   Heliconia          9,749
Carthamus        18,125   Grass               17,787   Tuberose           8,754
Crocosmia        17,332   Dianthus            16,635   Setaria            6,100
Montbretia       15,159   Germin              13,603   Million Stars      5,117
Germin           14,659   Tanacetum           12,242   Strelitzia         5,006
Million Stars    13,240   Montbretia          11,568   Panicum            4,109
Alstro           13,086   Panicum             9,949    Helenium           2,588
Asparagus Fern   12,896   Crocosmia           8,973    Anthuriums         1,940
Leather
Leaves(L)        12,563   Allium              5,735    Crocosmia          1,916
Pelargonium
Cuttings         11,449   Tuberose            5,286    Live Plants        1,136
Tuberose         5,697    Statice Beltaard    4,976    Statice Beltaard    926
Rudbeckia        5,478    Lathyrus            4,928    Ranunculus          673
Ruscus           4,943    Dianthusa           4,357    Gerbera             185
Lathyrus         2,673    Sunflower           4,010    Kangaroo Paw        178
Strelitzia       2,536    Asparagus Fern      3,977    Asters              154
Hederas          2,304    Delphinium          3,822    Brodiaea            110
                          Pelargonium
Eustoma          2,166    Cuttings            3,505    Germin              108
Sample           2,158    Strelitzia          3,490    Typha               105
Sunflower        1,924    Anthuriums          3,483    Grass               29
Grass            1,892    Gerbera             3,347    Eustoma             19
Anthuriums       1,869    Live Plants         2,920    Gladiolus               2
Lavernder        1,786    Setaria             2,769
Gebera           1,288    Ranunculus          2,267
Kangaroo Paw     1,228    Leather Leaves(L)   1,838
Dianthusa         762     Gompherna           1,717
Snapdragons       675     Longiflora          1,500
Asters            649     Eustoma             1,309
Begonia           575     Sample              1,272
Phormium          440     Hederas             1,192
Gladiolus         317     Ruscus              1,108
Eucalyptus        291     Asters              1,088
Longiflora        278     Arum Lillies         959
Ranunculus        232     Lavernder            846
Germini           123     Begonia              662


                                                                          68
Commodity       2007   Commodity      2006   Commodity   2005
Live Plants     120    Kangaroo Paw   560
Dill            103    Pennisetum     517
Cofrena         102    Eucalyptus     295
Flower Seeds    100    Escimo         268
Typha            99    De-Reuiters    248
Sea Girl         84    Phormium       226
Dried Flowers    56    Trachelium     106
Heliconia        50    Typha           99
Arum Lillies     44    Dill            60
Gladiolus        40    Cofrena         57
Helenium         15    Heliconia       29
Tanacetum        15    Gebera          15
Orchids          8     Gladiolus       3
Delphinium       6     Achillea        1
                       Bamboo          1




                                                         69
ANNEX V – List of Team members


Name                       INSTITUTION

  1. Dr Alfred Serem       HCDA

  2. James Nguku           HCDA

  3. Jotham Ouko           HCDA

  4. Anne Gikonyo          HCDA

  5. Susan Wambugu         HCDA

  6. Grace Kyalo           HCDA

  7. Richard Okite         HCDA

  8. Agnes Murage          HCDA

  9. Martin Mulandi        KHDP

  10. Joseph Mwangi        MOA

  11. Christopher Nkukuu   MOA

  12. Mary Githinji        KEPHIS

  13. Francis Wambugu      LEAD CONSULTANT (DORKAM ENTERPRISES)
Annex VI: Terms of Reference

1. To carry out detailed desk review of all reports for the period 2002 to 2006
   and projection for 2007 covering horticultural crops in the country
2. Carry out a desk review of all information from private organizations,
   producer associations and other Public Institutions and prepare an annex to
   the Task Force report.
3. Identify all areas of inconsistency and determine the weaknesses in the
   available data.
4. Undertake field visits in areas identified to have weaknesses with a view to
   developing acceptable data.
5. Identify the leading processors of major horticulture producers including
   source and quantities.


Expected outputs


   •   A detailed report of findings
   •   A database of horticulture produces together with annual volumes and
       values including import, exports and domestic consumptions.
   •   Estimates on how much produce is retained by growers for home use.
   •   Determine the amount of residual waste at market points
   •   Recommendations on how to improve the data collection process and
       continuous validation by providing the appropriate tools to facilitate better
       capture of data.
   •   Draw up explicit recommendation on sustainability of data collection and
       presentation.




                                                                                 71
ANNEX VII - References

  •   Annual Reports -Ministry of        Agriculture, Horticulture Division (2001,
      2002, 2003, 2004, 2005)
  •   Asian Vegetable Production and Recipe Handbook-Ministry of
      Agriculture,   Livestock   Development      and   Marketing,    Horticulture
      Division/Home Economic Branch (1993),
  •   Improving      Kenya’s     Domestic     Horticultural   Production     and
      Marketing System: Current Competitiveness, Forces of Change
      and Challenges for the Future Vol I & II, - Kavoi Mutuku Muendo and
      David Tschirley,(2004) Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and
      Development, Egerton University.
  •   Annual Report 2005/06 –KEPHIS
  •   Update On Kenyan Horticulture-KHDP
  •   Fresh Fruit And Vegetable Consumption Patterns And Supply
      Chain Systems In Urban Kenya: Implications For Policy And
      Investment Priorities By Ayieko M W, Tschirley D L, and Mathenge M
      W of Tegemeo Institute Of Agricultural Policy And Development; Egerton
      University
  •   Cut flower production and marketing manual by HCDA, MoA, JICA
  •   Mango Growing in Kenya by Jurgen Griesbach
  •   A field guide to propagation and management of temperate fruits
      trees by MoA in collaboration with HCDA
  •   Avocado growing in Kenya by Jurgen Griesbach




                                                                               72

				
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Description: Horticultural Crops generally refers to small scale intensive cultivation of crops with high economic value.