Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Teat Skin as Affected by Skin Cleansing

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					Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Teat Skin as Affected
by Postmilking Teat Treatment When Exposed
to Cold and Windy Conditions
                                                                                              L. K. FOX
                                                               Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences
                                                                             Washington Stale University
                                                                                      Pullman 99164-6610

                                                                                         R. J. NORELL
                                                            Department of Animal and Veterinary Science
                                                                                     University of Idaho
                                                                                      Idaho Falls 83402
                   ABSTRACT                            12 solution treatment of study 1, but teats
      Study 1 was conducted to determine               were blotted dry prior to exit from the
  whether postmilking teat treatment with              milking parlor. No treatment was applied
  ointment before exposure to cold and                 to the other teats. Teat condition scores
  wind resulted in better skin health than             were similar between treatments, but S.
  standard teat treatment. Teat treatments             aureus colonization was significantly
  tested were 1% 12 and 10% glycerin,                  greater on control teats. Results indicate
  ointment with 1% chloroxylenol, oint-                a possible disadvantage to treating teats
  ment with .3% 8-hydroxyquinoline sul-                with ointments after milking, as evi-
  fate, and no treatment (control). Teats              denced by increased S. aureus coloniza-
  were treated 7 d prior to chapping. A                tion. The best postmilking teat treatment
  broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus               prior to exposure to cold, windy condi-
  was applied once to teats after chapping             tions may be blot-drying teats after disin-
  was established. Treatments were applied             fectant solution application.
  after millung and before sample collec-              (Key words: mastitis, Staphylococcus
  tion for 11 d following S. aureus appli-             aureus, teat chapping, inclement
  cation. Milk samples were collected                  weather)
  aseptically, teat skin swabbing solutions
  were collected, and teat condition was          Abbreviation key: BHI = brain-heart infu-
  scored. Cows were exposed to ambient            sion.
  winter conditions, and a wind velocity of
  152.4 d m i n was applied to the mam-                                INTRODUCTION
  mary gland surface for 15 min immedi-
  ately postmilking. Ointment and control            Healthy skin is soft and pliable and has an
  teats had significantly better skin condi-      endogenous acid mantel. The components of
  tion than teats treated with 12 solution.       the acid mantel are lactic acid, free fatty acids,
  Colonization of S. aureus was greatest          amino acids, and uric acid. The skin’s acid
  on ointment treated teats. Study 2 was          mantel is bacteriostatic and can retard the
  conducted to determine whether teat con-        growth of slun pathogens (8). Chapping of slun
  dition of cows receiving postmilking 12         removes the acid mantel (8) and makes teat
  solution treatments would be improved if        skin more prone to colonization by
  teats were blotted dry before exposure to       Staphylococcus aureus (2, 8). Colonization of
  wind and cold ambient conditions. Two           teat skin by S. aureus predisposes the cow to
  mammary quarters of each cow received           IMI by this pathogen (7). Thus, it is recom-
                                                  mended that dairy farmers make efforts to
                                                  reduce teat skin chapping.
  Received September IO. 1993.                       Keeping teat skin healthy can be a chal-
  Accepted January 27. 1994.                      lenge for dairy managers, especially during

1994 J D i y Sci 772281-2288
        ar                                     228 1
2282                                        FOX AND NORELL

