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OIL POLLUTION

VIEWS: 84 PAGES: 6

  • pg 1
									                                       OIL POLLUTION
  ITS POTENTIAL IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE SOUTH PACIFTC REGION




   Everybody contributes lo oil
pollution. Everybody contributes
directly, by washing greasy hands and
throwing away the water, by dripping
oillrom a leaky engine sump, by
spilling some fuelwhen refilting an
outboard motor, and in many other
ways. Everybody also contributes
                                                 Chrcnic pollution lrom cannenes and boats at Paga Pago (Ameican Samoa). photo: Dant.
indireclly, by making use of the
products ol the oil industry, including
petrol and dieselfor motors, kerosene
for lamps, electricity that has been
generated using fuel, and many                 "Oil" includes a large range of                       Crude oil is transported across the
plastic and chemical products that we       complex and diverse products.                         Pacilic from South East Asia to the
use every day, or that are used to          "Crude" or unrelined oil is a nalural                west coast of the united states.
make things that we use every day.          substance, produced over millions                     Refined oils are delivered into the
About six million lonnes of oilfind         of years by the decomposition of                     South Pacific region, and then
their way into the sea each year.           vegetable matter. Thus il is hardly                  lransported in smaller ships between
                                            surprising, although it is very                      island groups and islands. Oilspills
     Chronic pollution occurs               tortunate, that many bacteria can                    may occur an) rvhere in this system,
everywhere, allthe time. lt results         ingest oil, and rernove it trom the                  perhaps lrom accidents when loading
from many small spills, nrost of them       environment, and one of the ways                     or discharging, or lrom washing of
minor and insignificant if considered       ol cleaning up an oilspillis lo enable               tanks, or from pumping bilges. euite
alone, but allcontributing to a levelof     these bactena to work as etfectively                 apart from this tanker traffic, other
pollution that the environment cannot       as possible. Crude oitis a "dirty" oil,              ships use oils as fuel and lubricants,
continue to contain. lt has rendered        since it contains tars and waxes, and                and some ships carry drums of oilas
many harbour and industrial areas           il evaporates rapidly, since it also                 hold or deck cargo. These are all
lifeless, and puts many others under        contains petrol, kerosene, and other                 potential sources of spillage.
threat.                                     "light fractions", and this makes it
                                            highly dangerous.
  Acute oilpollution results from                                                                   Oil is also able to seep into lhe
accidents, and sometimes makes                 Refined oils range from petrol,                   environment from sources ashore.
news. lt may be catastrophic,               aMation fuel, and kerosene, to diesel                Industry requires oil as fuel, and
particularly in an area that is             luel, and heavy oils such as lubricating             communities require electricity,
environmentally sensitive.                  and boiler oil. These are lransported                which is often generated using diesel
Most oil spills in the South Pacific        lrom the refineries lo lhe consumers,                engines. Oil spillages can occur while
region are likely to occur during           and regular supplies come lo almost                  the oil is being lransported, used, or
transportation, and most oil handling       every island in the South pacific. The               stored. Motor vehicles drip oil, and
operations are canied out in port.          light oils are highty volatite, and so               wasle oil is often sprayed lo reduce
Most large spills resuh from collision or   present a high lire danger. They are                 dusl from unsealed roads. All this oil
grounding, which mostly occur in            also highly toxic. The heavy oils are                works its way into the ground, where it
porls or port approaches, and usually       much less dangerous, but they may                    contaminates wellwater, and lhe oil
involve smallvessels.                       be very dirty and persistent.                        evenlually reaches the sea.


                     souTH PAC|FTC    REGTONAL ENVTRONMENT PROGRAMME (SpREp)
 @                   souTH PACTFIC    COMMTSSTON (SpC), NOUMEA, NEW CALEDONTA
                     produced with linancial assistance from the
                     TNTERNATTONAL CENTRE FOR OCEAN DEVELOPMENT (|COD)
  @
                    Simplilted prolile ol lhe island shown on the lar right page, showing sources ot pollution and lyprcal environments at nsk



