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ANIMAL REVIEW

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					ANIMAL REVIEW

  1. Sponges differ from the rest of the animals because
        a. they are completely sessile.
        b. they have radial symmetry and are suspension feeders.
        c. their simple body structure has no true tissues, and they have no symmetry
        d. they are not multicellular.
        e. they have no flagellated cells.

  2. A fly larva
         a. is a miniature version of the adult
         b. is transformed into an adult by molting
         c. ensures more genetic variation in the insect life cycle
         d. is a sexually immature organism morphologically different from the adult and specialized
              for eating and growth
         e. is all of the above

  3. Cephalization
        a. is the development of bilateral symmetry
        b. is the formation of a coelom by budding from the archenteron
        c. is a diagnostic characteristic of deuterostomes
        d. is common in radially symmetrical animals
        e. is associated with motile animals that concentrate sensory organs in a head region

  4. A true coelom
         a. has mesoderm-derived tissues extending from the dorsal and ventral sides that support
             internal organs
         b. allows organs to grow and move independently of the outer body wall
         c. is a fluid-filled cavity completely lined by mesoderm
         d. may be used as a skeleton by soft-bodied coelomates
         e. is all of the above

  5. Which of the following is descriptive of protostome development?
        a. radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
        b. spiral and indeterminate cleavage, coelom forms as split in solid mass of mesoderm
        c. spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, coelom from split in mass of
            mesoderm
        d. spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth, coelom from mesoderm
            outpockets
        e. radial and determinate cleavage, coelom from mesoderm outpockets, blastopore becomes
            anus

  6. Which of the following is not descriptive of a pseudocoelomate?
        a. a body cavity incompletely lined by mesoderm
        b. radial symmetry
        c. triploblastic
        d. true tissues
        e. formation of body cavity from split in mass of mesoderm

  7. Which of the following characteristics is found only in animals?
        a. homeobox-containing genes
        b. flagellated sperm
        c. heterotrophic nutrition
        d. Hox genes
           e. All of the above are exclusive animal traits

   8. The morphology-based and molecular-based phylogenetic trees agree in which of the following
      ways?
         a. the acoel flatworms as basal bilaterians
         b. sponges as basal animals, Eumetazoa as animals with true tissues, Bilateria as the clade
             that includes most animals
         c. sponges as the probable ancestor of animals
         d. the grouping of the segmented annelids and arthropods
         e. Deuterostomia as a monophyletic clade that includes chordates, echinoderms and
             brachiopods

MATCHING: Match the following organisms with their phylum and class or subphylum. Answers may
be used more than once or not at all.

Organism                       Phylum                          Class or Subphylum

9. jellyfish                   ________________                __________________
10. crayfish                   ________________                __________________
11. snail                      ________________                __________________
12. leech                      ________________                __________________
13. tapeworm                   ________________                __________________
14. cricket                    ________________                __________________
15. scallop                    ________________                __________________
16. tick                       ________________                __________________
17. sea urchin                 ________________                __________________
18. hydra                      ________________                __________________
19. planaria                   ________________                __________________
20. chambered nautilus         ________________                __________________

Phyla                                  Classes or Subphyla
A. Annelida                            a. Arachnida
B. Arthropoda                          b. Bivalvia
C. Cnidaria                            c. Cephalopoda
D. Echinodermata                       d. Cestoidea
E. Ectoprocta                          e. Crustacea
F. Mollusca                            f. Echinoidea
G. Nematoda                            g. Gastropoda
H. Silicea                             h. Hirudinea
I. Platyhelminthes                     i. Hydrozoa
J. Rotifera                            j. Insects (Hexopoda)
                                       k. Oligochaeta
                                       l. Scyphozoa
                                       m. Turbellaria

   21. Invertebrates include
          a. all animals except for the phylum Vertebrata
          b. all animals without backbones
          c. only animals that use hydrostatic skeletons
          d. members of the protostomes, but not of the deuterostomes
          e. all animals without an endoskeleton

   22. Which of the following is the best description of the sponges?
         a. no real symmetry, diploblastic, cnidocytes for capturing prey
        b.   radial symmetry, triploblastic, nematocysts
        c.   no real symmetry, without true tissues, choanocytes for trapping food particles
        d.   bilateral symmetry, pseudocoel, flame bulbs for excretion
        e.   bilateral symmetry, osculum and spongocoel for filtering water

