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Section A Charlie Chaplin

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					Section A             Charlie Chaplin
New Words & Expressions
heel n. 1. [C ] the raised part of a shoe underneath the back of the foot(鞋、袜等的)
后跟
        Shoes with high heels are no longer in fashion.
        现在不再流行高跟鞋了。
     2. [C] the rounded back part of the foot 脚后跟
     She had developed a blister on one heel.
     她一只脚的后跟磨起了一个水泡。
relief n. 1. [U] (sing.) the feeling that results from the easing or removing of pain, distress
or anxiety (痛苦、忧虑等消除后感到的)轻松,宽慰
     It was such a relief to hear Glen had been found safe and well.
     听到格伦平安无事,真是令人十分宽慰。
     To my great relief, her injuries were only slight.
     使我感到十分欣慰的是,她只受到些轻伤。
     2.[U] the reduction of pain or unhappy feelings
     (痛苦、紧张、忧虑等的)缓解,减轻
     The drug brings / gives some relief from pain. 这药能减轻一些疼痛。
     For relief of headaches take aspirin. 要减轻头痛,请服用阿斯匹林。
incident n. [C] an event which is either unpleasant or unusual 发生的事,事情,事故
        an amusing incident 趣事
        Strange incidents happened successively.
        奇怪的事情接二连三地发生。
        The spy scandal caused a diplomatic incident.
        间谍丑闻引起了一起外交事件。
stocking: [c] (usu.pl.) a closed fitting garment for a woman’s leg and foot which is usually
        made from a thin light material.长袜
           (contrast: socks 短袜)
           silk stockings             pull off stockings            put on stockings
cut down: reduce the size of (sth. Such as clothing; writing; etc) 改小、改短
           We need to cut the article down to 1000 words.
     compare: cut in 插话
                 cut off 中断
                 cut out 删除
comic: 1) adj. causing laughter; humorous 喜剧的、滑稽的
        2) [c]. a book or a magazine for children containing humorous stories.连环画册
               The speech is rich in comic sensitivity.
             The children received a greeting card and a comic for Christmas.
comedy: (n.)a type of film, play or book which is intentionally amusing either in its
     characters or its action.喜剧
            A lot of Shakespeare’s plays are comedies.
            At last he saw the comedy of the situation and laughed.
    antonym: tragic 悲剧的
                         tragedy 悲剧
for good: permanently; forever
                This time she’s leaving for good.
                The days of happiness had gone for good.
crude: adj. 1) rude and offensive 粗鲁的
              2) simple and not skillfully done or made 粗制的、粗陋的
              3) in the natural state; not refined 天然的、未加工的
              a crude remark              a crude joke
                 crude sketch               crude furniture
                 crude oil                 crude rubber
        adv. crudely 天然地、粗鲁地
        n. crudeness 不成熟;粗鲁
                    crudity 天然状态、不成熟、粗野的东西
revolt: v. rebel; refuse to be controlled or ruled ,take violent action against authority 反叛
        n. [C;U] the action or state of protesting against or resisting authority 反叛、造反
                The people revolted against the military government.
                The people in the north have revolted against the foreign rule and established
           their own government.
                Troops were called in to put down the revolt.
        adj. revolting 令人恶心的、令人不快的、造反的、反抗的
trip up: (cause to) catch one’s foot and lose one’s balance 绊倒
            As I passed, he stuck out a leg and tried to trip me up.
            Read the questions carefully, because the examiners sometimes try to trip you
up.
coarse: adj. 1) vulgar; rude or offensive
                2) rough and not smooth or soft
              He was a coarse man whose manner made him unpopular with some people.
              The sand was so coarse that it was quite painful to walk on.
           v. coarsen 使变粗糙、使变粗野
           n. coarseness 粗糙、粗野
nationality: 1) [C,U] membership of a particular nation 国籍
                2) [C] a national group forming part of a political nation 民族
              Fill in your name, address and nationality on the form.
              There are many minority nationalities in China.
postpone: v. delay; esp. arranging for it to take place at a late date or time.
              They decided to postpone their holiday until autumn.
              We have had to postpone going to France because Tom has got an interview
           for a job that week
make up: invent
   :           I was trying to make up a good excuse for being so late.
              Sometimes I’ll read her a story from a book and sometimes I’ll make one up.
come/go/move down in the world: have less money and a worse social position than
before
           He was once wealthy, but now he has come down in the world since he started
           gambling.
           When we had to sell our house and take a small apartment downtown, we felt
           we’d really come down in the world.
immensely: adv. extremely or very much
    immense: adj. a extremely large or great
              He is immensely strong, but also gentle and has a great sense of humour.
              Surfing can be immensely exciting.
              There is still an immense amount of work to be done.
extraordinary: adj. unusual, unexpected, surprising or strange
              The president took the extraordinary step of apologizing publicly for his
behaviour!
    extra- “……以外的”, “……之外的”
        extracurricular 课外的                             extramarital 婚外的、有外遇的 l
        extrasensory 超感觉的                                extravagant 浪费的、挥霍无度的
in advance: beforehand; earlier
              It is cheaper if you book the tickets in advance.
              If you are going to come, please let me know in advance.
execute: 1) do or perform, esp. in a planned way 实施、履行
           2) kill sb. As a legal punishment 将 … 处以死刑
           The plan was good but was poorly executed.
           Now that we have made the decision we may execute the scheme as previously
      agreed.
           She was executed for murder.
           Prisoners are reported to have been deliberately executed without trial.
corresponding: adj. equivalent or related
    correspond: v. (to/with) be the same as or match
           There has been a decline in the value of the pound and a corresponding
           increase in the strength of the dollar.
           As the course becomes more difficult and demanding, there is usually a
           corresponding drop in attendance.
           Information on page 60 corresponds with the totals taken from page 11.
           Your account of events does not correspond with hers.
collision: 1) [C,U] strong disagreement, a conflict of opposing aims, ideas, opinions 冲突
           2) [C,U] one object person striking against another violently 碰撞
                   The plays represents the collision of interest of 3 generations.
                   His car was in collision with a motorbike.
                v. collide
rumor: [C] a story that is spread by being talked about but may not be true.
              The rumors being spread about him are totally untrue.
              Rumors are going round about why the teacher left her previous school.
spark: v. (off) be the cause of; lead to
              His comment sparked off a quarrel between them.
              The riots were sparked off by the arrest of a local leader.
Language Points
1. He wore his mother's old red stockings cut down for ankle socks. (Para. 1)
cut down: reduce the size of (sth. such as clothing, writing, etc.)
      I could cut your father's trousers down for the boy.我可以把你父亲的裤子改短给这男
孩穿。
      Your article will have to be cut down to fit into the book.
      你的文章得删一些,以便能收入到这本书里.
      They've cut her hours down at work so she doesn't have much money.
      他们减少了她的工作时间,因此她没有那么多钱了。
2. His mother was temporarily declared mad. (Para. 1)
Meaning: His mother was once said to be mentally ill / diagnosed as being mentally ill.
3. Dickens might have created Charlie Chaplin's childhood. (Para.1)
Meaning: When he was a child, Charlie Chaplin lived a miserable life, which was much
like the one described in Dickens' famous novel named Oliver Twist. Therefore, if he had
learnt of chaplin's childhood, Dickens might have written something about it.
4. Dickens might have created Charlie Chaplin's childhood. (Para.1)
might have + V-ed: used to say that sth. was possible in the past, but we know that it did
not in fact happen
      The plan might easily have gone wrong, but in fact it was a great success.
      这计划可能会很容易失败的,可是事实上大大成功了。
      If we'd played better, we might have won. 如果我们当时打得好一些,我们也许会赢
的。
      They might have chosen anyone for the job, but they picked me.
      他们也许可以选择其他任何人做这工作,可是他们选择了我。
5. … the little man in rags who gave his creator permanent fame. (Para.1)
Meaning: Chaplin has won himself long-lasting fame by acting as "the Tramp", who was
always wearing old torn clothes.
6. … the little man in rags … (Para.1)
in rags: dressed in old worn-out clothes
      There were men, women, and small children, some dressed in rags.
      那儿有男人、妇女和儿童,有些人穿得破破烂烂。
      There are areas where every child is barefoot, and dressed in rags or old flour sacks.
      有些地方小孩都赤脚,穿着破衣服或旧面粉袋
      I keep these rags for cleaning the car. 我把这些破布留着擦车用。
7. …have provided more applause (and profit) where Chaplin is concerned than the land
of his birth. (Para.2)
Meaning: Chaplin was welcomed more enthusiastically and made more money in other
countries where he had traveled than in his motherland, Britain.