                                                      help, or whether the combination of                          depends enormously on ihe lype of
                                                      oil and cleaning malerial will cause                         oil. Light refined oils will virtually all
    The principal eflects ol an oilspill              more environmental damage than lhe                           evaporale. Crude oil may lose half or
are the danger of fire, the toxic effect              oil alone. For example, a sandy shore                         more of its volume by evaporation
ol the oil, and the physicalcoating ot                may look much betler after chemical                          over a period of days. Heavy oils will
lhe environmenl. Their relalive                       cleaning, or afler mechanical rernoval                       lose very little. Evaporation is a big
imporlance depends on the type and                    of the oily sand, but lhere will be fewer                    help to cleaning up a spill, but,
amount of oil, and where it is sPll.                  worms and shellfish there than if the                        particularly in a confined area, it
                                                      oil had been left alone. This is why it is                   presents a major hazard of explosion
    The danger of fire is greatesl with               so important lo have a contingency                           and fire. A very small proportion ol oil
lighl oils, and with crude oil. The                   plan, prepared in advance. The plan                          vapour mixed with air can form an
exlent and amounl ol toxic damage                     should indicate areas lhat have high                          explosive mixture.
depends on the season of the year,                    priority for cleaning, and specify the
and the stage of life that lhe various                type of cleaning to be used, as well as                            Some of the lighter elements ol an
marine organisms have reached at the                   indicating those areas that are to be                        oil spill will dissolve in the water. This
time of the pollution. The lighter                     left alone if polluted.                                      may render lhe water toxic to marine
f ractions of oil are soluble in sea waler,                                                                         lile in the vicinity. lf the oil is agitated
rendering it loxic to some organisms.                                                                               and mixed with the water,lor example
Whereas aduft fish may be able to                                                                                   by a rough sea, then much of the oil
swim away, and avoid lhe toxic area,                                                                                may be dispersed in tiny droplets
larvae, and less mobile creatures, may                    lf nothing is done to collecl or                          lhrough the water, perhaps down as
have no such escape. They may be                      disperse it, an oilspillwill spread. The                      lar as 30 metres. This is known as an
killed, or may experience changes in                  rale of spread depends on the                                 "oil in water emulsion". lt is very
their feeding or reproductive cycles                  weathei, the temperalure, and the                             beneficial , since it enormously
thal may materially affect the size and               type of oil. A tonne of crude oil will                        increases the surlace area of the oil,
species composition ol fish stocks.                   take about len minules to form. a slick                       which enables bacleria to attack and
 Fish, and especially lilter feeders such             about half a mlllimetre thick, and about                      degrade the oil much more quickly.
 as oysters and mussels, may become                   50 metres in diameter, but this ligure
tainted, and unfit, or at least                       will vary widely for ditferent oils. The                         Another sort of emulsion. called a
 unmarketable, as food.                               slick will move downwind, at about 3%                         "waler in oil emulsion", is not nearly so
                                                      of the wind speed, and willalso be                            desirable. lt is a thick, slicky mixture,
    Physical coating of lhe sea surface               carried by tides and currents.                                which barely lloals, and is called
is not as much of a problem as                                                                                      "chocolate mousse". Mousse forms a
physical coating ol the shore. This is                     As lhe oil spreads the more volatile                     sheel several inches thick, which
why clean-up etfort is directed at                    componenls evaporate. The rate and                            slows down bacterial aclion and
preventing oilfrom getting ashore if at               amounl of loss by evaporation                                 evaporalion, and clogs up collecting
allpossible. Sea birds have a major
problem if they become coated with
oil. The oil infiltrates their feathers,
which lose their insulating properties.
Oil on birds' legs may be transfened to
eggs, preventing the embryo chicks
from obtaining oxygen through the
shells. Seabirds may ingest oil, with
toxic effecls, and may pass on
contaminated food to lheir chicks.
Sea birds, diving birds especially, are
                                                      =   -'   f         "::-
                                                                                                       5f
major losers lrom oil spills.

