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                  MEDAYESE FELIX JIMOH,,,
 , +2348036924588
                     SAINTS’ ACADEMY
                      PLATEAU STATE

                       JANUARY, 2010

Many authors have written on the use and effectiveness of instructional

materials or teaching aids to enhance teaching for desired social and

behavioural change. More specifically, it was emphasised that the use of

instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behaviuor of learners of

every field. i.e a prerequisite, requirement or an essential condition. It is

necessary to note that teaching aids are important catalysts of social re-

engineering and change in learners. It is obvious that effective instructions

cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials. The

reason is not far-fetched: advances in technology have brought instructional

materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as

the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have

affected the classroom teaching-learning situation positively. Such

technological breakthroughs as networked and non-networked; projected and

non-projected; visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic materials are

important landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and

learning become very pleasant experiences.

      Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make

them unique in teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with

interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they
motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing

opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and

curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Further, the teacher is assisted in

overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective

presentation of a given topic. They generally make teaching and learning

easier and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalysts of social

and intellectual development of the learners.

      Bolick (2003) pointed to a good relationship between effective

teachings and using of instructional materials. He argued that “. . . while

some educators have been fascinated by the potential of instructional

materials to enhance teaching and learning, teachers lagged behind in using

instructional materials during teaching and learning. Others expressed

doubts that instructional materials will ever incite teaching reform in social

studies”. Instructional materials are integral components of teaching-

learning situations; it is not just to supplement learning but to complement

its process. It is then shows that, if there must be an effective teaching-

learning activity, utilization of instructional materials will be necessary.

      Ema & Ajayi (2004) assert that, “teaching equipment and materials

have changed over the years, not only to facilitate teaching learning situation

but also to address the instructional needs of individuals and groups”.
Instructional materials are made up of objects such as printed, audio, visual

that aid in the successful delivery of lesson (Chuba 2000:101). To this end,

instructional materials are said to be objects or things the teacher can use in

the classroom while teaching in order to ease off his teaching activities.

However, instructional materials cannot address all the teaching-learning

problems but it can go a long way in solving them, simply because, they are

additional apparatus that can influence the reality of teaching and learning


       Joof (1995:85) explained that, “the concept of teaching aids has gone

through several evolutionary stages from the simple aids, instructional

technology, media to communication and educational technology”. This

however, tells us that instructional materials are not just objects or

equipments used during teaching-learning process but there those objects

improvised by the teacher to make conceptual abstraction more concrete and

practical to the learners. Instructional materials are the relevant materials

utilized by a teacher during instructional process for the purpose of making

the contents of the instructions more practical and less vague.

“Instructional media today are very gradually finding their ways into the

classrooms where modern and versatile teachers are exploring new ways of

transferring learning to the younger generation the use of prints, visualsand
audios or various combination of these trios make up all we have in

instructional media. instructional     media therefore are the information

dissemination devices made up of prints radio picture including films,

movies, photographs, etc, used in the classroom for an easy transfer of

learning” {Orakwe 2000:112}.

      Ema & Ajayi (2006) opined that, “without the teacher who is

knowledgeable, instructional materials cannot create change and progress

the only time it begins to make impact is when the teacher begins to make

use of it and allows it to take over its values”. This portrays the professional

attributes of the teacher and general knowledge or his creativity selecting,

develop and use instructional materials effectively. Effective communication

is usually the result of a careful selection of the appropriate medium or

combination of media available by an effective teacher. This is to ensure the

transmission of message from one source to another by the use of form or

illustration that seems desirable and depict the real situations of the

audience. It is referred to as the interaction of an individual or group with the

environment through all the senses. The practical justification is that it is an

instrument for accelerating the pace of all human transformation, to shake-

off inertia in a people, achieve mobilisation and direct their productive

forces in improving their living condition. This is also to show the relevance
of teaching as a profession and the impact of a teacher in influencing the

future development and growth of a learner. Teaching and Learning

Materials design, production and their use facilitate the teaching and

learning outcomes. However, the success of using the teaching aids to meet

the teaching objectives demands effective use and communication skills of

the teacher to satisfy instructional delivery.


Different types and variety of teaching aids or Instructional materials are

available to be used in teaching any subject effectively. However, it is not all

topics that require the same type and quantity of materials. As far as

educational instructions is concerned. These materials could be purchased,

locally made or improvised, imported from other countries when necessary

for the effective instructional delicery.