8. …have provided more applause … (Para.2)
applause: n. the noise made by a group of people clapping their hands and sometimes
shouting to show their approval or enjoyment
      The band got a big round of applause at the end of the concert.
      音乐会结束后,乐队赢得了全场的掌声。
      The audience broke into thunderous applause.观众爆发出雷鸣般的掌声。
      His speech met with loud applause. 他的讲话赢得了热烈的掌声。
      His singing drew long applause. 他的演唱博得了长时间的掌声。
compare:applaud: v. 1) show approval or enjoyment of ( a play, actor, performer, etc.), esp.
      by striking one's hands together
      He started to applaud and the others joined in. 他带头开始鼓掌,其他人也加入进来。
      The conference rose to applaud the speaker. 与会人员起身为发表讲话的人鼓掌。
      She was applauded as she came on stage. 她一上台观众即报以掌声。
2) express strong approval of ( a person, idea, etc.)
      We all applauded the authority's decision not to close the hospital.
      我们都赞同当局不关闭医院的决定。
      I applaud her for having the courage to refuse.我赞赏她敢于拒绝的勇气。
9. … quit Britain for good in 1913 … (Para. 2)
for good: permanently; forever
      This time she's leaving for good. 这一次她将是永远地离开了。
      I'd like an excuse to get rid of him for good.我需要一个借口将他永久开除。
      A few shots of this drug cleared up the disease for good. 这药只注射了几针,病就彻
底治愈了。
10. …the king of Hollywood comedy films. (Para. 2)
Meaning: …the most important producer of Hollywood comedy films.
11. …thought Chaplin's Tramp a bit, well, "crude". (Para. 3)
crude: a.1) lacking grace, education, or sensitive feeling; rude and offensive 粗俗的;粗鲁
的
      Many of his jokes were crude and sexist.
      他讲的笑话大都既粗俗又歧视女性。
      Do you have to be so crude?你非得这么粗鲁不可吗?
      a crude remark 粗鲁的话                    a crude joke 粗俗的笑话
      2)simple and not skillfully done or made 粗制的,粗陋的
      crude sketch 粗略的草图                   crude furniture 粗制家具
      3) in the natural state; not refined
      Seven hundred thousand tons of crude oil has poured out of the damaged tanker into
      the sea. 有 70 万吨原油从损坏的油船中流入大海。
      Oil prices surged yesterday amid market fears that the Panamanian crisis could hit
      US crude oil supplies. 石油的价格昨天大幅度上涨,人们担心巴拿马危机会打击美国
      的原油供应。
      crude rubber 天然橡胶
12. Certainly middle-class audiences did; … (Para.3)
Please compare "certainly" with "surely".certainly: ad. more often expressing the idea of
"definitely" and "really" surely: ad. more often expressing surprise, doubt or relief (esp. in
British English)
      I am certainly not inviting her to my party. I've never liked her.
      我肯定不会邀请她来参加聚会,我从来不喜欢她。
      He certainly impressed me. I thought he was very bright and talented.
      他给我印象很深,是个聪明能干的人。
      Surely, you aren't going out like this, are you? 你不会就这样就走出去吧?
      Surely, you want that too, if you were fond of her. 如果你喜欢她,你也会要那个(东
西)  。
13. …clap for a character … (Para.3)
clap: vt. hit one's open hands together several times to show that one approves of or has
enjoyed sth.
      He clapped his hands for silence. 他拍拍手示意大家安静。
      Everyone clapped us when we went up to get our prize.
      我们上台领奖的时候每个人都为我们鼓掌。
      The audience clapped and cheered when she stood up to speak.
      当她站起来讲话时,观众鼓掌欢呼。
      The audience clapped his performance enthusiastically. 观众他为的表演热烈鼓掌。
      The audience clapped in time to the music. 观众和着乐曲的节奏拍手。
14.… revolted against authority … (Para.3)
revolt: v. 1) (against) take violent action against the people in power
      The people revolted against their oppressors. 人民反抗其压迫者。
2) reject the authority of a person or reject sth.; make (sb.) feel unpleasantly shocked or
disgusted
      She revolted against her ballet training at sixteen. 她 16 岁的时候开始拒绝练芭蕾。
      We were revolted by the dirt and mess in her house.她的房子又脏又乱,引起了我们
      的反感。
n. the action or state of protesting against or resisting authority
      The army is in revolt. 军队正在叛乱。
      The army has put down the revolt. 军队已平息了叛乱。
15.…using his wicked little cane to trip it up (Para. 3)
trip (up): catch sb.'s foot and make him fall or almost fall; make a mistake; deliberately
make sb. do this
      As I passed, he stuck out a leg and tried to trip me up.
      我经过的时候,他伸出一条腿试图把我绊倒。
      Read the questions carefully, because the examiners sometimes try to trip you up. 仔
      细读读这些问题,因为出题的人有时会有意诱导你犯错。
      He was tripped up by a passer-by. 他被一个过路的人绊倒了。
16.…or aiming the heel of his boot for a well-placed kick at its broad rear. (Para. 3)
aim at: 1) point or direct (a gun, etc.) towards (sb. or sth.)
      She aimed a kick at the cat when no one was looking. 没人看见时,她对准那只猫踢
      了一脚。
      I didn't mean to hit the dog. I was aiming at the tree.
      我不是故意要射那条狗,我的目标是那棵树。
2) make an effort towards (sth. or doing sth.); try to gain (sth.)
      The factory must aim at increasing production this year.这家工厂今年必须力求增加生
产。
      You should always aim at doing your job well.你应该永远力求把你的工作做好。
17.… didn't seem all that English … (Para.3)
(not) all that: (not) very, (not) particularly; usu. used in statements with negative meaning
when you want to weaken the force of what you are saying
     Things aren't all that good. 事情并不那么顺利。
     He said it would not be all that difficult to reach a peaceful conclusion to the conflict.
     他说就此冲突达成和平协议并没有那么困难。
18.English tramps didn't sport tiny moustaches, huge pants or tail coats: European
leaders and Italian waiters wore things like that. (Para. 3)
Meaning: English tramps didn't wear tiny moustaches (hair which a man grows on his
upper lip), very big pants or tail coats: these were something European leaders and Italian
waiters wore; therefore, Chaplin's beggar didn't look like an English tramp.
Please note that "pants" is American English and always in the plural form whereas British
English-speaking people prefer to say "underpants" or "panties".
sport: v. wear or show publicly and sometimes proudly
     Back in the 1960s he sported bell-bottom trousers, platform heels and hair down past
     his shoulders.
     回顾 20 世纪 60 年代,他那时穿着喇叭裤、木屐式坡形高跟鞋、蓄着过肩长发。
     The front of the car sported a German flag. 这辆车前面插着德国国旗。
     He wore rimless glasses and sported a neat grey moustache, very impressive.
     他戴着无边眼镜,留着整齐的灰色胡子,非常引人注目。
19. …the Tramp's quick eye for a pretty girl had a coarse way about it that was considered,
well, not quite nice by English audiences - that's how foreigners behaved, wasn't it?
(Para.3)
Meaning: In the eyes of English audiences, only foreign people might look at a pretty girl
in such a rude way as the Tramp did with his quick eye.
coarse: a. 1) rude and offensive, esp. about sex coarse manners 粗鲁的举止
     coarse language/joke 粗俗的语言/笑话
     I couldn't understand his coarse speech.我听不懂他粗俗的讲话。
     She was very polite and, like the rest of her people, never laughed if an outsider said
     something coarse.
     她很有礼貌,像她的家人一样,听到外人说粗话时,从来不笑。
     He was a coarse man whose manner made him unpopular with some people.
     他举止粗鲁,因而有些人不喜欢他。
2) (of skin or fabric) rough; not softa
       jacket made of very coarse cloth 用粗布做的夹克 coarse cloth 粗布
     There was no food but coarse grass and even the grass was mixed with bitter rushes.
     除了粗糙的草之外没有一点食物,甚至连草中都掺杂着苦涩的灯心草。
     The sand was so coarse that it was quite painful to walk on. 沙子非常粗糙,走在上面
很痛。
behave v. 1) act in a particular way, or be good by acting in a way which has society's
approval
     Watch how other people behave; remember everything is useful to the actor. 观察别
     人的表现,记住:对于演员,所有一切都是有用的。
     She always behaves well / badly when her aunts come to visit.