    Physical coating of the shore is the
major long-term effect of an oil spill,
the actual effect of a particular spill
depending on the weather and type
of coastline. One of the big problems                                                                                ,,,,. I
                                                                                                                               '1,   -lt',:l,,,   1
in tackling an oil sprill clean-up is to                                                  Deployment ot shorcline and harbour b2oms.
decide if the cleaning procedures will
                                                I
                                                I
                                                f
devices. lt may oome ashore, where it
collects sand and debris, and forms
                                                                            t
"tar balls", which are very stable, and
may last for years.
                                                                                                                    -   D-.S


    The bacteria which attack and
oxidise the spilt oil are lound in large
numbers in polluted areas, and
multiply rapidly when oil is spilt.
Because of the beneficial effect of
these bacteria, any dispersants or
detergents used to clean up the oil
should be biodegradable. Bacteria will
also attack sunken or sedimenled oil,                   SlrJ ,,   ll5 '(
and their effect is lhen much slower.               -         _Ec!,    _




Bacterial aclion means that a given
                                                                           A boom may be lowed between two boats.
environment may be able to cope with
a certain levelof chronic pollution, but           Buming the oil is not likety to be               When the oil has been contained
il too much pollution is introduced, the       effective, at sea or ashore. The light           by a boom, it should be collected and
environment may no longer manage,              fractions will burn, but these would             removed if possible. Since oillloats,
and plants and animals willdie.                have evaporated anyway, and the tarry            and sticks to lhings, it should be
                                               residue willremain. At sea, the film             possible to skim il from the surface. In
                                               spreads out so thinly that it is cooled          practice, since the oillilm is often very
Aclion to Take                                 very effectively by the sea, and so              thin, and the sea surface is often very
                                               does nol burn completely. Ashore,                rough, this is not so easy. Some
    One of the first, most important           the heat will melt the tarry residue, and        skimmers expose a large surface to
things to be done is to collect samples        enable it to soak inlo the beach, which          the oil, to which it sticks, and from
of the spilt oil, so lhal the source of        willmake it very hard to rernove.                which it is then scraped off . Others
the spill may be identified from                                                                operate as centrifugal seperators, or
analysis. Samples should be labelled               ln relatively calm waters, oilcan be         incorporate a weir, intended to
with the time and place ol colleclion,         contained by the use of booms.                   remove the oil direclly from the
and must be kept in glass conlainers,          Booms may be fixed in positions to               oil/water interface.
not melalcans or plastic bottles.              protect sensitive areas of coastline, or         They work well in lanks, but not so well
                                               lhey can be towed between two                    in waves. They collect a mixture of oil
   No action at allto clean up the oil         boats, to collect the oilfor easier              and water, which then has to settle
may be lhe best decision. lf the oil is         rernoval. Oil may escape both over              out. They tend to get clogged wilh
at sea, and not likely to come ashore,         and under a boom, and in a strorg                mousse, tar balls, and floating debris,
then it may be sutlicient to keep a            currenl, or in rough seas, a boom's              Nevertheless, skimmers of suitable
walch on il, and allow natural                 etf ectiveness will deteriorale                  size and type can collect a good
processes of dispersion and                     markedly. Neverlheless, in lagoons              proportion ol the floating oil.
biodegradation to take their course.           and shellered waters, booms are an
However,in many cases it will be               imporlant part ol the clean-up                      Oil may be sunk using physical
necessary to take some action to               arrnoury, and the availability of booms          agents, or dispersed using chemical
contain, divert, or disperse the oil.          in the area should be noted in the               agenls. Sand spread on the oilwill
The golden rules are to prevent the oil        contingency plan. Some booms are                 collect some of it, and sink it. Of
from coming ashore if at all possible,         absorbent, and some can absorb up                course, it may float free and dse again
and to make every eflort to physically         to 20 times their own weight ol oil. In          later. The method is not suitable