inclement periods of the year. Dairy managers mercial skin ointment with 1% chloroxylenol
are encouraged to apply postmilking teat disin-
                                              (Frost Guard Plus? L and J Frost Guard, Abie,
fectant solutions (teat dips) to teats to aid in
                                              NE); 3) commercial slun ointment with .3%
control of mastitis, yet the disinfectant solution
                                              8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (Bag Balm; Dairy
can exacerbate chapping conditions. Disinfec- Association Co., Inc., Lydonville, VT); and 4)
tants themselves can imtate the skin (6). Thus,
                                              control, no postmilking teat disinfection. Fol-
teat dip manufacturers add skin conditioners, lowing the acclimation period, treatments were
humectants, and emollients, such as glycerin  suspended for 1.5 d (three milkmgs). Immedi-
and lanolin, which helps maintain teat skin   ately after the first two milkings following the
health during irritating conditions.          acclimation period, each teat was immersed in
   Some dairy managers choose to apply        an aqueous solution of 1N NaOH. After the
salves or creams during periods of harsh cli- third milking following the acclimation period,
matic conditions in place of postmilking teat each teat was immersed in a skim milk broth
dips (5). However, postmilking application of suspension of 5 x 106 cfu/ml of S. aureus
salves to chapped teats was more likely to    ATCC 19740. The skim milk broth culture
support S. aureus teat skin colonization than a
                                              was prepared as described (2). Briefly, a
postmilking teat treatment with a disinfectant4-h culture grown in brain-heart infusion @HI)
solution (I). Thus, salve application may not be
                                              broth (Difco Laboratories, Inc., Detroit, MI) at
advised after teats are chapped, although appli-
                                              37'C was centrifuged at 5'C, 1200 x g for 15
cation of a salve may have a prophylactic     min. Recovery of S. aureus from BHI broth
effect on teat slun before and during harsh   was decanted, and the bacterial pellet was
weather. The irritating nature of postmilking resuspended in sterile .01 M phosphate-
teat disinfectant solutions may interact with buffered saline solution, pH 7.4. Staphylococ-
inclement weather conditions to promote teat  cus aureus were washed twice, and centrifuga-
skin chapping (7). Additionally, application of
                                              tion and resuspension procedures were
a salve makes skin more pliable (10). Thus, the
                                              repeated. The final suspension was diluted to
hypothesis was that the application of a post-an optical density of .2 at 540 nm, approxi-
milking teat skin salve prior to exposure of  mately 1 x lo8 cfu/ml of S. aureus. A .2-ml
teats to harsh weather conditions would reduceportion of washed S. aureus was added to 3.8
the level of teat skin chapping compared with ml of skim milk broth.
application of a postmilking disinfectant solu-   Sample collection was initiated at the fourth
tion. Moreover, we hypothesized that the      millung following the acclimation period.
reduction of severity of chapped teat skin, asSample collections followed the morning milk-
affected by salve application, would be as-   ing and preceded the application of treatments,
sociated with increased resistance by the teatwhich were done as during the acclimation
                            .
skin to colonization by S aureus.             period. Solutions for swabbing teat skin were
                                              collected using a sterile .2% thiosulfate quench
           MATERIALS AND METHODS              solution for Bovadine@ and control treatment
                                              teats or a sterile 5% polysorbate, 1.5% egg
                                              lecithin quench solution for teats treated with
Study 1
                                              ointment (1). Swabbings were made by im-
   Twelve Holstein cows that were free of S. mersing a cotton-tipped stick in the quench
aureus IMI and teat skin colonization were in solution and then rotating the cotton tip on the
this trial during the winter months (November lateral side of the teat in a downward motion,
1991 through January 1992). All teats of all from the base of the udder to, but not includ-
cows were used. Cows were housed in a ing, the teat end. The teat end was swabbed
covered free stall. During a 1-wk acclimation using a separate cotton-tipped stick. Tips were
period, treatments were applied to each teat then placed in the respective quench solution
after milking (one treatment per teat). Cows containers and stored frozen for 1 to 7 d at
were milked twice daily. Treatments were 1) -5°C until laboratory analysis was made. Teat
commercial iodine (1% I2 plus 10% glycerin) ends were then scrubbed with a cotton pad
postmilking disinfectant solution (Bovadine@; soaked in a 70% ethanol solution. The first few
West Agro Inc., Kansas City, MO); 2) com- streams of milk were discarded, and milk was
Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77, No. 8. 1994
                   TREATMENT OF CHAPPED TEATS DURING WINTER WEATHER                                  2283

