Active Learning - Download as PowerPoint by fionan

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									              Active Learning

Summer 2002        Penny Haun
              Active Learning

is a multi-directional learning experience
  in which learning occurs


and student-to-student.

Summer 2002        Penny Haun
         Active Learning involves
• activity-based learning experiences: input,
  process, and output. These activity-based
  experiences take many shapes such as
  whole class involvement, teams, small
  groups, trios, pairs, individuals.

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
      Activity-based experiences
take many forms talking, writing, reading,
  discussing, debating, acting, role-playing,
  journaling, conferring, interviewing,
  building, creating, and the list continues.

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
   Active Learning is accomplished
   through innumerable strategies.
• Considering all shapes and forms of activity-
  based experiences, Active Learning is
  accomplished through innumerable strategies. In
  his book, Mel Silberman presents 101 concrete
  strategies with variations on each. This
  presentation demonstrates a few Active
  Learning strategies to help you get started and
  stimulate your thinking about creating your own
  strategies that work for you, your students, your
  course content.
Summer 2002           Penny Haun
Active Learning is one of the seven

    established in "Seven principles of Good
    Practice in Undergraduate Education"
    (1987, AAHE Bulletin). In The Seven
    principles in Action, Susan Rickey Hatfield,
    editor, David G. Brown and Curtis W.
    Ellison explain:

Summer 2002          Penny Haun
              HOW as well as WHAT
• "Active Learning is not merely a set of activities,
  but rather an attitude on the part of both
  students and faculty that makes learning
  effective The objective of Active Learning is to
  stimulate lifetime habits of thinking to stimulate
  students to think about HOW as well as WHAT
  they are learning and to increasingly take
  responsibility for their own education." (p 40)

Summer 2002            Penny Haun
    Mel Silberman contrasts Active
     Learning and memorization:

"real learning is not memorization. Most of
  what we memorize is lost in hours.
  Learning can't be swallowed whole. To
  retain what has been taught, students
  must chew on it."

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
              Repeated Exposures
• Silberman explains that learning comes "in
  waves" through repeated exposures of
  different kinds involving multiple senses.
  "When learning is active, the learner is
  seeking something an answer to a
  question, information to solve a problem,
  or a way to do a job."

Summer 2002          Penny Haun
       Active Learning Strategies
• Many Active Learning strategies involve
  collaboration with peers, providing a
  secure environment for growth and
  exploration of ideas. "What a student
  discusses with others and what a student
  teaches others enable him or her to
  acquire understanding and master
  learning." (Silberman, p6)

Summer 2002        Penny Haun
        Why use Active Learning
    strategies to teach any subject?
•   Active Learning leads to effective and efficient teaching and learning.
    The diagrams on the next slides help to further illustrate Active Learning's research-proven effectiveness:

• Dale's Cone
  Dale's Cone diagrams effectiveness of learning according to the
  media involved in learning experiences. The chart illustrates the
  results of research conducted by Edgar Dale in the 1960s.
  According to Dale's research, the least effective method, the top of
  the cone, involves learning from information presented through
  verbal symbols, i.e., listening to spoken words. The most effective
  method, the bottom of the cone, involves direct, purposeful learning
  experiences, such as hands-on or field experiences.

Summer 2002                                         Penny Haun
Summer 2002   Penny Haun
              Learning Pyramid

The Learning Pyramid charts the average retention
  rate for various methods of teaching. These
  retention percentages represent the results of
  research conducted by National Training
  Laboratories in Bethel, Maine. According to the
  chart, lecture, the top of the pyramid, achieves
  an average retention rate of 5%. On the opposite
  end of the scale, the "teach others/immediate
  use" method achieves an average retention rate
  of 90%.

Summer 2002          Penny Haun
Summer 2002   Penny Haun
    Active Learning increases the

   and efficiency of the teaching and learning
   process. Teachers want students to leave a
   class with knowledge and or skills they did not
   have when they began the class. Months later,
   teachers want those same students to retain the
   learning, apply it to new situations, build upon
   that learning to develop new perspectives, and
   continue the learning process.

Summer 2002            Penny Haun
        Please pause 3 minutes and

   This level of learning, resulting in retention
   and transfer, occurs most efficiently
   through concrete activity-based
   experiences. Why? Some answers are….

Now continue!

Summer 2002           Penny Haun
              Sensory Learning
• Active Learning involves input from
  multiple sources through multiple senses
  (hearing, seeing, feeling, etc.).

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
              Critical Thinking
• Active Learning involves process,
  interacting with other people and
  materials, accessing related schemata in
  the brain, stimulating multiple areas of the
  brain to act.