rernove it lrom the sea (orfrom the            emergency, coconul husks can be                  where oilon the sea bed would affect
shors, il despite alleflorts it gets           held in a lishing net and used as a              bottom-living lish, or foul fishing gear.
ashore), rather than disperse it               boom, or vines can be laid on the
chemically.                                    waler lo conlain and soak up the oil.                Chemical dispersalof oil is widely
                                                                                                used, and has been conlroversial,
                                                                                                especially in earlier days, when the
                          : I.i                                                                 dispersants used were highly toxic.
                                                                                                Even now, a judgment has to be
                                                                                                made, before using chemical
                                                                                                dispersants, that the toxicity of the oil
                                                                                                and the dispersants willnot be greater
                                                                                                than that of the oil alone. Chemical
                                                                                                dispersants, together with agitation of
                                                                                                the water surface, en@urage the oil
                                                                                                to form small particles, and thus
                                                                                                promote the formation of an oilin
                                                                                                waler emulsion. The natural
                                                                                                movement of the sea then spreads
                                                                                                these oilparticles through a huge
                                                                                                volume of water, and as the surlace
                                                                                                area of the oil has also been increased
                                                                                                enormously, the bacteria are able to
                                                                                                attack it much more effectively.
                         "GT 185" skimmer and "Troilbom" Mom.
Further Readlng
Department of Transport (Australia), 1986. Glossary ol Terms. Marine Oil Pollution.
Deparlment ol Transport (Australia). OilSpillClean-up ol the Foreshore. Field Guide.
Department of Transport (Australia), 1987. Reefplan. Oil Spill Conlingency Plan for the
         Great Barrier Reef.
Hayes, T.M. and W.H. Zucker (ed.), 1985. Pacific RegionalWorkshop on Marine Pollution
         Prevention, Control and Response. SPREP/IMO Workshop, Suva, November
         1984. Soulh Pacific Cornmission.
Hayes, T.M. and D.Kay (ed.), 1987. Pacilic Regional Workshop on Oil Spill Besponse.
         SPREP/lMO Workshop, Cairns, October 1986. Deparlment of Transport
           (Australia)
Hayes, T.M. and D. Brodie (ed.), 1989. Pacific Regional Workshop on Oil Spill Response.
           SPREP/lMO Workshop, Brisbane, October 1988. Department of Transport and
           Commu nications (Australia).
lnternational Maritime Organisation. Manual on Oil Pollulion:
    Section 1. Prevention. 1983.
    Section 2. Contingency planning. 1988.
    Section 3. Salvage. 1983.
    Section 4. Pradical Information on Means of Dealing with OilSpillages.
              1980. Revision cunently under preparalion.
International Maritime Organisation, 1982. IMO/UNEP Guidelines on OilSpill Dispersant
          Application and Environmental Considerations.
Loya, Y. and B. Rinkevich, 1987. Etfects of Petroleum Hydrocabons on Corals. ln
          "Human lmpacts on Coral Reefs: Facts and Recommendations", B. Salvat, ed.,
          Anlenne Museum, E.P.H.E., French Polynesia, 13-27.
Wardley-Smith, J. (ed.), 1983. The Controlol Oil Pollution. Graham and Trotman,
         London.

Photographs on pages 2,3,4, and 5 are reproduced by kind permission of the Deparlment
        of Transporl and Communications (Australia). Reference to brand names in
        photograph captions does not imply endorsement of any particular product.

   Copyright South Pacilic Commission 1989. The South Pacific Commission authorises
          the reproduction of this material, whole or in part, in any form, provided
          appropriate acknowledgemenl is given.
Original text: English.
South Pacific Commission Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
Garver, A.
   Oil Pollution - its potential impact on the South Pacific region / prepared by A. and M.
           Carver.
1. Oil pollution ol the sea 2. Oil pollution of the sea - Oceania 3. Oil spills - EnMronmental
          aspects.
l. Tltle ll. Carver, M. lll.   South Pacific RegionalEnvironment Programme
          lV. Inlernational Centre for Ocean Development