     她阿姨来做客时,她总是表现良好/很差。
     You must behave (yourself) at the party! 在晚会上你得规矩些。
2) (of a machine or natural phenomenon) work or function in a special way
      My car has been behaving well since it was repaired. 我的汽车自从修理过以后一直
      运行正常。
20.But for over half of his screen career, Chaplin had no screen voice to confirm his
British nationality. (Para. 3)
Meaning: But more than half of the roles Chaplin played were in silent films, so his voice
was not heard to establish his British nationality.
21.Indeed, it was a headache for Chaplin when he could no longer resist the talking
movies and had to find "the right voice" for his Tramp. (Para. 4)
Meaning: Indeed, it was a difficult thing for Chaplin when he could not refuse to accept the
talking movies and had to find "the appropriate voice" for his Tramp.
22.He postponed that day as long as possible: in Modern Times in 1936, the first film in
which he was heard as a singing waiter, he made up a nonsense language which
sounded like no known nationality. (Para. 4)
Meaning: He put off that day as long as possible: in his first talking movie Modern Times in
1936, he played the role of a waiter who sang in the movie and invented a kind of
language that didn't make sense and that could not be used to confirm his nationality.
postpone: v. delay (an event), esp. arranging for it to take place at a later date or time
      The trial has been postponed indefinitely. 审判无限期地延期了。
      About 1,000 operations had been postponed and even cancer patients were being
      delayed.
      大约 1, 000 个左右的手术延期了,甚至连癌症患者的手术也推迟了。
      We've had to postpone going to France because Tom's got an interview for a job that
      week. 我们已不得不延期去法国,因为汤姆那周有个求职面试。
      They decided to postpone their holiday until autumn. 他们决定将假期推迟到秋天。
make up: invent
      I was trying to make up a good excuse for being so late.
      我正试图为迟到这么长时间编个可信的理由。
23.… come down in the world. (Para.4)
come / go down in the world: have less money and a worse social position than one had
      before, be reduced to a humbler standard of living or social level
      He was once wealthy, but now he has come down in the world.
      他过去很富有,但如今已经落魄了。
      He has come down in the world since he started gambling.
      他自开始赌博以来就变得穷困潦倒了。
Also: move down in the world
      When we had to sell our house and take a small apartment downtown, we felt we'd
      really moved down in the world.
      当我们不得不卖掉房子,              搬到市区的一间小公寓住时,                 我们感到我们的确已经穷困潦倒
了。
Compare:come / go up in the world; move up in the world
24.… it's doubtful if he would have achieved world fame. And the English would have
been sure to find it "odd". (Para.4)
Meaning: … he would be unlikely to achieve world fame, and as a result the English would
surely have thought of it as "strange".
doubtful: a. 1)(about) (of a person) not sure; uncertain and feeling doubt
     Rose was doubtful about the whole idea. 罗斯对整个想法都表示怀疑。
     He was doubtful about accepting extra work. 他还不肯定是否接受额外的工作。
2) (+ if / that / whether-clause) unlikely; not probable
     It's doubtful if / whether this painting is a Picasso. 这幅画是不是毕加索画的很值得怀
疑。
     With her injuries it's doubtful that she'll ever walk again.
     受了这些伤,她是否还能行走值得怀疑。
     I feel doubtful about going / whether to go or not. 去还是不去我拿不定主意。
     It was doubtful that the money would ever be found again. 钱是否能失而复得,实在
     令人怀疑。
25.He was an immensely talented man, determined to a degree unusual even in the ranks
of Hollywood stars. (Para.5)
Meaning: He was a man of great talent, who had such a great determination that he
seemed unusual even among the Hollywood stars.
immensely: ad. extremely; very much, to a very great extent
     We enjoyed ourselves immensely. 我们玩得非常高兴。
     Surfing can be immensely exciting. 冲浪非常刺激。
     immensely popular / rich / successful 非常流行/富裕/成功
     He is immensely strong, but also shyly gentle and has great sense of humour.
     他很强壮,但也很腼腆、和蔼可亲,具有幽默感。
Compare: immense: a. extremely large or great in size or degree
     There is still an immense amount of work to be done. 还有大量的工作要做。
     It's an immense price to pay for hardwood doors and windows.用硬木做门窗要花很大
     的价钱。
     immense importance 非常重要
     The square is dominated by an immense statue of the President.
     一尊总统的巨大塑像高耸在广场上。
26.… in the ranks of Hollywood stars. (Para.5)
ranks: (pl.) the members of a particular group or organization
     We have a number of international players in our ranks. 我们的成员里有很多国际选
手。
     At 50, he was forced to join the ranks of the unemployed. 50 岁时他被迫加入了失业者
     的行列。
27.He already had the urge to explore and extend a talent he discovered in himself as he
went along. (Para.5)
Meaning: Along with the development of his career, he then had a strong desire to further
develop and make the most of his own talent.
have the / an urge to do sth.: have a strong desire to do sth.
     He had a powerful urge to compete and succeed. 他有强烈的竞争并获得成功的欲
望。
     He has an urge to become a cinema star. 他有成为电影明星的欲望 / 他十分想成为
     电影明星。
extend: v. 1) make sth. longer or larger, or last longer
     The show has been extended for another six weeks. 这个演出又延长了六周。
     Careful maintenance can extend the life of your car by several years.
     细心保养可使车的使用寿命延长好几年。
2) stretch part of your body, esp. an arm or a leg, away from yourself
     He extended his hand to the new employee. 他向新来的雇员伸出手去。
     He extended his arms in front of him as if he were praying to God.
     他向前伸出双臂, 好像在向上帝祷告求助。
3) make sb. / sth. use all their effort, abilities, supplies, etc.
     Jim didn't really have to extend himself in the exam. 对于那次考试吉姆真的不必尽全
力。
go along: 1) advance; move further with sth.
     You may have difficulty with this book at first, but you'll find it much easier as you go
along.
     开始时你或许会觉得这本书难读,但过些时候你便会觉得容易得多。
     Things are going along nicely. 事情进展很顺利。
     Work like this becomes less interesting as you go along.
     像这样的工作你做着做着就变得乏味了。
     We were going along at about 50 miles an hour. 我们以约每小时 50 英里的速度行驶。
2) go together with sb.
     At the last minute, the two youngest children decided to go along.
     在最后一刻,这两个最小的孩子决定一起去。
28."It can't be me. Is that possible? How extraordinary," is how he greeted the first sight of
himself as the Tramp on the screen. (Para.5)
Meaning: When Charlie first saw himself acting the role of the Tramp on the screen, his
reaction was one of surprise and he couldn't believe it was himself.
extraordinary: a. unexpected, surprising or strange
     It's extraordinary that he managed to sleep through the party.
     奇怪的是整个晚会期间他都在睡觉。
     The president took the extraordinary step of apologizing publicly for his behaviour!
     总统走出了出人意料的一步,公开对其行为表示歉意!
     He told the extraordinary story of his escape. 他讲述了他不寻常的逃跑经历。
     extraordinary weather 反常的天气 extraordinary beauty 出众的美
greet: v. 1) (with) react to sb. or sth. in a particular way
     The changes were greeted with suspicion. 人们对此变化持怀疑态度。
     They greeted the joke with laughter. 他们对这个笑话报以笑声。
2) say hello to sb. or to welcome them
     He greeted all the guests warmly as they arrived.客人到达时他热情地向所有人问好。
     The winning team was greeted by cheering crowds. 人们欢呼着欢迎获胜的队伍。
29.But that shock roused his imagination. (Para.6)
rouse: v. 1) make sb. feel a particular emotion
     I don't want to rouse any suspicions. 我不想引起任何怀疑。
     Tom drew a breath, determined that he would not rouse her to anger.
     汤姆吸了一口气,决定不去激怒她。
2) (formal) wake sb. up, esp. when they are sleeping deeply
     He roused himself with an effort, sniffed and shook his head vigorously.
     他用力吸气、摇头,努力想让自己清醒过来。
3) make sb. want to start doing sth. when they were not active or interested in doing it
     A lot of people were roused to action by the appeal. 在这个呼吁下很多人行动了起来。
     She hardly knew what she was saying; only that she must somehow rouse him to
     movement.
     她几乎不知道自己说了些什么,只知道必须想办法激励他行动起来。
30.Chaplin didn't have his jokes written into a script in advance; he was the kind of comic
who used his physical senses to invent his art as he went along. (Para.6)
Meaning: Chaplin didn't write a script for his jokes beforehand; as a comic, he created the
characters of comic stories by his own performance while making the movie.
31.Lifeless objects especially helped Chaplin make "contact" with himself as an artist.
(Para.6)
Meaning: For Chaplin, things having no life were especially helpful in his artistic creation,
and they can be easily associated with his talent.