collected in sterile containers and frozen pend-     Study 2
ing analysis. Treatments were applied after              A second study was conducted to contrast
each milking such that they covered the sur-         the differences in teat skin colonization by S.
face of the teat. After treatment applications,      aureus and healing of chapped teat skin when
cows were exposed for 15 min to a household          teats were either blotted dry postmilking or not
box fan set on high and placed at a distance         treated postmilking. The blotting treatment
such that the air velocity at the rear of the        consisted of application of the iodine teat dip
mammary gland was measured at 152.4 m/               solution used in study 1 postmilking and, 1
min.                                                 min after application, use of a terry cloth towel
    Teat skin condition was scored before sam-       to blot excess dip from the teat. Eight Holstein
ple collection using the system described            cows that were free of S. aureus mammary
previously (2). Briefly, visual appraisal was        colonization and infection were used in this
made, and teats were scored on a four-point          study during January 1993. All mammary
scale; a score of 4 was indicative of a severely     quarters of all cows were used; two quarters
chapped teat with >75% of the teat skin af-          were randomly selected to receive the blot-dry
fected with ulcerative lesions. Scores of 3 and      treatment (treatment l), and the others received
2 were given to teat skin surfaces that were 50      no treatment and served as controls (treatment
and 25% affected by chapping and ulcerative
lesions and showed some healing. A score of 1        2).
                                                         As described in study 1, cows received
indicated that a teat was clinically normal and      postmilking treatments during the acclimation
devoid of lesions, chapping, and scabs.              period, teats were chapped and immersed with
    Milk samples and swabbing solutions were         S. aureus broth culture, teat skin was scored
thawed and warmed to ambient temperature             for condition, samples were collected and
just prior to bacteriologic culture. Milk sam-       treatments applied after chapping had been
ples were cultured using standard methodology        completed, and cows were exposed to wind.
(4), and swabbing solutions were cultured on         Samples were handled and analyzed, and
bovine blood and modified Baird-Parker agars         statistical analyses were completed as
as described (2). Colonies of Sraphylococcus         described for study 1.
aureus were identified by their growth charac-
teristics and coagulase production and then
                                                                           RESULTS
 were enumerated. If S. aureus was found in
 milk of 3 consecutive samples, then a teat wall
                                                     Study 1
 puncture milk sample was taken to determine
 whether isolation of S. aureus was a result of         The average ambient temperature during
 an IMI or orifice colonization (2). The barrel of   this trial was 2.8"C, and the average range was
 the teat was scrubbed with alcohol, and a           1.8 to 3.2"C. There were significant effects of
 27-gauge, 12.7-mm needle attached to a              day of trial on the number of S.aureus recov-
 1-ml syringe was used to puncture and collect       ered per milliliter of milk and from swabbing
 milk from the teat cistern. Milk from teat wall     solutions and on healing of teat skin (Table 1).
 punctures was plated as described. Presence of      The S. aureus counts and teat condition scores
 S. aureus in the teat wall puncture samples was     decreased linearly over time (Figures 1 to 4 .)
 interpreted to be an intramammary infection.        Concentration of S. aureus in milk for all
    Statistical calculations were done using the     treatments was significantly higher on d 1 to 3
 general linear models analysis of variance with     than on d 4 to 11 (f c .05; Figure 1). Although
 contrasts between means by Duncan's multiple        S. aureus was recovered from milk from most
 range test (9). Arithmetic means of teat score      quarters on most days, only one quarter be-
 condition and geometric means of S. aureus          came infected with S. aureus as determined by
 concentration in milk and swabbing solutions        teat wall puncture. This infected quarter
 were regressed against the effects of cow,          received treatment 2. The concentration of S.
 treatment, cow by treatment, day, and day by        aureus at the teat end for all treatments was
 treatment. The cow by treatment interaction         highest on d 1 and lowest on d 9 to 11 (f <
 was used as the error term to test the effects of    .05; Figure 2). The concentration of S. aureus
 treatment.                                          at the teat side for all treatments was highest
                                                               Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77, No. 8, 1994
2284                                                 FOX AND NORELL

                                                                -
                                                                E   3.5




                                                                     . 5 ~

                                                                6       0;
                                                                                                5      6
                                                                                                           ~




                                                                                                               7   8   9       10
                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                    I1
v)
                            DAY                                                  a                  DAY

    Figure 1. Mean loglo Staphylococcus uureus colony-              Figure 3. Mean loglo Staphylococcus uureus colony-
forming units per milliliter of milk over time. Treatments      forming units per milliliter of teat side swabbing solution
were treatment 1 (A), postmilking application of 1% io-         over time. Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmillung
dine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfectant solution; matment      application of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfec-
2 (+), postmilking application of skin ointment with 1%         tant solution; treatment 2 (+), postmilking application of
chloroxylenol; treatment 3 (*), postmilking application of      skin ointment with 1% chloroxylenol; treatment 3 (*),
skin ointment with .3% 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate; and,         postmilking application of skin ointment with .3%
treatment 4 @), no postmilking teat treatment. The stan-        8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate; and treatment 4 @), no post-
dard deviation of differences between treatments was .9         milking teat treatment. The standard deviation of differ-
log10 cfdml.                                                    ences between treatments was .8 loglo cfdml.