363.7394
         AACR2
rsBN 982 - 203 - 053 - 3
Copies of this leaflet can be obtained lrom:
South Paclflc Beglonal Envlronment Programme (S.P.R.E.P.)
South Paclflc Commlsslon
B.P. D5, Noumea Cedex
New Caledonla

                                     Prepared by A and M Carver,
                         Australlan Marltlme College, Launceston, Australla,
                                           lor the
                  Soulh Paclflc Reglonal Envlronment Programme (S.P.R.E.P.),
                        South Pacltlc Commlsslon, Noumea, New Caledonla,
                                  wlth flnanclal asslstance lrom the
                       Internatlonal Centre for Ocean Development (|.C.O.D.)
                                       Prlnted by Regal Press,
                                               Launceston, Australla,l 989
Dispersants work best on lreshly
spilled oil. They are not etlective on
                                                                                                         {iqK 1L
highly viscous oils, and il a rnousse
has formed. then it is too late to use
lhem. They should only be used on
light oils if evaporation would cause
too great a fire danger.
    Dispersanls can be sprayed from
aircraft, ships or boats,or by hand.The
contingency plan should indicate the
location of stocks ol low toxicity
dispersant, and of equipmenl with
which 1o spread it. Trained personnel                                                                                                                         I$
                                                                                                                                                              :ll
should be available to use it. The
effective use of dispersant requires
quick decision making, so that a rapid
                                                                                                                                                          v:r
response allows the oilto be
dispersed at sea, before it can gel
ashore. ll the oil gets ashore, then
coral, mangroves, fish farms, and                                       A lagoon is a lragtle environment, easy to poilute, but difticutt to prolect and ctean up.

shellfish communities. are allat risk                    and tourism should examine the                                       aerial roots of mangroves. The etlect
lrom the insensilive use of                              whole area concerned, to establish                                   of oilon mangroves will depend on
dispersants.                                             priorities and agree the ctean-up                                    lhe drainage of the area. In well-
                                                         methods to be used. Disposal of oily                                 drained sand, the below-water roots
                                                         material must be considered, or oil                                  will conlinue to obtain oxygen, and so
(Jil t:n the Shcre                                       may seep into lhe ground, and into                                   the plants may survive physical
                                                         water supplies, or back into the sea.                                coating of the aerial roots with oil. On
   lf the oilgels ashore, it is nol going                                                                                     the other hand, mangroves growing in
lo be easy to clean it up. The choice                            Mechanical removal is cleady lhe                             poorly-drained mud will sulfer if coated
of treatment will depend on the type                   best way to dispose of oil on the                                      with oil. Loss of key mangrove
of oil, and the lype of shoreline.                     shore, provided il can be done                                         species may have permanent and far-
Careless or unskilled removal or                       sensitively. On a sandy beach,                                         reaching eff ects on the characier and
treatment ol oil may do more damage                    removalis fairly easy. Be carefulthal                                  ecology of an area.
than the oil alone. Vehicular tratfic can              vehicles do not damage lhe beach,
damage beaches and dunes.                              and do not spread oil lo clean areas.                                      The mucus secreted by corals helps
Washing down with lresh water will                     It may be necessary to bnng in clean                                   to repeloil. Most corals are below low
reduce the salinity of tidal pools, and                sand to replace whal has been                                          water, and so are nol directly aflected
may kill allthe animals in lhem. Areas                 removed. Bulldozers, front end                                         by a surface oil slick. They may,
lhat there is no need to clean should                  loaders, and tractors can allbe used,                                  however, be alfected by oildispersed
not be cleaned, unless the oil might                   as can hand rakes and shovels.                                         in the waler column, and by the lighter
be lifted off and deposited                                                                                                   fractions dissolved in lhe water. Some
somewhere else. A bathing beach                           A pebble beach is harder lo clean.                                  shallow waler corals are exposed at
should only be cleaned if it is required               and mechanical rernoval of a                                           very low tides, and oil may be stranded
for use. There is no point in cleaning                 considerable depth ol shingle may be                                   on these by a falling tide. Physical
up a beach, if more oilwillcome                        necessary. On a rocky shore, the oil                                   removal will be difficutt, and lhe use ol
ashore and foulit again.                               must be removed by hand, perhaps                                       dispersants will only make the
                                                       with the aid of dispersants. Mudllats                                  situation worse. lt may well be best to
   The contingency plan should                         and mangroves are very ditficutt, and                                  hope thal the rising tide will ]ift the oil
specify which areas have priority for                  cannot be cleaned mechanically.                                        otf again. The balance of species in a
cleaning, and the methods to be                        Mudflats shoutd be left atone. No                                      coralcommunity may be badly
used. People involved with fisheries                   anempt should be made to clean the                                     atfected by both chronic and acute
                                                                                                                              pollution.
     -r   4_ oo.r, E I ii.w,i         *tFg"rywfff
                                                                                                                                 Seagrasses are very wlnerable to
                                                                                                  | \11;r.-        :         oil, and to chemicaldispersants.
                                                                                                                             Different species of seagrass respond
                                                                                                                -ir
                                                                                                                             to different chemicals in different
                                                                                                                             ways. Various dispersants should be
                                                                                                                             lested lor their toxicity against the
                                                                                                                             seagrasses in a given area, and only
                                                    G'                                                                       lhose found lo be less toxic should
                                                                                                                             be stored for use in that area. The
                                                                                                                             contingency plan should specify the
                                                                                                                             dispersants to be used, and those not
                       !    -".,,                                                                                            to be used, in each area.