32.This physical transformation, plus the skill with which he executed it again and again,
are surely the secrets of Chaplin's great comedy. (Para.6)
Meaning: The key reason for Chaplin's success in his career of comedy is that he was
able to replace the nature of one thing with that of another, and that he used certain skill
repeatedly.
execute: v. 1) do a piece of work, perform a duty, put a plan into action, etc.
     The crime was very cleverly executed. 此次犯罪实施得非常巧妙。
     Now that we have made the decision, we may execute the scheme as previously
agreed.
     既然我们已经做了决定,我们就可以实行既定方案了。
     Check that the computer has executed your commands.
     检查一下以确保计算机执行了你的命令。
2) kill sb., esp. as a legal punishment
     Prisoners are reported to have been deliberately executed without trial.
     据报道,罪犯未经审判即被蓄意处决。
     A number of the officers arrested were executed almost immediately.
     许多军官被捕后几乎立即就被处死。
33.He also had a deep need to be loved - and a corresponding fear of being betrayed.
(Para.7)
Meaning: He had a strong desire for love, as a result of which he was afraid of being hurt
by others' disloyalty.
corresponding: a. (to) matching or connected with sth. that one has just mentioned
     As the course becomes more difficult and demanding, there's usually a
     corresponding drop in attendance.
     随着课程逐渐变难和要求变高,上课的人数也相应少了起来。
     Profits have risen by 15 per cent compared with the corresponding period last year.
     与去年同期相比利润上升了 15%。
     All rights carry with them corresponding responsibilities. 所有的权利都带有相应的义
务。
correspond: v. 1) (to / with) be the same as or match sth.
      This view corresponds less and less with reality.这种观点与现实情况越来越不符合。
      Your account of events does not correspond with hers. 你对这件事的描述与她的描述
       不符。
      The money corresponds roughly to the amount I need for my course.
      这笔钱大致够我上大学所需。
2) (with) (formal) write letters to sb. and receive letters from them
      communicate by writing 通信
      correspond directly with someone 直接与某人通信
      They corresponded regularly while he was away, although her mother had forbidden
it.
      他走后他们保持着定期的通信联系,尽管她母亲禁止她这样做。
betray: v. 1) not be loyal to one's country or a person who thinks he or she loves or
supports them, often by doing sth. Harmful
      He was accused of betraying his country during the war.他被指控在战争期间背叛祖
国。
      He promised never to betray her.他答应永不抛弃她。
      His accent betrayed the fact that he was not American. 他的口音显示他不是美国人。
2) show (feelings, thoughts or a particular characteristic) without intending to do so
      Although she often seems quite cold and harsh, her smiling eyes betray her true
nature.
      虽然她看上去总是冷漠而刻薄,但她微笑的双眼流露出其本性。
      He tried to seem angry, but his smile betrayed him.
      他尽力显出发怒的样子,但他脸上的笑容使他露了马脚。
34.The two were hard to combine and sometimes - as in his early marriages - the collision
between them resulted in disaster. (Para.7)
Meaning: It was hard for the two (the desire for love and his fear of being betrayed) to
exist together and sometimes, as in his early marriages, the conflict between them led to
great misfortune in his personal life.
collision: n. 1) a strong disagreement between two people or between opposing ideas,
opinions,etc.
      In his works we see the collision of two different traditions.
      从他的著作中我们可以看出两种不同传统之间的碰撞。
      The play represents the collision of three generations.这出戏表现了三代人之间的矛
      盾冲突。
      There was a collision of interest / opinions / principles.
      存在利益冲突/意见不合/准则的互相抵触。
2)an accident in which two vehicles or people crash into each other
      His car was in collision with a motorbike. 他的车和一辆摩托车相撞。
      Wind and ice were blamed for the collision involving up to 12 vehicles.
      那起多达 12 辆车的相撞事故是由大风和地面结冰引起的。
35.Yet even this painfully-bought self-knowledge found its way into his comic creations.
(Para.7)
Meaning: Even the misfortune in his personal life was used by him in creating his comic
movies.
find one's way into: arrive or get somewhere after some time
      Rivers find their way into the sea. 条条江河通大海。
      And, although his goodness never found its way into his conversation, it showed itself
      in his way of life.
      虽然他的善心始终不能在谈吐中表达出来,但还是在生活中显露出来了。
      Computers have found their way into most ordinary families.
      计算机已经进入大部分普通家庭。
      He eventually found his way into acting. 他终于进入了演艺界。
36.The Tramp never loses his faith in the flower girl who'll be waiting to walk into the
sunset with him…(Para. 7)
Meaning: The Tramp always has his confidence in the flower girl who'll be waiting for him
to enjoy the sunset together…
Here the author implies that like the Tramp, Chaplin never lost his faith in his life and he
was looking for love and happiness and was sure to find somebody who would live with
him through the rest of his life. When we say "people walk (off) into the sunset (together)",
we mean their relationship will last and they will live happily.
lose (one's) faith in: lose one's trust or confidence in sb. or sth.
      After the trial, his family said they had lost all faith in the judicial system.
      审判之后,他家人说他们对司法系统失去了信心。
      We've lost faith in him.我们再也不相信他了。
      People have lost faith in the British Parliament.人们对英国议会已失去了信任。
sunset: n. the time when the sun disappears as night begins
      The fishermen set out at sunset for a night's fishing. 渔民们在日落时分出海,准备在
      夜里捕鱼。
      So do you think they are going to be walking off into the sunset together?
      那么你认为他们会白头偕老吗?
37.… while the other side of Chaplin makes Monsieur Verdoux, the French wife killer, into
a symbol of hatred for women. (Para.7)
Meaning: On the other hand, he created the character Monsieur Verdoux, who killed his
wife. And this character became a typical role of showing hatred for women.
38.It's a relief to know that life eventually gave Charlie Chaplin the stable happiness it had
earlier denied him. (Para.8)
Meaning: We may be glad to know that in spite of his misfortune in his earlier years, he
finally found the woman who brought happiness to his married life.
relief: n. 1) the feeling that results from the easing or removing of pain, distress or anxiety
      Much to my relief the car was not damaged. 让我感到欣慰的是,汽车没有受损。
2) (from / of) the act of removing or reducing pain, anxiety, etc.
      Massage can bring some relief from tension. 按摩可以缓解压力。
39.In Oona O'Neill Chaplin, he found a partner whose stability and affection spanned the
37 years age difference between them that had seemed so threatening that…(Para.8)
Meaning: Chaplin chose O'Neill as his wife because she was stable and loved him, though
the 37 years age difference between them may have been a great danger to their
marriage...
find … in sb.: discover that sb. has certain qualities
      We have found in him a man of trained hand, eye, and brain; disciplined and good
    mannered.
    我们发现他是一个训练有素的人,有手艺、有眼光、有头脑,同时也具有良好的修养,
    彬彬有礼。
    We have found in her a woman of wit and intelligence, with a master's degree in
    business administration.
    我们发现她是一位充满幽默感和智慧的女士,有商务管理硕士的学位。
40.As Oona herself was the child of a large family with its own problems, she was
well-prepared for the battle that Chaplin's life became as unfounded rumors of Marxist
sympathies surrounded them both - and, later on, she was the center of rest in the
quarrels that Chaplin sometimes sparked in their own large family of talented children.
(Para.8)
Meaning: Oona had met with many problems in her own family before marrying, so she
was able to deal with the problems in Chaplin's life. For example, at that time, there were
unfounded rumors that they sympathized with Marxism; when Chaplin caused quarrels in
their large family with many talented children, it was Oona who solved such problems and
brought peace back into the family.
unfounded: a. not based on fact
      I'm pleased to see that our fears about the weather proved unfounded.
      我很高兴地发现我们对天气的担心是毫无理由的。
      The rumors were totally unfounded that he is going to resign.
      他打算辞职的谣传是毫无事实根据的。
spark: v. (off) cause sth. to start or develop, esp. suddenly
      The proposal would spark a storm of protest around the country.
      这个提议会引起全国范围的抗议浪潮。
      His comment sparked off a quarrel between them. 他的议论引起他们之间的争吵
      The riots were sparked off by the arrest of a local leader.
      这次暴乱是由一个地方领导人的被捕引起的。
41.… the police recovered it with more efficiency than Mack Sennett's clumsy Keystone
Cops would have done. (Para. 9)
Meaning: the police found out the body-thieves much more quickly, compared with the
inefficient policemen in Mack Sennett's comic movies.
clumsy: a. 1) (of people and animals) moving or doing things in a very awkward way
      I was disgustingly fat and clumsy and exceedingly plain.