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
              Publish Responses
 Active Learning involves output, requiring
  students to produce a response or a
  solution or some evidence of the
  interactive Learning that is taking place.
  Online environments provide easy ways to
  instantly publish to a wide audience.

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
     Active Learning and Passive
         Learning Contrasted
• Active learning may be contrasted with passive learning as:
• Less emphasis on information dispensing.
• More emphasis on active engagement with the stimulus material.

• Less emphasis on memorization.
• More emphasis on higher order thinking.

• Less emphasis on knowledge alone.
• More emphasis on what students can do with the knowledge.

• Less emphasis on passive acceptance of a prescribed value
• More emphasis on discovering and developing own values.

Summer 2002                  Penny Haun
          Get Ready to Pause…..
• For an Interactive Game!
• After the next slide,
• Eject the video for five minutes, while we
• Think, Pair, Share: Two sides of the same

Summer 2002        Penny Haun
    Think, Pair, Share: Two sides of
            the same coin!
• In groups of two brainstorm active learning
  strategies that you think might not work in
  an online environment……
• Then flip the mental coin and come up
  with ways in which you MIGHT be able to
  use that strategy in an online environment.
• For example: A Field trip to the zoo
• Coin flip: Virtual field trip to the National
  Zoo. (After 5 minutes, continue video)
Summer 2002                Penny Haun
        Active Learning Strategies
         for Online environments:
• Brainstorming is a good technique for
  generating ideas quickly. When
  conducted properly, it stimulates fresh
  ideas and enables participants to break
  loose from fixed ways of responding to

Summer 2002        Penny Haun
• Games often promote rich discussion
  as participants work hard to prove their
  point. However, games can also
  promote competition, so remind
  participants of the group rules prior to
  the game.

Summer 2002       Penny Haun
• Mini-lectures offer a concise way to
  provide necessary background
  information, research findings, and
  motivational examples. Just remember
  to keep it brief!
• Virtual Professor
• Merlot
Summer 2002       Penny Haun
              Small Group Work
• Small group work allows every
  participant the chance to speak, share
  personal views, and develop the skill of
  working with others. These sessions
  are most effective when participants
  have time to reflect on what they
  learned or experienced, and when the
  facilitator draws out the key points of
  the activity.
Summer 2002         Penny Haun
         Cooperative Group Work
• Cooperative group work requires all
  group members to work together to
  complete a given task. Members have
  the opportunity to develop a variety of
  interpersonal and small-group social
  skills, including the ability to lead,
  develop trusting relationships, make
  decisions, resolve conflicts, and
  communicate effectively.
Summer 2002       Penny Haun
              Role Playing
• Role-playing is a method of acting out
  an imaginary, but real-life situation. It is
  an excellent strategy to use when the
  facilitator wants participants to try out
  new behaviors, understand how
  another person might react to a given
  situation, and/or take risks with new
  ways of behaving, without fear of
  failure or negative consequences.
Summer 2002         Penny Haun
              Case Studies
• Case studies—real-life stories that describe
  in detail what happened to a community,
  family, school, or individual—provide the
  opportunity for participants to consider the
  forces that converge to make an individual or
  group act in one way rather than another and
  to evaluate the consequences.

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
                 Field Trips
•   Virtual Tours
•   Individually conducted, then group shared
•   Or follow up team work
•   Scavenger Hunts

Summer 2002          Penny Haun
• Simulations are activities structured to feel
  like real experiences. In simulations
  exercises, participants are asked to imagine
  themselves in a situation, or play a
  structured game or activity that enables them
  to experience a feeling that might occur in
  another setting.,

Summer 2002         Penny Haun
• Portfolio Assessment
• On-line journaling, online quizzes:
• Webct
• Blackboard
• Rubrics:
Summer 2002                  Penny Haun
   Policies for Online Instruction
• Give very clear and specific instructions.
• Allow time for asynchronous interaction, taking
  into account students in varying time zones.
• Be specific about deadlines for feedback,
  including the date, time of day, and time zone.
• Take advantage of the diverse options for
  interacting electronically, i.e., email, threaded
  discussion, attachments, class folders and drop

Summer 2002            Penny Haun
              Let’s Get Active
• In creating Active Learning Online!
• Step #1: Take a distance learning course
• Or try an online tutorial.
• Step#2: Use or
  geocities or angelfire and enhance part of
  your coursework with an online support
• Step#3: Add one or more active learning
  online strategies to your existing course.
Summer 2002         Penny Haun
               Final Step
• Never stop learning and evolving your
  coursework to meet student needs.
• Technology’s role in instruction will
  increase as it meets the diverse needs of
  a diverse population of learners.

• The Beginning!
Summer 2002        Penny Haun

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