      Adekeye (2008) summarized instructional materials available for

instruction into four major categories: Visual aid-these include pictures,

maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, chalkboard, sketches, atlas and painting;

Audio visual     aids-television, computer programmes, film trips, video

recording and projectors; Auditory aids-audio recordings, radios, records or

cassette tapes, music and Printed materials-Encyclopedias, textbooks,

magazines, journals, newspapers, pamphlets novels poems , simulation
games, government records and publications almanacs, biographic, editorial

cartoons and case studies.

      Notable criteria abound in literature on the taxonomical basis of

instructional media. such criteria for classifying instructional materials or

teaching aids include the degree of expertise/technical skills needed for

production, nature of materials, physiological parameter           or sensory

modality, whether or not projection is involved, place the material is

produced, and miscellaneous characteristics. In terms of degree of expertise,

we have high technology materials such as computers, TV, internet, etc., and

low technology materials such as pictures, globes, printed (such as

textbooks), and non-printed materials such as radio. On the basis of

physiological parameters, we talk of the particular sensory modality of the

learner, and thus classify instructional materials into auditory, visual, audio-

visual, tactile, olfactory, gustatory, and kinesthetic materials. Visual

materials appeal to the sense of vision (the eye), such as still pictures.

Auditory materials appeal to the sense of hearing (the ears), such as radio,

while audio-visual materials appeal to both senses of hearing and vision,

such as the television. Tactile materials appeal to the sense of touching (the

skin), such as the Braille, while olfactory materials appeal to the sense of

smell (the nose), such as some chemical specimen. Gustatory materials
involve the sense of taste (the tongue), such as sample foods; while

kinesthetic materials involve sense of muscular coordination (the muscles)

with game materials, such as football as the media example.

      I shall not over-labor the general typology of instructional materials in

education but in the cause of this discussion, I will like to summarize the

kinds and categories of teaching aids and instructional materials used in

effective delivery of instructions under the following categories:

         1. Projected and electronic materials.

         2.   Non-projected materials.

        3.    Phenomenal and manipulative materials

2.    Projected and electronic materials

      Projected and electronic materials are forms of media which could be

visual, audio and audio-visual in nature that requires projection and

electricity in their using process for teaching and learning situation.

Projected and electronic media can further categorize into: Film/film

projectors, video cassette / video Disc machines, tape recorders/recordings;

radio, slide projectors, overhead transparencies/overhead projectors, opaque

projectors (Episcope) and computer instructional system.

      The computer has now been found to be the most suitable, and

versatile medium for individualized learning because of its immense
capacity as a data processor, using for different games for the children. And

can perform numerous mathematical and logical operations without any

intervention by men. Computer as an instructional material is used in many

ways for effective instructional delivery, such as mass instruction, group

learning, individualized instructions, and computer conferencing system

among others. Nwoji (2002) acknowledge three broad ways by which

computer contributed to teaching and learning situations. And these are mass

instruction, individualized instruction and group learning.

      The computer technology has made it possible for teachers and

students to avail themselves of internet facilities. Websites abound where

instructors and learners can visit in order to obtain needed information.

Efficient teachers of higher learning have effectively impacted their students

by referring them to designated websites where they received instructions.

Many libraries are now going on-line with the effect that learners and

researchers can visit them electronically by means of computers instead of

having to go physically to such centers. This is highly innovative.

2.    Non-projected materials.

      Ughamadu (1992 in Anyanwu 2003) assert that, non-projected

materials are those materials that do not require any form of projection

before they can be utilized. Non-projected materials are different forms of
instructional materials or teaching aids that required not the process of

projection before its operation can take place. These could include the

following, textual and non-textual, chalkboard, magnetic broad/ soft/board

flip-chart, specimen, models etc. Textual materials and non-textual materials

refer respectively to all the print and non-print materials that are used by the

teachers and learners for instructional process. The print materials are the

textbooks, magazines, periodicals, journals, and newspapers, among others

while the non-print materials includes. Charts, chalkboard, radio television,

films videotapes, audiotapes, relia, festivals and games Esu, (2004)

expressed that together they assist the students in acquiring clear concepts of

subject matter they are also students’ best single academic friends. Moreover

they can provide security for the unprepared teacher and an escape hatch for

one who is instructing outside his field of specialization.

      Specimens are the real object or things a teacher can use for effective

teaching of social studies concepts. It makes social studies teachers’ work

easier and more participatory. These are objects like traditional wears,

minerals, rocks, plants etc. all these help the learners to see, touch, small

(where necessary) and handle physically which give brim real natural

experiences in learning.