      我那时长得很胖,行动笨拙,并且相貌极其普通。
      She began to dress, cold clumsy fingers fumbling with buttons.
      她开始穿衣服,冰冷的手指笨拙地摸索着钮扣。
2) (of actions and statements) done without skill or in a way that offends people
      She made a clumsy attempt to apologize. 她笨嘴笨舌地试图道歉。
      His clumsy attempt to distract her attention was all the warning she needed.
      他笨手笨脚地试图引开她的注意力,可却都成了她所需要的警示。
3) (of objects) difficult to move or use easily; not well designed
      They were fairly clumsy devices and only offered security from one side: anyone
    could unlock them from the other side.
    这个装置设计得很拙劣,它只在一边提供了安全保证,而另一边却很容易被开启。
42.But one can't help feeling Chaplin would have regarded this strange incident as a fitting
memorial … (Para.9)
Meaning: We can imagine that if Chaplin had been able to give an opinion on the incident,
he would have seen it as the best way of commemorating him …

Section B The Political Career of a Female Politician
New Words and Expressions:
1.revolutionary
 n. [C] a person who begins or supports a political revolution 革命者
     Lenin was a revolutionary. 列宁是一个革命者。
 a. of political revolution; involving a complete or dramatic change
 革命的,突破性的
     the Revolutionary War [美]独立战争
     He suffered for his revolutionary principles. 他曾为自己的革命原则蒙受苦难。
     Penicillin was a revolutionary drug. 青霉素是一种突破性的药物。
     Revolutionarily adv.
     Revolutionariness         n.
2.mayor
     deputy mayor 副市长
     incumbent mayor 现任市长
3.vote
 v. express one's choice or opinion, esp. by officially marking a paper or by raising one's
 hand or speaking in a meeting 投票,选举,表决
     The representatives voted against / for the bill. 代表们投票反对/支持这个议案。
     The committee members voted that the meeting should be adjourned.
     委员会成员投票决定会议休会。
     Labor was voted in for second term office. 工党被投票选出再次组阁。
 n. [C] 投票(结果)         ,选举(结果)         ;选票;选举权
     secret vote 不记名投票
     vote of confidence 信任票
     The vote yesterday went in his favour. 昨天的表决他领先。
     In Britain, young people are given the vote at the age of 18.
     在英国,青年人 18 岁开始享有选举权。
4.northeast         n.&a. [U] (the direction or region) halfway between north and east (在)
 东北(的)
     The chilly wind is coming from the northeast. 寒风来自东北方向。
 ad. toward the northeast 朝东北方向(地)
     They sailed northeast for several days. 他们向东北航行已有几天了。
     At this point the road turns northeast. 路在这儿转向东北。
     Southeast 东南 Southwest 西南
     Northwest 西北                       西北部 northwestward
5. politics n.
 1). [U] political affairs or life 政治职业,政治事业
     He is planning to retire from politics next year. 他打算明年退出政坛。
     The group is campaigning to get more women into politics.
     这个组织正发起运动以让更多的妇女从政。
 2). [U] the study of the ways in which a country is governed 政治,政治学
     She's reading politics at Beijing University. 她在北京大学攻读政治学。
     enter politics 从政
6. opponent n. [C] a person who takes the opposite in a game, competition, etc.         敌
 手,对手
     Finally, turn your body slightly, so that you face the opponent directly.
     最后稍微转一下身体,这样你就直接面对着你的对手。
     In some countries, any opponent of the government is likely to lose their job.
     在有些国家,与政府作对的人有可能失去工作。
7. misunderstand vt. understand wrongly; put a wrong meaning on
 误解,误会
     So she had not misunderstood; she had not misheard.
     这么说来她没有误解,她没有听错。
     His wife misunderstands him. 他的妻子不了解他。
8. misunderstanding n.[C,U] the act of putting a wrong understanding on sth.
 误解,误会
     This can lead to misunderstanding, mutual frustration, anger and perhaps quarrelling.
     这会导致误解、彼此之间的失望、愤怒甚至争吵。
9. ambassador n.
 1). [C] (fig.) a representative 代表,代理人
     Your CV is your ambassador, and must represent you well when you try to get a job.
     你的简历就是你的代言人,在你求职时它必须能充分展示你自己。
 2).[C] a diplomat of the highest rank who is the official representative of one's country
 大使,使节
     The Ambassador replied that he realized that no statement could be made on this
     subject.       大使答复说他认识到在这个问题上无法作任何声明。
 3)使者
     ambassador of peace 和平的使者
10. election n. [C,U] the action or an instance of choosing by vote one or more of the
 candidates for a position, esp. a political office 选举
     Local government elections will take place in May. 地方政府选举将在 5 月举行。
     In America, presidential elections are held every four years.
     在美国,总统选举每四年举行一次。
 11. activist n. [C] a person who works hard to achieve social or political change, esp.
 as an active member of a political organization 积极参与者;活动家
     The Greenpeace activists protested against the commercial killing of the whales. 绿
     色和平组织成员抗议对鲸鱼进行商业捕杀。
     He's been a trade union activist for many years.
     他多年来一直是工会的积极分子。
12. prayer n. [C] the words that sb. says or thinks when they are praying 祷文,祷词
     He says his prayers every night before he goes to bed. 他每晚就寝前做祷告。
     We thought he had been killed in the war, but our prayers were answered when he
     arrived home unexpectedly.
     我们以为他已经死在战争中了,但他意外的回家应验了我们的祈祷。
     a person at prayer 在做祈祷的人
     give prayers(=say one's prayers) 做祈祷
     the house of prayer 教堂
     be at one's prayer 正在祈祷
     Evening Prayer 晚祷
     Morning Prayer 晨祷
13. veteran n. [C] a person who in the past had experience in the stated form of activity
 经验丰富的人,老手
     The veteran actor has said he is ready to direct a film for the first time.
     这位经验丰富的演员说过他已经准备好首次导演一部电影。
     put on the airs of veterans 摆老资格
     Veterans' Administration (美国)退伍军人管理局
     Veterans' Day          [美]退伍军人节(11 月 11 日)
14. sack n.
 (1) [C] a large bag, usu. of strong rough cloth, strong paper, or plastic, used for storing or
 carrying flour, coal, vegetables, grain, etc. 袋,包
     The corn was stored in large sacks. 玉米存放在大布袋中。
 (2) (前面与 the 连用)开除,解雇
     to give sb. the sack 解雇某人
     I'll get the sack if I arrive at the office late! 如果上班迟到,我就得被开除。
 vt. dismiss from a job 解雇
     The teacher was sacked because he could not meet the standards set by the college.
     这个教师因不能达到学校的要求而被解雇了。
     One of the workmen was sacked for drunkenness. 有名工人因喝醉酒而被解雇。
15. loaf
  n. [C] a single mass of bread shaped and baked in one piece (一个)面包
     Store the loaf in a tin and slice it when needed.
     把面包储藏在一个罐子里,需要时再切成片。
 vi. waste time, esp. when one is not working when they should 游荡,闲逛
     You thought I only worked part-time and the rest of the time I just loafed around. 你
     以为我只部分时间工作,其余时间只是在闲逛。
16.sow vt.
 1). put (seeds) in or on the ground so that plants will grow 播种
     Sow the seeds in pots. 把种子播种在花盆里。
     When is the best time to sow? 什么时候是最佳播种时期?
     We'll sow this field with wheat. 我们要在这块田里播种小麦。
 2). spread or introduce feelings, ideas, etc. 散布,激起
     sow the seeds of hatred 撒下仇恨的种子
     Now that you've sown doubts in my mind, I'll never be sure I can trust him.
     既然你在我心中撒下了怀疑的种子,我很难再信任他了。
 Phrases:
     (As) a man sows, so he shall reap. [谚]种瓜得瓜, 种豆得豆。
     Reap as what one has sown           自食其果
17. troop
 n. 1). (pl.) soldiers on duty in a large group (常用复数) 部队,军队
     regular troops 正规军
     When the riots did not stop, the troops were sent in to deal with the situation.
     暴乱仍未停止,军队被派去控制局面。
 2). [C] a large group of people or animals, esp. when moving 一群,一队,             (一)大批
     a troop of school children 一大队学童
     There were troops of friends to send him off.       有许多朋友来为他送行。
 v. 群集, 集合(up, together) 成群结队地走, 排队前进 (along, in, out, to) 若干人匆匆地
走掉(off, away)
     They trooped around the teacher. 他们群集在老师的周围。
     They trooped away to the football game. 他们成群地去看足球。
     The students trooped into the auditorium. 学生们列队走入大礼堂。
18. jealous a.