23. Which of the following does not have a gastrovascular cavity for digestion?
      a. flatworm
      b. hydra
      c. polychaete worm
      d. sea anemone
      e. fluke

24. The basal group in clade Eumetazoa is
       a. Ectoprocta
       b. Lophophorates
       c. Platyhelminthes
       d. Calcarea and Silicea
       e. Cnidaria

25. Hermaphrodites
       a. contain male and female sex organs but usually cross-fertilize
       b. include sponges, earthworms and most insects
       c. are characteristically parthenogenic rotifers
       d. are both a and b
       e. are a, b and c

26. Which of the following is not true of cnidarians?
      a. An alternation of medusa and polyp stage is common in class Hydrozoa.
      b. They use a ring of tentacles armed with stinging cells to capture prey.
      c. They include hydras, jellyfish, sponges and sea anemones.
      d. They have a nerve net that coordinates contraction of microfilaments for movement.
      e. They have a gastrovascular cavity.

27. Which of the following combinations of phylum and characteristics is incorrect?
      a. Brachiopoda – lophophore, stalked, marine animals with hinged shells
      b. Rotifera – parthenogenesis, crown of cilia, microscopic animals
      c. Nematoda – gastrovascular cavity, tough cuticle, ubiquitous
      d. Annelida – segmentation, closed circulatory system, hydrostatic skeleton
      e. Echinodermata – radial anatomy in adults, endoskeleton, water vascular system

28. Which of the following is an excretory or osmoregulatory structure that is incorrectly matched
    with its class?
       a. metanephridia – Oligochaeta
       b. Malpighian tubules – Echinoidea
       c. flame cells – Turbellaria
       d. thin region of cuticle – Crustacea
       e. diffusion across the cell membranes – Hydrozoa

29. Torsion
       a. is embryonic rotation of the visceral mass that results in a U-shaped digestive tract in
            gastropods
       b. is characteristic of mollusks
       c. is responsible for the spiral growth of bivalve shells
       d. describes the thrashing movement of nematodes
           e. is responsible for the metamorphosis of insects

   30. Bivalves differ from other molluscs in that they
          a. are predaceous
          b. have no head and are suspension feeders
          c. have shells
          d. have an open circulatory system
          e. use a radula to feed as they burrow through sand

   31. The exoskeleton of arthropods
          a. functions in protection and anchorage for muscles
          b. is composed of chitin and cellulose
          c. is absent in millipedes and centipedes
          d. expands at the joints when the arthropod grows
          e. functions in respiration and movement

   32. Which of the following does not function in suspension feeding?
         a. lophophore of ectoprocts
         b. radula of snails
         c. choanocytes of sponges
         d. mucus-coated gills of clams
         e. crown of cilia of rotifers

   33. What do nematodes and arthropods have in common?
         a. They are both segmented?
         b. They are both pseudocoelomates.
         c. They include important members of plankton communities.
         d. They both have exoskeletons and undergo ecdysis (molting).
         e. Both a and d are correct.

   34. Which of the following structures is not associated with prey capture?
         a. chaetae of earthworm
         b. mandibles of centipedes
         c. cnidocytes of hydra
         d. tentacles of squid
         e. tube feet of sea star

   35. Many animals are parasitic. Which of the following is an incorrect description of one of these
       parasites?
          a. Ticks are bloodsucking parasites belonging to class Arachnida.
          b. Some roundworms (Nematoda) are internal parasites of humans.
          c. Lice are wingless ectoparasites in class Insecta.
          d. Flukes are flatworms and may have complex life cycles.
          e. Tapeworms are annelids that reproduce by shedding proglottids.