3.    Phenomenal and manipulative materials
      These teaching aids or instructional materials are majorly community

based resources that, promote the teaching-learning of moral values and

cultural activities of the leaners. Phenomenals are instructional situations

such as events, things, features, settings, festivals resource persons and other

community resources that are directly apprehended by the learner at their

natural setting. They help to bring the learners in direct contact with learning

experiences that far transcend volumes of recorded literature and weeks of

sermonization. Despite the fact, of these positive ends, field trips and

schools journeys that normally bring learners into contact with the

phenomenals are underutilized because of time, finance, knowledge of the

teacher, inflexibility of the school timetable and other infrastructural

problems. Effective teachers are expected to explore and widely utilize the

phenomenals because these can stimulate aesthetic talents, promote, tactile

stimulus and enhances identification and attachment not only with nature but

also with the particular learning situation that they facilitate socialization

process. These classes of teaching aids or instructional materials deal mostly

with the affective domain but do not preclude the psychomotor and the

cognitive domains.

      Manipulative materials are instructional materials that, the learners

actually handle skillfully, deal with, and manage expertly to bring about the
desired behavioural changes. They are important for the development of skill

in professional training (Esu 2004). They promote complete mastery of the

content materials and the specific objectives. They also form part of both the

instructional and performance evaluation. The greatest significant of these

materials is that, without them (or their upraised) neither the required

leaning nor objectives evaluation can be adhered. Manipulative materials

express the channel through which the required learning takes place. They

cut across all aspects of skills development and mastery learning. These

materials are vital for effective instructional delivery because such skills as

communication,     tolerance,   patience,   and   assertiveness   are   easily

demonstrated, leant and observed through instructional games. They are

embedded in card and board games that have specific instructional values in

order to enhance basic and logic reasoning amongst learners.


                             TEACHING AIDS

The preceding discussion had shown that there are many teaching aids from

various sources. It is therefore very important, of a professional teachers to

note and bear in mind that every instructional materials has its definite

unique strength in teaching-learning situation that properly cannot be

replicated by the use mother. It is necessary to note that through effective
communication, better teaching and faster learning can only be facilitated or

guaranteed by careful selection and skillful utilization of appropriate

instructional materials by the users. However, availability of the

instructional materials, teacher’s experience, terms of preference and the

volume of instructions should constitute intrinsic consideration in their

selection decision. Despite of that fact, the following principles should guide

an effective teacher in the selection of teaching aids:

i     Instructional tasks; The behavioral objectives, contents, learning

activities, evaluation instruments and techniques as element of instructional

tasks, should be taking into cognizance by an effective teacher in the

selection and development of teaching aids.

ii    Target audience attributes; These consists the learners’ features and

their level of understanding, their developmental stages such as age, sex,

physical skills, attitude towards self and others, the learners experiences,

social-economic background should be considered.

iii   The    economy;      The   available      resources,    financial   factors

technological advancement, economic climate of               society where the

materials should be operated, the socio-cultural level of the materials users,

degree of urbanization, feasibility and acceptability of the selected teaching

aids or instructional materials are equally considered in the selection and
development decision.

iv    Dynamic variables; These variables constitute the concentration and

size of the target audience, the desired level of learners response and

participation, the classroom social climate, sitting, viewing and listening

arrangement, available time, space, teacher competence among others are to

be seriously considered in the selection decision and development.

v     The environmental factors; These consists the educational

community and the available educational infrastructure. Such as people,

facilities, equipped library, workshops, laboratories, electricity, water supply

and personnel should equally be considered in the selection and


Bozimo (2002) posited the following criteria in the selection of teaching

aids or instructional materials:

(i) Appropriateness of the materials to instructional objectives;

(ii) Freedom of the content from bias,

(iii)Degree of the quality variety of the materials,

(iv)Quality of the format, print, sound or photography,

(v) Availability of the materials to clarify objectives of and how to operate

the materials,

(vi)How reasonable the time, effort and expenses are for both the students
and the teachers

       Kissock (1981:86-87 in Bozimo 2002:39-40) also poses some

questions that will assist a teacher in the selection and application of

teaching aids or instructional materials. These questions are as follows:

(i) Do the materials fit within the planned rationale and scope of the


(ii) Will there use help ensure alignment of objectives created for this


(iii)Are they compatible within the teaching strategies selected?