 1). trying very carefully to keep sth., or extremely careful in protecting sb. or sth. 惟恐
 失去的,小心守护的 (常与 of 连用)过于爱护的,过于看重的
     She is very jealous of her independence, and doesn't want to get married.
     她很珍惜自己的独立,不想结婚。
     He kept a jealous eye on his property. 他小心守护着自己的财产。
 2. unhappy and angry because sb. has sth. one wants, or because one thinks they might
 take sth. 妒忌的
     Her colleagues are jealous of her success.        她的同事们妒忌她的成功。
     He is jealous of their success. 他妒忌他们的成就。
 3) (常与 of 连用)妒羡的;羡慕的
     She is jealous of our success. 她嫉妒我们的成就。
     I was jealous of Sarah when she got her new bicycle.
     萨拉有了一辆新的自行车,我很羡慕她。
     I was very jealous of Sarah's new bicycle. 我很羡慕萨拉的新自行车。
19. assembly n.
 1).[C] a group of people meeting together, esp. to discuss matters of national importance
 集会者;议会
     the United Nations General Assembly 联合国大会
     The national assembly has / have met to discuss the crisis.
     已经召开了国民议会来讨论这次危机。
 2).[U] the meeting together of a group of people for a specific purpose 集会,聚会
     That anti-government organization was denied the right of assembly.
     那个反政府组织被剥夺了集会的权利。
 3).[U] the action or process of fitting together the parts of sth. 装配,安装
          The assembly of cars is often done by machines. 汽车的装配通常由机器来完
     成。
 v. 集合;聚集
         All the people assembled at Mary's house. 所有的人都聚集在玛丽的屋子里。
 装配
 Compare: gather, collect, assemble, muster 都含“收集”, “聚集”的意思。
 (1) gather 系常用词, 指”收集”, “聚集”, “集合在一起”, 如:
           The clouds are gathering. 云在聚集。
 (2) collect 指“有计划、有选择地收集”, 如:
     He collects stamps.       他集邮。
 (3) assemble 指”为某一特定目的而收集”, 如:
     The dean assembled the students in the auditorium.
     教务长把学生集合在礼堂里。
 (4) muster 系正式用语, 特指“部队召集”或“为检阅、检查而召集”, 如:
     He mustered all his soldiers.      他把士兵召集在一起。
20. scandal n. [C] an action or event that causes a public feeling of shock and strong
 moral disapproval 丑行,丑闻
     She was at the center of a public scandal last year.
     她是去年一场社会丑闻的中心人物。
     They tried to cover up the scandal. 他们试图掩盖这桩丑闻。
     The newspaper exposed the scandal. 这家报刊披露了这一丑闻。
 Compare: disgrace, dishonor, shame, infamy, scandal
 都含“丢人”、“耻辱”的意思。
 (1) disgrace 指“失去别人的尊敬”、“因自己或别人的行为所产生的耻辱感”, 如:
     He was in disgrace after his ungentlemanly behavior.
     他因为行为不检而为人所不齿。
 (2) dishonor 指“因自己的言行而丧失自尊或玷辱名誉”, 如:
     His desertion to the enemy was a dishonor to his family.
     他的投敌行为对他的家庭是耻辱。
 (3) shame 指“由于失去自尊心而感到羞愧或羞耻”, 如
     I think it a shame to be so wasteful. 我认为那样浪费太可耻了。
 (4)infamy 指“声名狼藉”、“臭名昭著”, 如:
     His name will live in infamy. 他的名字将遗臭万年。
 (5) scandal 指“引起公愤的行为”、“丑事”, 如
     Iran Scandal 伊朗丑闻(指美国向伊朗出售武器的秘密被揭露后, 所引起的批评)。
21. fierce a. showing strong feeling or energetic activity; strong and powerful; physically
 violent and frightening 激烈的,强劲的,凶猛的
     a fierce dog 凶猛的狗
     a fierce wind 劲风
     a fierce storm      狂风暴雨
     There is a fierce competition for those scholarships.
     对这些奖学金的竞争十分激烈。
     Those fierce animals lived in the forests many years ago.
     这些猛兽许多年前生活在森林中。
22. riot n. [C] a noisy, violent, and uncontrolled public gathering 暴乱,骚乱
     put down a riot by force 以武力平息闹事
     A riot broke out at the stadium when the home team lost 5-0.
     当主队以 0 比 5 输了时,体育馆内发生了骚乱。
     The football match led to an uncontrolled riot.
     这场足球赛导致了一场无法控制的骚乱。
     in full riot 正起劲; 正在积极进行中
23. banner
 n. [C] a long piece of cloth with a sign on it, often stretched between two poles, carried by
 people taking part in an activity 旗帜,横幅
     The banners of many countries fly outside the headquarters of the United Nations.
     许多国家的国旗在联合国总部外面飘扬。
     The marchers' banners all said "We want work" .
     游行者的横幅上都写着"我们要工作"。
 banner adj. 领先的; 优越的; 第一流的
     a banner year for crops 丰年
24. witness       n.
 1). [C] a person who sees an event happening, esp. a crime or an accident
 (尤指犯罪或事故等的)目击者
     According to the witnesses, the robbery was carried out by two teenage boys.
     据目击者说,抢劫者是两个十几岁的男孩。
     She was a witness to the tragic event.         她目睹了这一悲惨事件。
 2). [C] a person in a law court who states what he knows about a legal case or a
 particular person (法庭上的)证人
     Ten witnesses are expected to testify at the trial today.
     预计 10 名证人将在今天的审讯中作证。
     He will attend the court as a witness. 他将作为证人出庭。
     a witness of the accident 事件的见证人
 v. see sth. happen, esp. a crime or accident, because of being present when it happens
目击,见证
     They witnessed several street battles. 他们目击了几起巷战。
     We witnessed tremendous changes in the city.
     我们目击了这个城市的巨大变化。                    (我们是这个城市巨大变化的见证人。
 Phrases: call... to witness 请...证明; 传...做证人
     in witness of 作为...的证明, 为...作证
25. earnest       a. serious or determined 认真的,坚决的,严肃的
     At school he was very earnest but he's more relaxed now.
     过去在学校时他很严肃,不过现在随和多了。
     They are earnest about their studies.         他们学习非常勤奋。
26. dormitory n. [C] (= dorm) a large room or building containing many beds, esp. in a
 boarding school or university 集体宿舍,学生宿舍
     a school dormitory 一座学校宿舍
     a dormitory town 市郊住宅区
27.umbrella       n. [C]
 (1) 伞,雨伞,太阳伞
     Put your umbrella up. It's going to rain. 把伞撑起来,要下雨了。
 (2) 伞形物; [喻]掩护; 保护伞
     under the umbrella of 在...的保护下
28.refresh vt. give new energy and strength to (sb.) or make (sb.) less hot
 使振作精神,使恢复活力,使清凉
     A shower always refreshed me on hot days.
     大热天冲一下淋浴总是使我倍感清新。
     Having had a good sleep, he felt thoroughly refreshed.
     他睡了个好觉,感到精神已完全恢复。
     He refreshed himself with a cup of coffee. 他喝了一杯咖啡来提神。
29. refreshing       a. making one feel stronger, less tired or more alert; pleasantly new or
 different 令人精神振奋的,令人感到新鲜的
     a refreshing sleep 令人解乏的好觉
     a refreshing change 别开生面的变化
     It's a refreshing chance to see a losing team shaking hands and smiling after a match.
     赛后看到一支输了球的球队队员握手和微笑是件新鲜事。
30. run for :try to get elected to a public position 竞选
     He said he was not going to run for president this time.
     他说他这次不打算竞选总统。
     Last May he announced he would run for the governor.
     去年 5 月他宣布要竞选州长。
31. vote in :elect (sb.) by voting 投票选出
     He was voted in as treasurer. 投票结果他当选财务主管。
     If he fails he would have little excuse in the eyes of those who voted him in.
     如果他不成功,是无法向那些投票选他的人们解释的。
32. from door to door :going to each house in a street or area 挨家挨户地
     He is distributing the free samples from door to door.
     他正挨家挨户地分发免费样品。
33. take care of :look after 照料,照顾
     Who's taking care of the children while you're away?
     你不在的时候谁照顾孩子们?
     She takes great care of her clothes. 她对衣服十分爱惜。
34. spy on / upon : watch secretly 监视
     Have you been spying on me? 你一直在监视我吗?
     He said that someone might be spying on the station and the pilot was ordered to
     keep track of the strange object.