                             &                ":.      ;i                  o               Y!:
                                                                                                                                  So the use of dispersants ashore,

                   ,
                           ,r{ffi." ;;...
                             =S.l* E€
                                              ;             E,
                                                       ae ." -t! I- -
                                                                                           "Ei

                                                                                          .,gt&
                                                                                         sq'e,
                                                                                                         .:-
                                                                                                       trse. "-ll
                                                                                                                   *'        although eflective, presents some
                                                                                                                             problems. lf dispersants are to be
                                                                           eeE-                              '
                               !-
                                    --=   =
                                                                                                                             used, they must be used carefully and
                             "Walosep" skimnler and "Paafic 500"        lnom                                                 correctly. Even moderndispersants
                                                                                                                                             Other international conventions
                                                                                                                                        provide that the shipowner is liable for
                                                                    J.
                                                                                                                                        the costs of cleaning up oil pollution
                                               \,+
                                                                                                                                        from his ship, and specify compulsory
                                                l.@F+                                                                                    insurance for pollution damage
                                     )-+E                                                                                               compensation claims.The
                                                                                                                                        I nlernational Oi I Pollution
                                                             s*'
                                                                                                                                        Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund)
                                                                                                                                        provides additional compensation
                                                                                                                                        when the amount the shipowner is
                  ,,,llr,tl,   "   ,ll   l,::l;, :;     ,l
                                                             rtr,   . ' ''1   tiilll,iil'lli   li!i"   _
                                                                                                           ':,iili, F r4                liable for is inadequate, il the pollution
                                                                                                                                        is caused by a spill of persistent oil
              .   ..i.t,.'     ."-''r': ",i"           -:iffu,           :,,i-'r:li       ,,':. .lET - I .-; -- s-
                                                                                                'rstts -  -' :e ft*1[
                                                                                                                                        lrom a laden tanker.
                                                                    y untt
                                                      "Simplex" sPraY untt.
                                                                                                                                            There are also two voluntary
should not be used if there are fish                                          operators, and for the person in                          industry agreements, TOVALOP, the
hatcheries, shellfish, or fish farms in                                       charge and the management team.                           Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement
the vicinity. As much oilas possible                                          The plan should be exercised                              Concerning Liability lor Oil Pollulion,
should be removed mechanicallY                                                regularly, and should be rnodified to                     and CRISTAL, the Contract Regarding
before using dispersanls, then they                                           meet problems encountered in                              a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil
should be used on a rising tide, so                                           exercises. The development and                            Pollution. Claims should be made to
that the sea can wash the disPersed                                           implementation of a contingency plan                      lhe shipowner in the first instance,
oil away. Othenruise the oiUdispersant                                        requires the involvement and co-                          lhen to the IOPC Fund or CRISTAL if
mixture may sink into the sand unlilit                                        operation of several governmenl                           necessary. You see why it is so
reaches an impervious layer, where it                                         departments, fire, police, marine,                        important to collecl samples of spilt oil.
willstay, degrading very slowlY                                               health and safety, fisheries, and local                   You should also obtain samples of oil
because of the lack ol oxYgen.                                                government, local industry, tourist                       f rom the tanks and bilges ot
                                                                              operators, and environmental                              suspected offenders, in case they are
                                                                              specialists.                                              needed later in court.