(iv)Do they offer the content which is important for achieving the


(v) Are they languages and vocabularies appropriate for the studies’ reading


(vi)Are there any harmful ethnic, religious, social, sexual or racial biases in

the materials?

(vii)Are they well made?

(viii)Is the cost appropriate and affordable?

(ix)Will they be useful for the length of time desired?

(x) Will teachers find the materials easy to use?

(xi)Will students be interested in making use of them?
(xii)Are they factually correct?


                     INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Utilization judges the value of teaching aids, process or personnel by the

degree they singly or collectively satisfy the derived instructional needs. The

foresight instructional behavior controls, to a large extent, the means for

achieving them. Teaching aids are not ends in themselves but means of

attaining specific instructional functions. Teachers ability to effectively

utilize the available media and this optimize the attainments of instructional

situation varies with their level of utilization. However, once materials have

been selected, careful preparation comes first by the user and other

subsequent preparation.

Anyanwu (2003) identify three ways by which the teacher should prepare for

the use of teaching aids, these are: By previewing before they brought to the

class, the teacher has to have a first knowledge by using it him/herself before

the class, first knowledge-the teacher should have a full knowledge of the

parts, names operational level of the intended instructional materials and

Actual presentation-this is the period the teacher operates and uses these

materials in instructing the children.

The following however, are the basic guidelines and requirement for
utilization and use of instructional materials in effective instructional


Specification-of objectives: clear objectives which are behaviorally stated

are user ring guides in teaching aids using process, they direct the sequence,

methods, content and techniques of instructional processes. They provide

scientific   basis   of   valid   evaluation   instruments   construction   and


Maximal fit with instructional tasks: Teaching aids must be appropriate to

situationally determined and individually responsive

Preparation and preview: For effective and successful use of teaching for

proper teaching-learning situation, the teacher must in advance prepare

himself, the learners and the environment, the materials as a matter of must

should be previewed by the teacher in order to follow its process of

presentation sequentially.

Multi-dimensional presentation: Proper and creative use of a variety of

instructional materials or teaching aids at different level of lesson planning

can be adequate in achieving various instructional objectives, reason because

it will enrich variety of learners mind as they attain better goals more easily

than with the use of a single medium

Environmental situation: The environmental variables such as physical
cultural and social in which the teaching aids are utilized for learning have

significant effect on their effectiveness. Sound-motion films for instance

with their attention-complexly properties can be successfully presented in

less quiet environment.

Measure for outcomes teaching aids should be evaluated in terms of their

suitability, practicability to the instructional objectives, appeal to the cost

effectiveness, learner achievement level, consistency with content call for

improvement in utilization techniques etc.


It has been identified that, using teaching aids to facilitate learning or

instructions is not always the issue but how to use it and it availability to

use. Basing our discussion on foreign experience, teaching aids are available

in large quantity “the increased quality and quantity of teaching aids, are

producing a slit from the traditional audio visual aids approach to the more

comprehensive and efficient learning resource concepts”.

      “Most teacher will agree that during the last decades the quality of

instructional resource, including text-books has greatly improved, but with

qualitative changes and a rapidly multiplying supply of available materials,

the teachers problem of selection has grown increasingly acute” (Arudorf

1969:278) “ instructional materials in great qualities are being placed in
school at an ever increasing rate. The teachers problem today, than, is not

the lack of materials, but how to make the best instructional use of those

available to him”. (Jarolinek 1971) Unfortunately, teaching aids or

instructional materials especially with the modern innovation are grossly

lacking and faced with a lot of problems in its use by teachers. Some of the

revealing problems in the foregoing include:

      (1) Teachers’ Professional knowledge and technical know how:

Since educational communication and technology is a fairly new area of

importance in education especially in developing communities like Nigeria,

it is a lightly technical field, and to understand how it can affect the

instructional delivery, one first has to understand the operational

functionality of the resource kits. As much as materials differ in terms of

technical components, design and set-up, they also differ in terms of

functionality. Same are multi-dimensional; capable of various functions such

as giving logical out comes, manipulating information etc.

      In developing communities today, the whole idea and its

implementation is still strange to a larger percentage of the population, even

those who know about it know very little of its capabilities and operational

functionalities. However, this is light at the end of the tunnel with more

people becoming aware of the contributions and methods of applying
teaching aids has come to mean so much to classroom practices and any

educational context. Without, the teacher who is knowledgeable enough,

teaching aids cannot create change and progress. Teachers knowledge have a

great impact on the effective application of teaching aids or instructional

materials, this is because the teacher uses need to understand the sequential

presentation of the instructional gadgets so as to suit the interests of the

learners and it appropriateness with the instructional tasks.