     他说可能有人对基地进行侦察,于是便命令飞行员跟踪这个不明物体。
35. shut out of :not include in an activity 把……排斥在外
     Mum, Ben keeps shutting me out of the bedroom! 妈妈,本总是不让我进卧室。
     I wanted to shut John out of my life forever. 我想让约翰永远退出我的生活。
36. have / get the upper hand :have / get the advantage or control over
 占优势,占(……的)上风,胜过
     The government was beginning to get the upper hand. 政府开始占上风了。
     t was easy to see who has the upper hand. 很容易看出谁占上风。
37. make up :form the whole of 构成,组成
     Girls make up 56% of the student population. 女生占学生人数的 56%。
     One hundred years make up a century. 100 年构成一个世纪。
38. break up :disperse or scatter (people), often by force 驱散,解散
     The meeting broke up at eleven o'clock. 会议是 11 点钟散的。
     The police broke up the fighting crowd. 警察驱散了打架的人群。
39. tear down :remove or pull down roughly 撕下,拆毁
     They are going to tear down these old buildings. 他们打算拆掉这些旧住房。
  He tore down the engine in order to repair it. 他把发动机拆开修理。
40. in / by contrast :used to emphasize that sth. is clearly different from sth. else 对比之
  下,相比之下
  When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.         如
  果你看到他们的系统,相形之下我们的系统就太过时了。
  He was friendly and talkative; she, by contrast, said nothing.
  他很友好,也很健谈;而她什么也没说。
41.in earnest :seriously and sincerely 认真地
  The work on the house will begin in earnest on Monday.
  建造那座房子的工作周一正式开始。
  You may laugh but I'm in deadly earnest.         你可以笑,但我绝对是认真的。
42.be proud of :feel pleased and satisfied about sth. that one owns or has done or is
  connected with 对……感到自豪,对……感到光荣
  Your achievements are something to be proud of. 你的成就是值得骄傲的。
  He was proud of himself for not giving up.        他为自己没有放弃而感到自豪。
43.lay out :spread (sth.), as to view 摆出,张开
  She was busy laying the food out on the table. 她忙着把食品摆放在桌子上。
  He laid the map out on the table.          他在桌上把地图摊开。
44.feel like :feel as if ; want (sth. or doing sth.) 感觉好像;想要
  I felt like a fool when I answered wrong. 当我答错了时我感觉自己像个傻瓜。
  I feel like a drink.      我想喝一杯。
  We all felt like celebrating.       我们都想庆祝一下。
45.watch over :guard or take care of 照顾,看管
  The guards were hired to watch over the houses.
  雇用那些卫兵是看管房子的。
  It was my duty to watch over the children.           照看那些孩子是我的职责。
46.deliver the goods :carry out or complete a task as expected, or fulfill a promise 履
  行诺言,不负众望
  We expected great things of the England team, but on the day they simply failed to
  deliver the goods.
  我们对英国队寄予厚望,但那一天他们有负众望。
  As long as you deliver the goods, he will always trust you.
  只要你履行诺言,他会永远信任你的。
Language Points
… the image of a revolutionary. (Para.1)
revolutionary: n. a person who starts or supports a revolution, esp. a political one
    His actions were not those of a revolutionary. 他的行动不是一个革命者所为。
    By arguing this, Marx therefore redefined the task of the revolutionary. 通过论证这一
      点,马克思重新定义了革命者的任务。
a. connected with political revolution; involving a great or complete change
      At the time it was a revolutionary approach. 当时这还是一种革新的方法。
      These objects were produced using a revolutionary new process which until recently
      was unavailable in Britain. 这些东西是用一种革新的工艺生产出来的,                          而英国直到最近
      才掌握这项工艺。
      This position changed with almost revolutionary speed during the first two decades of
      the eighteenth century. 在 18 世纪最初的 20 年里,              这一形势几乎在以突破性的速度发
      生着变化。
      She ran for mayor of Embu, Kenya, and won. (Para. 1)
run for: offer oneself for election to (a group) or for (a position)
      More people than ever before are running for the city council. 参加市议会竞选的人比
      以往都多。
… she was voted in by her colleagues … (Para.2)
vote: v. (in / for / against / on) show formally by marking a paper or raising your hand which
person you want to win an election, or which plan or idea you support
      The President has been voted in for the third time running. 这位主席已经是第三次当
选了。
      Have you decided which party you will vote for?你有没有决定投票支持哪个党派?
      Would you have voted in favour of the sale of the house if you'd been given the
      chance? 如果你有机会投票,你会支持卖掉那所房子吗?
      They voted unanimously to return to work. 他们一致投票决定复工。
      The decisions will be voted upon at the later date. 有关这些决议,将在晚些时候投票
表决。
… by her colleagues on the District Council, all men. (Para.2)
Please compare "council" with "counsel".
council: n. district government
      I have complained to the local council about the poor condition of the streets.马路的
      路况不好,我已向当地政府反映了。
      Some men from the local council came to plant trees along the river. 当地政府来人在
      河边植树。
counsel: v. advise; n. a lawyer
      The job of a Vocational Guidance Officer is to counsel young people on their careers.
      职业指导官员的工作是向青年人提供职业咨询。
      The prosecuting counsel demanded the death penalty but the judge gave her a life
      sentence. 提交公诉的律师要求处以极刑,但法官判她无期徒刑。
Ms. Mbogo launched her dream of a career in politics … (Para. 3)
politics: n.
1) the activities of government, members of law-making organizations or people who try to
influence the way a country is governed; the job of holding a position of power in the
government
      Politics has / have never interested me. 我对政治活动从不感兴趣。
      She wanted to go into politics. 她想进入政界。
2) the study of the ways in which a country is governed
     He majored in politics when he was at university. 他大学时主修政治学。
"My opponent kept insisting that …" (Para. 3)
opponent: n. the person being competed against, esp. in a sports event; a person who
disagrees with sth. and speaks against it or tries to change it
     Leading opponents of the proposed cuts in defence spending will meet later today. 反
     对削减国防开支这一建议的带头人将在今天晚些时候会面。
     She is one of the strongest opponents of tax reform. 她是税收改革的最强烈的反对者
     之一。
     He beat / defeated his opponent in the election. 他在选举中击败了对手。
     In the second game her opponent hurt her own leg and had to retire.在第二场比赛中,
     她的对手腿部受伤,不得不退出比赛。
Ms. Mbogo also faced misunderstanding among the town's women, … (Para.4)
misunderstand: v. fail to understand sb. or sth. correctly
     Like all travellers he misunderstands what he observes. 和所有旅行者一样,他误解
     了他所观察到的东西。
     I had misunderstood the name of the film, and not dared to ask too many questions.
     我误解了那部电影的名字,而且不敢问太多的问题。
     You must have misunderstood my meaning. 你一定是误解了我的意思。
n. a failure to understand sth. properly or in the right way
     He said he was seeking a meeting with him "to ensure there are no further
     misunderstandings". 他说他正寻求与他会晤,“以确保将来没有进一步的误解”。
     They are there to help you and will want to clear away any misunderstanding. 他们在
     那儿是为了帮助你们,并试图消除各种误解。
…many of whom initially were unwilling to vote for her. (Para. 4)
Notice the non-restrictive attributive clause: many of whom…
     Jack has three brothers. All of them are married. - Jack has three brothers, all of
     whom are married.
     She has a lot of books. She hasn't read most of them. - She has a lot of books,
     most of which she hasn't read.
After the prepositions, "whom" is used to refer to people and "which" is used to refer to
things.
You can also say:
     He tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.
     They've got three cars, two of which they never use.
     Two men, neither of whom I had seen before, came into my office.
One veteran female political activist said … (Para. 6)
veteran: a.& n.
1) a person who has had a lot of experience of a particular activity
     He's a 20-year veteran of the New York Police Department. 他是纽约警察局有 20 年
     经验的资深警员。
     He is a veteran of 15 international matches. 他是一名有 15 场国际比赛经验的老运动
员。
     The after-dinner speaker is a veteran actor. 那位宴会后的发言人是位老演员。
2) (an old person) who in the past has had experienced in the stated form of activity, esp.
in war
     The ceremony was attended by veterans of World War II. 参加典礼的有第二次世界大
     战的老兵。
     Everyone sat in silence as a young Vietnam veteran spoke about his experiences
     during the war. 大家都静静地坐着,听一位年纪不大的越南老兵讲述他的战争经历。
… and spied on the positions of colonial forces. (Para. 8)
spy on: watch secretly
     How much did you pay the man to spy on your husband? 你付了这个人多少钱来暗中
     监视你丈夫?