on d 1 and lowest on d 11 (P e .05; Figure 3).                  More S. aureus were recovered from skin of
Teat condition scores for all treatments were                   teats receiving treatments 2 and 3 than from
highest on d 1 and significantly lower on d 11                  skin receiving treatments 1 and 4 (Table 2).
(P e .05; Figure 4).                                                                        .
                                                                The effect of treatment on S aureus concentra-
   Type of treatment had a significant effect                   tion in milk and on teat condition score ap-
on the concentration of S. aureus recovered                     proached significance (P c .lo; Table 1). The
from teat skin swabbings (P e .01; Table 1).                    lowest S. aureus concentration in milk was




e .
ao.     -1    -
             . L  . .  .                 1   _
                                                                    0                        _____-_                       ~




3'       1      3 4  6  6
                            DAY
                                   7    8        9    l 0 - L           1    2       3   4      5
                                                                                                    DAY
                                                                                                       6       7   8   9       10       I1



    Figure 2. Mean loglo Staphylococcus uureus colony-
forming units per milliliter of teat end swabbing solution          Figure 4.Mean teat condition over time by treatment.
over time. Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmilking         Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmilking application
application of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfec-       of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfectant solution;
tant solution; treatment 2 (+), postmilking application of      treatment 2 (+), postmilking application of skin ointment
skin ointment with 1% chloroxylenol; treatment 3 (*),           with 1% chloroxylenol; treatment 3 (*), postmilking appli-
postmilking application of skin ointment with ,396              cation of skin ointment with .3% 8-hydroxyquinoline sul-
8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate; and treatment 4 @), no post-        fate; and treatment 4 p), no postmilking teat treatment.
milking teat treatment. The standard deviation of differ-       The loglo standard deviation of differences in chapping
ences between treatments was 1.0 loglo cfu/ml.                  scores between treatments was .3.

            ar
Journal of Diy Science Vol. 77, No. 8, 1994
                      TREATMENT OF CHAPPED TEATS DURING WINTER WEATHER                                            2285




    Figure 5 . Mean loglo Staphylococcus uureus colony-           Figure 7. Mean loglo Staphylococcus aureus colony-
forming units per milliliter of m l over time Treatments
                                 ik                           forming units per milliliter of teat side swabbing solution
were treatment 1 (A), postmilking application of 1% io-       over time. Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmilking
dine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfectant solution followed    application of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfec-
by blot-drying; and treatment 2 (+), no postmiking teat       tant solution followed by blot-drying; and treatment 2 (+I,
treatment. Standard deviation of differences between mat-     no postmilking teat treatment. The standard deviation of
ments was .4 loglo cfu/mI.                                    differences between treatments was .5 loglo c f d d .



associated with treatment 4. Treatment 1 teats                aureus recovered from swabbing solutions
were slowest to heal (Figure 4) and had the                   decreased significantly over time, as did teat
highest chapping score (Table 2). Day by treat-               skin score (Table 3; Figures 5 to 8). No true
ment interactions were not significant for de-                IMI were detected by teat wall puncture. Con-
pendent variables (Table l).                                  centration of S.aureus in samples was affected
                                                              by treatment type. Colonization of S. aureus
Study 2                                                       on the teat end and the teat side and the
                                                              presence of S. aureus in milk were signifi-
   The average ambient temperature during                     cantly greater on control teats (Table 4). How-
this trial was -2.7"C; the average range was                  ever, chapped teats healed equally well on both
-17.2 to 10.5"C. The concentration of S.                      treatments (Table 3; Figure 8).




     1    2   3   4   5   6    1    8   9   1   0   1   1         1    2    3     4    5    6     7    8    9    10    I1
                              DAY                                                          DAY

    Figure 6. Mean loglo Sraphylococcus aureus colony-
forming units per milliliter of teat end swabbing solution        Figure 8. Mean teat condition over time by treatment.
over time. Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmilking       Treatments were treatment 1 (A), postmilking application
application of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfec-     of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfectant solution
tant solution followed by blot-drying; and treatment 2 (+),   followed by blot-drying; and treatment 2 (+), no postmilk-
no postmilking teat treatment. The standard deviation of      ing teat treatment. The loglo standard deviation of differ-
differences between treatments was .7 loglo cfu/ml.           ences in chapping scores between treatments was :3.