      Amedeker (2005) cited by Ololube (2007) Inadequate teacher

preparation programmes cause the majority of teachers’ inability to

demonstrate adequate knowledge and understanding of the structure,

function and development of their disciplines. Therefore, an effective

teacher education programme is a prerequisite for a reliable education

system which lends confidence to both teachers and students when learning

is coordinated effectively and professionally.

      For instance, a teacher who is not computer literate would find it

difficult to apply its operation even when and where found necessary, or

even if the teacher has a partial knowledge of the operational function of the

materials. The materials might be wrongly used thereby creating a wrong

impression for the audience or the students.

      (2) Environmental factors
Part of the application of teaching aids or instructional materials process is

the target population for whom the materials are to be used and the setting or

vicinity where the learning should take place, the degree of satisfaction

derived by children in respect to comfortability of environment of that

learning situation is a great deal. For instance teaching versatility of social

studies content in a very remote area where there is no availability of

electricity and probably part of the contents may require projected materials,

this will come to be very difficult learning to accomplish.

      (3) Time constraints:

Time, is also a serious problem or factor that impede the effective use of

instructional materials in effective instructional delivery in the class, because

in most cases the time that is allotted for a subject on the timetable might not

be enough for the teachers to present his contents alongside with effective

use of the materials which will affect the wholesome delivery of the content.

      (4) Financial Constraints:

This factor seems to be the handicap why most educational institutions are

unable to acquire relevant teaching equipments and materials. It has also

adversely affected the quantity and quality of tinning and these products-

students and teachers will lack the opportunity to learn and use new

techniques in the field. There are sophisticated teaching aids or instructional
materials that can make learning easier and faster such as computer-aided

programme but lack of funds has effects on its importation and use in

schools. The unsatisfactory funding for teacher education programmes

stands as one of the major factors working against effective implementation

of the programmes. The consequences of the under-funding of this sector are

immediate; for example, it results in the inability to purchase instructional

materials to effectively prepare pre-service teachers like computers, text

books, laboratory equipment, audio visual aids, slides, video clips, electronic

white boards, electronic conferencing materials, enough chairs and desks in

classrooms to keep students from having to stand to receive lectures to

mention a few. The dilapidation that characterizes Nigerian schools is very


      (5) Poor maintenance culture

Materials available for the effective instructional delivery are poorly

manhandled by both the teachers and some school authority. schools are

affected by non availability of resource room for the proper keeping of both

the locally manufactured and the commercially purchased teaching aids

thereby limiting its use as at the time needed. Very many of the teachers use

materials occasionally without the proper upkeep of the materials after used

for the future reference.
      (6) Unavailability of the teaching aids:

Another pressed issue about teaching aids or instructional materials for use

is that, the materials are grossly lacking in the schools. This is true if the few

researches conducted in this country are anything to go by, for a reference, a

study conducted by Adewoye (1987) of the department of education,

Ahmadu Bello university Zaria, revealed that teaching materials are grossly

lacking in this country she reported that on the type of resources materials

teachers had in schools 89% of the respondents claimed that they had to

improvise while 57% indicated that they had no access to resource materials

at all. This indicates lack of teaching materials in our schools. Similar study

conducted by M.ED students of the university of Jos, pointed to the same

direction of lack of resources materials in our schools in reference to

Ismailia (1986:136) reported that, out of 144 subjects involved in the study,

124 (86:1%) indicated that their schools were in short supply of teaching

materials only 8 (5.6%) of the respondents indicated that their schools were

adequately supplied with teaching aids.

      Akafa (1986:129 in Buba 2003:25-26) undertook a study of social

studies teaching materials in taraba state and reported thus; the findings from

this study revealed there was scarcity of both printed and audio-visual

materials in most of the instructional neither printed         nor audio-visual
materials were available in sufficient quantity or quality. The few

institutions which indicated the availability of these materials (indicated also

that materials) were rather in poor condition. However, creativity and

improvisation are the watchwords in any successful application of

instructional materials. Reading out is different from subject content and

quality and the latter is more important in any teaching and learning

situation, so some teachers still fail in improvising for materials that are not



Bozimo (2002) “the importance of instructional materials lies on the fact that

abstract ideas, data or information expressed in printed pages become

tangible and concrete when they are translated or reflected in forms of

instructional materials and resource.

The implications of using teaching aids can be summarize to includes the


    They can be used to explain our points, reduce abstractions, create

       reality and simplify events.