_____________________________       36.   invertebrate chordate group most closely related to craniates
_____________________________       37.   chordate group that includes lancelets
_____________________________       38.   blocks of mesoderm along notochord that develop into muscles
_____________________________       39.   clade of jawed vertebrates
_____________________________       40.   flap over the gills of bony fishes
_____________________________       41.   adaptation that allows reptiles to reproduce on land
_____________________________       42.   egg-laying mammals
_____________________________       43.   structure that help mammals ventilate their lungs
_____________________________       44.   group of primates that includes monkeys and apes
______________________________ 45. genus in which the fossil Lucy is placed

   46. Pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
          a. suspension-feeding devices
          b. gill slits for respiration
          c. components of the jaw
          d. portions of the inner ear
          e. mouth openings

   47. Which of the following is not a derived character of craniates?
         a. cranium or skull
         b. neural crest in embryonic development
         c. a mineralized endoskeleton
         d. heart with at least two chambers
         e. cephalization with sensory organs

   48. Which of these represents the oldest lineage of vertebrates?
         a. caecilians
         b. sharks and rays
         c. lancelet
         d. hagfishes
         e. lampreys

   49. Which of the following is in the lobe-fin clade?
         a. lampreys
         b. sharks and rays
         c. ray-finned fishes
         d. hagfishes
         e. tetrapods

   50. Which of the following is not in the same lineage as the others?
         a. lizards
         b. birds
         c. dinosaurs
         d. crocodilians
         e. pterosaurs

   51. Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its gas exchange mechanism?
         a. amphibians – skin and lungs
         b. lungfishes – gills and lungs
         c. reptiles – lungs
         d. bony fishes – swim bladder
         e. mammals – lungs with diaphragm to ventilate

   52. Non-bird reptiles have lower caloric needs than do mammals of comparable size because they
          a. are ectotherms
          b. have waterproof scales
          c. have a longer digestive tract and obtain more nutrients from their food
          d. move by bending their vertebral column back and forth
          e. have a more efficient respiratory system

   53. Which of the following best describes the earliest mammals?
         a. large, herbivorous
         b. large, carnivorous
          c. small, insectivorous
          d. small, herbivorous
          e. small, carnivorous

  54. Oviparity is a reproductive strategy that
         a. allows mammals to bear well-developed young
         b. is used by both reptiles and some sharks
         c. is necessary for vertebrates to reproduce on land
         d. is a necessity for all flying vertebrates
         e. protects the embryo inside the mother and uses the food resources of the egg

  55. In Australia, marsupials fill the niches that eutherians (placental mammals) fill in other parts of
      the world because
          a. they are better adapted and have outcompeted eutherians
          b. their offspring complete their development attached to a nipple in a marsupium
          c. they originated in Australia
          d. they evolved from monotremes that migrated to Australia about 65 million years ago
          e. after Pangaea broke up, they diversified in isolation from eutherians

  56. Which of the following is closely associated with language development?
        a. four clusters of Hox genes
        b. gene duplication involving Dix genes
        c. reduced sexual dimorphism and postnatal care
        d. FOXP2 gene
        e. shorter hinged jaws and a hole in the skull behind each eye socket through which jaw
            muscles pass

  57. Which of the following is an incorrect statement concerning human evolution?
        a. Homo sapiens is the only surviving member of a highly branched evolutionary tree.
        b. Erect posture preceded the enlargement of the brain in human evolution.
        c. The key differences between chimpanzees and humans appear to involve duplications of
            Hox genes.
        d. H. sapiens first evolved in Africa and later dispersed to other regions.
        e. The rapid expansion of H. sapiens may be tied to the evolution of human cognition,
            including symbolic thought, language, and complex tool construction.




ANSWERS

  1.    c
  2.    d
  3.    e
  4.    e
  5.    c
  6.    b
  7.    d
  8.    b
  9.    C l
  10.   B e
  11.   F g
  12.   A h
  13.   I d
14.   B j
15.   F b
16.   B a
17.   D f
18.   C i
19.   I m
20.   F c
21.   b
22.   c
23.   c
24.   e
25.   a
26.   c
27.   c
28.   b
29.   a
30.   b
31.   a
32.   b
33.   d
34.   a
35.   e
36.   Urochordata (tunicates)
37.   Cephalochordata
38.   somites
39.   gnathostomes
40.   operculum
41.   amniotic egg
42.   monotremes
43.   diaphragm
44.   anthropoids
45.   Australopithecus
46.   a
47.   c
48.   e
49.   e
50.   a
51.   d
52.   a
53.   c
54.   b
55.   e
56.   d
57.   c

				
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