                                                                      Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77, No. 8, 1994
2286                                               FOX AND NORELL
TABLE 1. General linear models analyses of variance of the effects of cow, treatment, and time after inception of study
(day) on recovery of Sfaphylococcus aureus from teat skin and milk and on rate of teat skin healing (condition score) in
study 1
                                                                 Dependent variable
                                  Number of                Number of              Number of
                                   S. aureus               S. aureus              S. aureus                Condition
                                    in milk'              on teat end'           on teat skin]               score
Independent
variable           df        ss        P   sP        ss         P S F       SS         P S F        SS         P S F
c o w (c)            I1       81.1         .ooO1     184.6        .ooO1      76.6        .ooO1      62.7         .o001
Treatment 0           3       13.1        ,0565       98.9        .ooO1      30.7        ,0076       6.9         ,0811
C x T2                        33        13.1                    70.8                   71.7                    31.1
Day (D)             10       123.6         .ooO1     420.1        .ooO1      194.0        .OOO1     33.0         .o001
D x T               30        15.0         ,5402      21.8        ,3985       12.2        ,5599      3.8         ,3135
Residual           440       231.1                   304                     190.7                  50.4
   'Loglo colony-forming units per milliliter of milk or swabbing solution.
   2Type I11 sums of squares of cow by treatment interaction was used as the error term to test the effects of treatment.
   3Probability that the F ratio is 51.



                     DISCUSSION                   trols. The opposite result occurred in the cur-
   Study 1 tested the hypothesis that continued   rent study. A possible explanation for this
postmilking application of a teat ointment prior discrepancy is the effect of cold air movement
                                                  on teats after postmilking treatment. Applica-
to the onset of conditions that were likely to
                                                  tion of a fluid to skin hastens chapping during
induce teat skin chapping would meliorate
                                                  cold and windy conditions. Thus, in spite of
against the effects of harsh events and, thus, be
                                                  the germicidal action of the iodine postmilking
associated with more rapid healing and teat disinfectant solution, which may have
reduced S. aureus colonization. Teats receiving been associated with accelerated healing (2),
postmilking teat treatment with iodine had the effects of cold air displacement on teats in
higher teat condition scores (Treatment 1) than this trial had a significant negative effect on
the teats receiving postmilking treatment with healing, and thus the teat skin chapping scores
the ointment (Treatments 2 and 3) (Figure 4; were greater than those of control teats. Al-
Table 2). However, the improved teat skin though treatment l had the highest chapping
condition of teats treated with ointment was scores, colonization of S. aureus on the skin of
not associated with resistance to colonization treatment 1 teats was no greater than that on
by S. aureus. The number of S. aureus recov- control teats. This result would suggest that
ered from the skin of the ointment-treated teat both application of a disinfectant and healthy
ends was greater than that recovered from teat teat skin are needed to reduce S. aureus coloni-
ends treated with iodine (Table 2; Figure 3). zation. Results of a cursory survey study sup-
The numbers of S. aureus on teat skin that port this suggestion (5). Herds that applied a
received postmilking application of an oint- postmilking teat skin ointment without a disin-
ment in a previous trial (1) was greater than on fectant had a greater proportion of their cows
the skin of teats treated with an iodine solu- with chapped teats during a period of extreme
tion, which is consistent with these findings. cold than those herds applying a teat skin
Thus, the emollient action of ointment may ointment with a disinfectant, herds applying a
have encouraged growth of S. aureus on the postmilking disinfectant solution and then blot-
teat skin or interfered with the germicidal ac- ting teats dry, and herds using no postmilking
tion of the active ingredients as observed with teat treatment.
teat dips based on oil ( ) 7.                         Teat ointments are used by dairy managers
   Fox et al. (2) reported that, after teats were during harsh climatic conditions (5). Intui-
chapped, an iodine postmilking teat dip ac- tively, the application of an ointment seems
celerated healing relative to the untreated con- most logical because an ointment blankets the

Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77. No. 8, 1994
                        TREATMENT OF CHAPPED TEATS DURING WINTER WEATHER                                          2287
TABLE 2. Mean' concentration of Sraphylococcus aureus in milk and swabbing solutions2 and mean teat condition score
by treatment.'
                               Treatment 1             Treatment 2              Treatment 3           Treatment 4
                               -
                               X            SD
                                                       -
                                                       X           SD
                                                                                -
                                                                                X           SD
                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                      X          SD
S. aureus
     ik
 In m l . loglo cfu/ml         1S a b        .96       I .8a       1.1          1.6ab       1.0       1.4b        .9
 At teat end, loglo cfu/ml     2.1b         1.2        3.1'        1.4          3.03        1.5       2.2b       1.2
 At teat side, loglo cfdml     1.7ab         .9        2.21        1.1          2.w         1.o       1.6b        .8
Teat condition score4          2.4a          .9        2.3b         .9          2.2b         .9       2.2b        .9
    'Means within a row not sharing the same superscript are significantly different (P e .05).
    2Sraphylococcur aureus colony-forming units per milliliter of m l or from teat skin swabbing solutions collected
                                                                   ik
from the side and end of the teat.
    )Treatment 1 = Postmilking application of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin teat disinfectant solution; treatment 2 =
postmilking application of skin ointment with 1% chloroxylenol; treatment 3 = postmilking application of skin ointment
with ,396 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate; and treatment 4 = no postmilking teat treatment.
    4Four-point teat condition score. from 4 = severe chapping to 1 = normal healthy skin




skin, reduces evaporative water loss, and thus                 control teats suggested that no treatment was
retains skin moisture, thereby preventing slun                 possibly a better postmilking strategy than ap-
desiccation (3). Results from this study, al-                  plication of an ointment. Results from study 1
though substantiating that ointments help to                   led to the hypothesis that application of a
accelerate healing during adverse climatic con-                postmilking teat disinfectant solution should be
ditions, indicate that postmilking ointment                    considered during periods of harsh climatic
                           .
treatment may enhance S aureus skin coloni-                    conditions, but only after ensuring that the
zation. However, application of a postmilking                  solution dries or is removed from teats before
disinfectant solution to teats presumably inter-               cows are exposed to the ambient conditions.
fered with healing during exposure to wind but                 Although in study 1 the control teats had better
reduced S. aureus slun colonization relative to                skin condition scores than dipped teats, in
the ointment treatments. The chapping scores                   study 2, the skin condition scores between
and S. aureus colonization associated with                     treatments were not different. Moreover,



TABLE 3. General linear models analyses of variance of the effects of cow, treatment, and time after inception of study
(day) on recovery of Sraphyfococcus aureus from teat skin and milk, and rate of teat skin healing (condition score) in
study 2.
                                                                  Dependent variable
                                   Number of               Number of                Number of
                                     .
                                   S aureus                S. aureus                 S. aureus            Condition
                                    in milk1              on teat end'             on teat skin1           score1
Independent
variable           df        ss         P   <F       ss         P S F         SS         P < F      SS        P < F
cow 0                7       10.4       .ooOI         24.7      .OOO1          27.1      .ooO1       36.9     .OOO1
Treatment (T)        1        3.1       ,0179         36.3      .0052          11.5      ,0071         .1     ,8178
C x T 3              7        2.3                     15.9                      5.7                   4.6
Day (D)             10       12.1       .0735         32.7      .OOO1          53.1      .ooO1      212.8     .ooO1
D x T               10         .76      .9304          8.7      .0662          10.1      .0021         .2     .9920
Residual           316       26.5                    156.4                    110.3                 281.9
   ILoglO colony-forming units per milliliter of milk or swabbing solution.
   2Probability that the F ratio is S l .
   3Type 111 sums of squares of cow by treatment interaction was used as the error term to test the effects of treatment.

                                                                         Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77, No. 8, 1994
2288                                              FOX AND NORELL