      Use of sense organs in attempt to learn, you must appeal to the sense

       organs of sight, hearing, teaches feeling and tasting. Systematically

       designed materials provide you with this opportunity.
   Interest arousing departure from boring and usual mode of

    presentation creates attention and generates interest.

   Encourages active participation, their use can lead to the beginning of

    learners’ development of exploratory and inquisitive nature of the


 Pace learning you can use them to meet the learner’s individual

    learning capability that is moving at their own pace.

 Saves the teacher’s time, reinforce what you are saying, ensure that

    your point is understood, and signal what is important/essential,

 Enable students to visualise or experience something that is

    impractical to see or do in real life,

 Facilitate different learning styles.

    Stimulation of interest

 Concretize abstract issues or topics in learning

 Creating effective communication between teacher and learners

 Use for mass instruction and taking care of wide audience, eg

    computer instructional system

 Providing meaning and useful sources of information to teachers and


 It helps in developing a continuity of reasoning and coherence of

    They save time and reduce verbalism or repetition of word.

    To promote closer relationship between the community situation and

      school activities


After all said and done, as a professional teacher who is curious of effective

instructional delivery will agree with me that teaching aids or instructional

materials are not just gadgets such as chalkboards, textbooks, chalk but

every necessary resources and objects a teacher develop and improvised for

use in the process of instructional delivery to concretize his lesson for

effective and more reliable understanding by the learners about the

abstractive concepts of his contents. However, In view of this discussion, the

following recommendations are eminent.

    Teachers are encouraged and should endeavour to commit themselves

      into the effective use of teaching aids or instructional materials in all

      their instructional delivery.

    The teacher been the main vessels through all the planned and

      unplanned activities can be achieved should realize the need for

      improvisation if the cost of purchasing already made ones is too high.

    The use of resources should reflect the aspect of lifelong learning, i.e
   pre-school, during-school, and after-school experiences in order to

   ensure effective application of knowledge in a holistic manner.

 The kinds of teaching aids selected and use by teacher should portray

   life situation around the learners’ total environment

 Teachers should avoid overloaded and unclear descriptions of

   resource kits in order to avoid a defeated objective of the resources

 Development and selection or improvisation of teaching aids could

   also be done concurrently with the students such as project or group

   assignment of designing a certain gadget of learning.

 Teacher should be conscious of the suitability of the kinds of

   resources use for a particular subject area, topic, methodology and

   most importantly the learners in question.

 Teachers should always endeavour to update their knowledge in the

   area of educational technology in order to expose them to the modern

   technological apparatus and how to manipulate their functions.

 There should be a forum where teachers will meet periodically to

   update their knowledge and access the effectiveness of their teaching

   using the methods of instructional and educational technology as

   applicable to the content of education instructions at all level of

    School authorities should endeavour to have a strong standard as

      relate to the use of teaching aids and also enlighten the uninformed,

      partly informed and the even the informed teachers with adequate

      knowledge so as to equitant them with current research findings on

      effective selection and style of use of teaching aids or instructional

      materials to ensure effective contents delivery

    Teachers in the use of the materials should incorporate both modern

      technological and local materials such as computer, projector, video

      recorder, visual, specimens and audiovisual in teaching.

    Schools should appeals to non-governmental organizations, private

      sectors, individuals and industries to assists in supplementing and

      substituting obsolete educational materials and learning aids like

      projected and other software packages.

    Teachers should develop positive attitude towards the use and

      maintenance of the materials available in their schools.

    Schools administrators should make effort in providing for teaching

      aids or instructional materials and monitor teachers in process of

      teaching and learning.


Adekeye, R. B. (2008). Social Studies Curriculum Lecture Materials on SSE
     402 unpublished

Adeyanju, J. L. (2003), Teachers Perception of the Effects and Use of

     Learning Aids in Teaching: A Case Study of Winneba Basic and

     Secondary      Schools   in     Ghana.   Retrieved     from       internet on 10th July 2008.

Anyanwu, J. M. (2003). The Effectiveness of Instructional materials in

     Teaching of Social Studies in some Selected Post Primary School in

     Owerri Educational Zone Imo State. (B. ed) Research Project


Bozimo, G. (2002). Social Studies Theories and Perspectives. Onitsha:


Bolick, C., Berson, M., Coutts, C. & Heinecke, W. (2003). Technology

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Orakwe, I. T. C. (2000). Social Studies (Education Basics) for Tertiary

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