                                                                                                                                           Claims may be made lorlhe costs of
                                                                                                                                        preventive measures before the spill,
    The contingency plan has been
mentioned several limes already. As                                                                                                     and for clean-up operations
                                                                                  nlernational convenlions provide                      afterwards. Replacement or repair
the next oil spill may be tomorrow, or                                              I


even today, it is essentiallhat                                               thal member counlries may lake                            cosls of property and equipment
planning should be done in advance.                                           certain action on the high seas to                        damaged by oil, and economic losses
Your Governmenl should have an oil                                            prevent or reduce damage resulting                        as a result of the oil spill, such as loss
spill contingency plan for your                                               from pollution following a marine                         of commerciallishing time, or loss of
country, and you should lind out                                              casualty. Many countries have also                        business by tourist operators, are all
about it, and discuss it locally. There                                       passed legislation allowing their                         included. Spills of non-persistent oils,
may be a need for a local plan to                                             govemments to take similar action in                      or spills lrom unladen tankers, or from
provide more detailthan is found in                                           nationalwaters.                                           ships other lhan tankers, are not
the nationalplan.                                                                                                                       covered by these agreements, and
                                                                                                                                        claims should be pursued through lhe
                                                                                                                                        normal course of national law.
  The plan should aim to cope wrth a
     a certain size, within a specilied
spillof
number of days. The size of spillthat                                     DO NOT
should be considered depends on
the maximum probable size of spillin
the area. The plan must also consider
                                                                                                                                        - Oil pollution is everybody's problem.
where oilis likely lo be spilt, and where
                                                                                                                                         - Find out about your Government's
the wind and tide are likely to take it. lt
                                                                                                                                         National Contingency plan.
should specify the clean-up strategy
                                                                                                                                         - Develop a local contingency plan
lor each area covered by the plan, and                                                                                                  locally.
list the equipment and materials
                                                                                                                                         - Take samples ol sprilt oil, and from
available, with their locations. The                                                                                                    vessels suspected of spilling oil.
plan should specify who is to be in                                                                                                      - Suit clean-up action to the spill,
charge of operalions in that area,                                                                                                      and to the environmenl.
perhaps the harbourmaster, and who                                                                                                       - Make every etlort to prevent oil
are the trained personnel available,                                                                                                    lrom coming ashore.
with their locations. lt should include a                                                                                               - Physically remove sprilt oilil possible.
map or chart of the area, showing the                                                                                                    - Only use dispersanls after rernoval
types of beaches, vegetation, access                                                                                                    of as much oil as possible.
points, lishery areas, and other details                                                                                                 - 9nly use tow toxicity dispersants.
that may be relevant.                                                                                                                   .- Test dispersants for toxicily on
                                                                                                                                        local_species before stockpiling them.
   The plan should specify the                                                                                                           - Clean up carefully, sensitively, and
procedure to request outside                                                                                                            approprialely.
assislance, in case localfacilities are                                                                                                 -. Remember that you may damage
insulficient. Regular training should                                                                                                   lhe environmenl more by attempting
be carried out, for equipment                                                                                                           lo clean it up than by leaving the oit to
                                                                                                           Pan ol a contingency plan.   weatner anct biodegrade.

								
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