     He spied on his neighbors through this window without being seen. 他是透过这扇窗
     子暗中监视他的邻居而不被发现的。
… leaders jealous to protect their power shut them out of politics, … (Para.8)
jealous: a.
1) (of) wanting to keep or protect sth. that you have because it makes you feel proud
     He is jealous of his possessions. 他惟恐失掉自己的财产。
     They are very jealous of their good reputation. 他们很爱惜自己的好名声。
     An honorable citizen should be jealous of his own rights. 一名可敬的公民应当珍惜自
     己的公民权利。
2) (of ) feeling angry or unhappy because you wish you had sth. that sb. else has, or sb.
you like or love is showing interest in sb. else
     To tell the truth, I get a bit jealous of the other people who come and see Marie. 说实
     话,别人来看玛丽的时候我会有点嫉妒。
     As the years went by, and some of his friends became prolific writers, Dyson came to
     be jealous of their reputations and to scorn what they wrote. 一年年过去了,迪森的一
     些朋友成了多产作家,这时他开始嫉妒他们取得的声誉,并且开始嘲笑他们写的东西。
Today, men still have the upper hand. (Para.9)
have / get the upper hand: have or get the advantage or control over sb.
     At half time, the Italian team seemed to have the upper hand. 上半场结束时似乎是意
     大利队占上风。
     After hours of fierce negotiations, the president had / got the upper hand. 经过数小时
     的激烈谈判,总统占了上风。
     Whenever conflicts arose between her and her son, she had the upper hand, for she
     alone controlled the bulk of the family fortune. 无论何时她与儿子发生冲突,她总是占
     上风,因为惟有她控制着家庭的大部分财产。
"It was a scandal — the donors' money seemed to be going to individuals." (Para.12)
scandal: n. an action or event that causes a public feeling of shock and strong moral
disapproval
     A drug scandal forced the mayor's resignation. 毒品丑闻导致了市长的辞职。
     Watergate Scandal led to the resignation of President Nixon. 水门事件导致了尼克松
     总统的辞职。
     It is a scandal for a city official to take tax money for his own use. 市政官员将税款挪
     作私用是件丑闻。
After a fierce campaign, … (Para.13)
fierce: a. (of people or animals) angry and aggressive in a way that is frightening; (of
actions or emotions) showing strong feelings or a lot of activity, often in a way that is
violent
      The Prince has a fierce temper. 王子的脾气很暴躁。
      He looked really fierce with his black beard and long black hair. 他的黑胡须和长长的
      黑发使他看上去面目狰狞。
      They encountered fierce resistance as they fought their way up to Austria for two
      years. 在向奥地利挺进的两年时间里,他们遭遇了极为猛烈的抵抗。
      Competition is fierce and this is where American marketing methods have to be used
      to help British products compete. 竞争是激烈的,           这就是为什么要用美国的营销方法来
      帮助英国产品参与竞争。
…the kinds of abuse that other female politicians have been subjected to, however. (Para.
14)
subject … to: if you subject sb. to sth. unpleasant, you make them experience it
      A court order was obtained, permitting the police to subject him to a lie detector test.
      获得了法庭指令,允许警察对他使用测谎仪进行测试。
      The air bases were subjected to intense air attack. 空军基地遭到了猛烈的空袭。
      Everyone interviewed had been subjected to unfair treatment. 每个参加面试的人都受
      到不公正的对待。
… insisting it was illegal and might start a riot. (Para. 14)
riot: n. a noisy, violent, and uncontrolled public gathering
      Inner-city riots erupted when a local tax was increased. 当一种地方税增加时,市中心
      爆发了骚乱。
      Twelve inmates have been killed during a riot at the prison. 在这座监狱发生的一场骚
      乱中死了 12 个犯人。
v. take part in a noisy, violent, and uncontrolled public gathering
      Students are rioting in the streets of the city. 学生在城市的大街上闹事。
      The road was blocked by a rioting mob. 道路被闹事的人群阻塞了。
… officers tore down their banners … (Para. 14)
tear down:
1) remove or pull (sth.) down roughly
      The photograph of the leader had been torn down in the night by his enemies. 这位领
导人          的照片在夜晚被他的敌人撕了下来。
2) destroy a building or other structure because it is not being used or it is not wanted any
more
      They're going to tear down the old hospital and build a block of offices. 他们打算拆除
      这家旧医院,建造一幢办公大楼。
      It is often cheaper to tear down buildings than to repair them. 拆毁建筑物常常要比维
      修它们便宜。
…witnesses reported. (Para.14)
witness: n. a person who sees sth. happen and is able to describe it to other people; a
person who gives evidence in a court of law
      In practice, children under the age of eight are rarely called as witnesses. 按照惯例,
      不满 8 周岁的儿童很少作为证人被传唤。
      Witnesses reported seeing dead soldiers and hearing missile and machine-gun fire.
    目击者报告说他们看见了死去的士兵,听见了导弹和机关枪的开火声。
    Unless they are called as witnesses, victims are often not told when a case is coming
    to court. 一个案子开庭时常常并不通知受害者,除非他们是作为证人被传唤。
v.
1) see sth. happen because one is there when it happens
      He actually witnessed the death of the last animal in his study group. 事实上,他亲眼
      目睹了研究小组里最后一只动物的死去。
      It was the third time in three weeks that such ugly scenes had been witnessed at
      London grounds. 三个星期以来,            人们已经是第三次在伦敦的赛场上看到如此丑陋的场
      面。
      He witnessed the birth of Saudi Arabia and observed its growth and development at a
      crucial period in its history. 他亲眼目睹了沙特阿拉伯的诞生,并且看到了它在一个关
      键历史时期的成长与发展。
2) be the place, period, organization, etc. in which particular events take place
      This old auditorium has witnessed many ceremonies. 这个古老的礼堂内举行过许多
典礼。
      The 19th century witnessed the evolution of bars. 19 世纪目睹了酒吧的发展演变。
In contrast, Ms. Mbogo generally receives warm greetings from the men of Embu, …
(Para. 15)
in / by contrast: used to emphasize that sth. is clearly different from sth. else
      Their economy has expanded enormously in the last five years, whereas ours, by / in
      contrast, has declined.过去的 5 年中他们的经济增长得很快,相比之下,我们的经济
      反而滑坡了。
      This generation has, by contrast, made the environment a focus of attention. 相比之
      下,这一代人使得环境成为关注的焦点。
      Their movement, in contrast, reached a membership of 100,000 in two years. 相比之
      下,他们的运动两年内就发展到 10 万成员。
      By contrast, our use of oil has increased enormously. 相比之下,我们的用油量大幅度
上升了。
… in earnest. (Para. 16)
in earnest: seriously
      The countdown begins in earnest as early as October. 倒计时早在 10 月份就正式开始
了。
      Now I shall have to study the English language in earnest, keeping one chapter
      ahead of the students each week. 现在我要比以前更努力地学习英语,每星期要比学
      生们超前一章。
注意:earnest 用作形容词表示“认真的,坚决的,严肃的”,用作名词则表示“定金,保证金;
保证,预示”,词典上一般另立词条标出。而 earnest 用作名词表示“认真”等词义时,一般
只用在“in earnest”的词组中。
… a refreshing change. (Para.19)
refreshing: a. pleasantly new or different; making one feel less tired or hot
      Enjoy a refreshing drink and the spectacular views of the Jungfrau mountain. 喝一杯
      清爽的饮料,观赏圣母峰壮丽的风光。
      This book is refreshing in its simplicity, in that it doesn't pretend to be anything more
     than what it is — a love story. 这本书的与众不同之处在于它的简单,它就是一个爱情
     故事,而没有故作是别的什么。
     It's refreshing to meet somebody who is so dedicated to his work. 遇到一个如此专注
     于工作的人真是一种全新的感受。
Compare:
refresh: v.
1) make sb. feel less tired or less hot
     I awoke some hours later and, feeling refreshed, went out to explore Galway. 几小时
     以后我醒过来,感到精力充沛,就又出门考察戈尔维地区了。
     Simply going for a walk can relax the mind and refresh the spirit — and it will make
     you fitter too. 出去走一走就可以使你放松心情,恢复精力,还能使你更健康。
2) remind oneself of sb. or sth., esp. with the help of sth. that can be seen or heard
     I arrived about 9 AM at St. Andrews and had time to walk round the course and
     refresh my memory. 我是上午 9 点钟到达圣安德鲁斯的,因而有时间绕着跑道走走,
     以唤起自己的记忆。
     Read it first and keep it in this file ready to refresh your memory at the last moment.
     先把它读一遍,然后把它放在文件夹里,以备最后一刻提醒你自己。

				
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