TABLE 4. Mean' concentration of Staphylococcus aureus          ting teats dry prior to cow exit and exposure to
in milk and swabbing solutions2 and mean teat condition        cold, windy conditions reduce S. aureus
score by treatment.3
                                                               colonization on teat skin. Results from this
                             Treatment 1 Treatment 2           study indicate that teat dip with 1 min of
                             -
                             X        SD
                                            -
                                            X       SD         contact time, followed by blotting teats dry
S. aureus                                                      before cows are exposed to cold windy condi-
 In milk, loglo cfdml          .3@    .43    .49a   .52        tions, is the recommended procedure for en-
 At teat end, loglo cfdml      .43*   .65   1.07b   .97        hancing teat skin condition and reducing S.
 At teat side, loglo cfdml     .34a   .58    .69b   .92
                                                               aureus colonization. However, these findings
Teat condition score4         2.593   .88   2.56.   .92        should be substantiated by those of studies
     'Means within a row not sharing the same superscript      employing commercial herds over longer peri-
are significantly different (P < .05).                         ods.
    ZStaphylococcus aureus concentration in swabbing so-
lutions taken from teat side or teat end.                                     ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
     3Treatment 1 = 1%/10% iodindglycerin teat disinfec-
tant solution applied postmilking and then blotted dry after      The authors thank Dot Newkirk and the
1 min; treatment 2 = no postmilking teat treatment.            KDC crew for their technical assistance. This
    4Four-point teat condition score, from 4 = severe chap-    project was supported in part by the United
ping to 1 = normal healthy skin.                               Dairymanagers of Idaho and the Washington
                                                               State Dairy Products Commission.

colonization of S. aureus on the teat skin and                                      REFERENCES
S. aureus concentration in the milk were sig-
nificantly lower for dipped teats than for the                   I Fox, L. K.       1992. Teat skin colonization by
                                                                   Staphylococcus aureus on chapped teals: effect of
controls (Figures 5 to 7; Table 4). Thus, the                      iodine and chlorhexidine postmilking disinfectant
findings of both studies suggest that use of a                     preparations. J. Dairy Sci. 7566.
disinfectant solution after milking, but blotting                2 Fox, L. K..J. A. Nagy, J. K. Hillers, J. D. Cronrath,
teats dry prior to cow exit, are strategies that                   and D. A. Ratkowsky. 1991. Effects on postmilking
                                                                   teat treatment on the colonization of S. aureus in
will ameliorate teat skin condition and reduce                     chapped teat skin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 52:799.
S. aureus colonization in cold, windy condi-                     3 Haliwell, R. E. 1986. Topical dermatologic therapy in
tions.                                                             theory and in practice. Neth. 1. Vet. Sci. 1 ll(Supp1. 1):
                                                                   765.
                                                                 4Harmon. R. J., R. J. Eberhart, D. E. Jasper, B. E.
                    CONCLUSIONS                                    Langlois, and R. A. Wilson. 1990. Microbiological
                                                                   procedures for diagnosis of bovine udder infection.
   In study 1, application of disinfectant oint-                   Natl. Mastitis Counc., Inc., Washington, DC.
ment to teat skin postmilking prior to and                       5 Norell. R. J.. and L. K. Fox. 1991. Postmilking
during exposure to cold windy conditions im-                       management on Idaho dairy farms during the winter
proved teat skin condition relative to postmilk-                   months J. Dairy Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):162.(Abstr.)
                                                                 6Ortonne. J. P. 1990. Skin cleansing: an important
ing teat dip, but not relative to the undipped                     problem in occupational dermatology. Wein. Med.
control. This result suggests that exposure of                     Wochensch. I7(Suppl. 1 0 0 1 9 .
teats to cold windy conditions after teat dip-                   7Pankey. J. W., J. Eberhart, A. L. Cuming. R. D.
                                                                                    R.
ping increases teat skin chapping relative to                      Daggett, R. J. Famsworth, and C. K. McDuff. 1984.
                                                                   Uptake on postmilking teat antisepsis. J. Dairy Sci.
ointment or no treatment. However, applica-                        67:1336.
tion of disinfectant ointments resulted in                       8 Raab. W. 1990. Skin cleansing in health and disease.
greater colonization of S. aureus on teat skin                     Wien. Med. Wochensch. 17(Suppl. 1 0 0 4 .
than dipping or no treatment. Thus, the use of                   9 SAS@ User's Guide: Statistics. Version 5 Edition.
ointments enhances growth of S. aureus on teat                      1985. SAS Inst., Inc.. Cary. NC.
                                                                IOSparavigna, A.. and M. Setaro. 1990. A new evalua-
skin, and improved teat skin conditions may be                     tion method of skin plastoelasticity. Page 295 in Re-
only of cosmetic benefit. However, data from                        cent Advances Skin Pharmacology and Toxicology C.
study 2 demonstrate that teat dipping and blot-                     L. Gulli. ed. Nato Adv. Study Inst.. Riva, Italy.




Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 77. No. 8. 1994

				
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Description: Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Teat Skin as Affected by Skin Cleansing