How to Make Music Tutorial By: Andrew www.mydownloadworld.com Introduction Welcome to this tutorial on how to make music. First off, I want to warn you not to skip any sections, whether you think you know everything inside them or not, there are tips here and there that you can pick up that will help you very much in making music. To start this tutorial off, I will be telling you about the very basics of music, such as ways to display a note, chords, keys, melody, harmony, rhythm, and how they all fit together. If you don’t have the basic training in these areas, your music isn’t going to be very good! Ways to Display a Note There are two official ways to display a note. One is called score – commonly used by pianos and many other instruments, score consists of five horizontal bars, with notes of different durations in-between two bars or on one of the bars. The notes can also often be out of the 5 bars, indicating very high or low notes. The other is called tablature, or tab – commonly used by guitars (mostly electric) and bass, tab consists of six horizontal bars (representing the strings), with numbers going across. On guitars and bass, these numbers tell which fret to place your finger on. Score Tablature Chords Chords are often simple to understand, depending on how deeply you go into them. Chords are almost always used on guitars, pianos, and by vocals. A chord is one note being played at the same time as a different note than the first. You need to be careful on which notes you choose to make a chord. It has to stay in the same key (you will see more about this in the next section), and it also has to be the same type of chord or close to the same type of chord as the others in a song. E.g. if you have one chord being B flat (B flat, D, and F), and the other being E minor (D, F, and A), it won’t sound good. If you take a look at the notes in each chord, they both have D and F. However, one has B flat, and the other has A. B flat is one step above A, and those two don’t sound good together. That is why B flat and E minor do not sound good together. There are numerous types of chords, some being major, minor, augmented, diminished, etc… Usually the best thing to do is to try to stick with one or two types of chords, such as major and “7 chords” (G7, A7, etc...). Remember, though, the more notes you add, the harder it is going to be to keep your music in sync! Piano Chords Guitar Chords Keys People have managed to learn a lot about keys. Keys are ways to know what notes to start on. In music, you base every note you play off of what key you are in. You can play a song in any key. Let’s say you have the notes to a song in the key of C, but you would rather play it in the key of G (if you have a guitar or piano, you can easily mess around with this). First, count the number of steps going from C to G. You always start counting the note you are on as 1. So, the next note up, C sharp, would be 2. When you get all the way to G, it is number 8. Then, for each note in your song, you count 8 notes up (remember to include the first one). When you are finally done, you will have the song in the key of G instead of C. The notes in the key of C go as follows: C (1), C sharp (2), D (3), D sharp (4), E (5), F (6), F sharp (7), G (8), G sharp (9), A (10), A sharp (11), and B (12). Major chords use 1, 5, and 8 in them. So based off of those notes, C Major would be C, E, and G. In the key of G, the notes go G, G sharp, A, A sharp, B, C, C sharp, D, D sharp, E, F, F sharp. G Major would then be G, B, and D. Minor chords use 1, 4, and 8, so C Minor consists of C, D sharp, and G, while G Minor consists of G, A sharp, and D. The chord types talked about in the last section all have their own numbers to use, and if you know how the note scale goes and what numbers a chord type uses, you can always make the chord. If you hear someone say, “they are singing off key,” that means that whatever note they are supposed to be singing – say B, would be off a little, such as A sharp or C. You never want anything going off key in your song, or it will be a disaster. Always be sure to keep the same chord types, and keep in the same keys for either an entire section of a song or for the entire song. If you ever switch keys, however, you need to do it in a nice way. Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Key of C C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B Key of G G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F# Major * * * Minor * * * Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm Melody is hard to explain in just words. It is basically the lead or main part of a song. Think of any normal song that you like. In that song, there is probably a melody in it. If the song has a singer, he/she is probably singing the melody somewhere in the song. If the song doesn’t have a singer, some instrument like a guitar or piano may be playing it. Making up music in your mind is very easy. If you take about 5 minutes of your spare time, and try to make an entire song in your head, you will probably succeed, but then a few minutes later you might forget the whole thing. That is why people started writing songs down. However, it takes a long time to write songs down no matter how fast you are, so when people started putting music on the computer, with no instruments making mistakes, and lots of effects, their outcome became wonderful. Harmony is basically a word to some up everything about chords and how notes fit together. If you have all melodies and rhythm in your song, it can get pretty boring. However, on the flip side, harmony is one of the most challenging parts in making a song. Since I already told you all about chords and keys, you probably know enough about harmony to use it in a song. Rhythm is composed of all of the beats and percussion in a song. With no rhythm, your song may sound empty and slurred. Beats keep people’s mind on the music and help to build the “structure” in a song. There are different kinds of rhythms used in different kinds of songs. For example, an upbeat rock song may use snares, a bass, hi hats, and a cymbal. For a jazz song, there might just be simple hi hats. For a techno song, you would normally just use a bass drum or have a really sharp synthetic instrument to keep the beat. Bass instruments can also help count towards the rhythm, just depending on how they are used. Getting Fruity Loops First of all, you may be asking, “Why do I need Fruity Loops?” The answer is that Fruity Loops Studio is a great program. In the section, I will describe the basics of Fruity Loops, and you will then understand why this is a one-of-a-kind program. Fruity Loops is very expensive. You can buy it if you’re rich or you make music for a living, but otherwise, you’re going to need a crack for it (cracks take off the copyrighted part of a program so you can use it fully). Whenever you download a crack type of program, always use a virus scanner you have on it. If you don’t have any, you can upload it to www.virustotal.com, which sends your file to many online virus scanners, and they all check the file at once. Fruity Loops Basics In Fruity Loops, as in most other program, you need to familiarize yourself with the program before you can truly use it. Over at the left side is your browser panel, where you can get all of your instruments. In the Packs and Plug-in Presets sections, you can find lots of good instruments, however note that their categorizing is hard to understand, so you might need to click around for the instrument you’re looking for. Picking the right one can be the difference between a good and a bad song. Over at the right side, you will see your play list. The play list is the last part used in making a song. Don’t worry about that for a while. Near the top middle are all of your channels, or for Fruity Loops noobs, those are all of your instruments. Let’s say you want to add a new instrument to the list. First, go to the browser on the left side and find one that you want. Some of the instruments you can left click and they will play. Others you have to insert them and play notes on them to hear what they sound like. In the packs section pick an instrument that you can hear well. Right click on it, and you will see that the first two options say Send to selected channel and Open in new channel. Those are the only two things you will ever want to do. If you have a channel selected, whatever instrument is in that channel will be replaced by the new instrument from your browser. All of the notes will still be the same. In rare cases, you can’t replace the channel, and you will have to cut all of the notes out and put them in the new channel. To delete a channel (instrument) from your list, select just that one channel, and hit Ctrl-Delete. There will be a prompt just to double check. Note that when you delete a channel, all of the notes inside it get erased too. Once you have your instrument picked, select it and press F7. This will bring up what is called a Piano Roll, which looks like a piano but it is sideways. This can take some getting used to, but it becomes more and more helpful as you want to make songs without taking forever. Click on any note on the Piano Roll, and you will hear it being played. Whenever you hear a note being played from your browser, it is always playing C5, the middle note on a piano. To scroll around the Piano Roll, you can do one of several things. You can click the drag box on the right or top side to scroll horizontal or vertical. You can move the middle mouse button to scroll vertically, or you can click the middle mouse button and move the mouse to scroll horizontally or vertically. The Piano Roll is basically a graph. Horizontal means time, and vertical means pitch, or key. Go ahead and left click on the Piano Roll. Since you are not in play mode, you should hear it play. Left click on a note to move it, and right click on a note to delete it. Notice how when you try to move a note, it will keep playing at whatever pitch it is at. You can also resize a note to change its length by going to the very right edge of the note, left clicking, and dragging it to its new size. Look at the bottom part of the Piano Roll. You can see how there are lines that match up to the note. That is the volume of the 1 note. If you click anywhere there you can change the volume of the note. Enter another note somewhere to the right of the first note. Now go down to the volume area, right click to the left of the first note’s volume near the top, and drag it about halfway from the top over to the other side of the second note’s volume. You should note that when you right click on the volume, you are basically drawing an invisible line. If you ever want to make a gradual crescendo (increase in volume) or decrescendo (decrease in volume), you can do that by dragging a line through the volumes. Click on the Play button at the top. You should see a bar moving across the screen playing the notes. It will go on forever, until you hit the Stop button. Space is an alternative way to start and stop playing. If you look just to the left of the Play button, you will see 2 small squares. The top square plays the pattern, and the bottom square plays the entire song. If you click the bottom square and hit play, you will not hear anything. This is because you only set the notes in the pattern, not the actual song. You can click anywhere at the top of the Piano Roll to change your position in the Pattern. This will also work in the Play list, which you will see in a moment. If you have a position in a pattern or in the song and you change what you are playing either by click one of the squares or by hitting L, your position will move to the very beginning. Now click on the X at the top right of the Piano Roll. You can also mess around until you make a simple melody, scale, or whatever you like. Make sure you have notes for that instrument before you continue, however. If the Piano Roll is closed, you can still play the Pattern. If you look at a channel, you can see the notes being played. This can help you quickly identify what is being played, etc… Now go to the play list, or the window to the right. At the bottom are Patterns – drag that section all the way to the top. The part on top you almost never need to use – if you do, however, you can just drag it back down. You are most likely currently on Pattern 1. Click on another Pattern, and look at your channels. You can see how all of your notes have disappeared. That is because you are in a different pattern. Click back to your original pattern, and you can see that they are back again. This way, you can make patterns in your music that repeat, or loop. That is why it is called Fruity Loops (I don’t know where the fruit comes in…). You can also set names for patterns and delete them, but you only have to do that if you want. Now left click on the Play list. It works almost exactly the same way as the Piano Roll, except it’s for the entire song. Go to your original pattern with notes and left click at the very beginning of the song. If you set the play mode to “song” and click play, you should now hear it playing. You now know how the basics of Fruity Loops Studio work. Where to Start Since you are already somewhat familiar with Fruity Loops Studio now, and you know the basics about music theory, you are ready to start making your first song. You are going to be making this from complete scratch, it’s just that you will have a guide to help you out. First of all, I want to point out that music makers don’t make everything perfect the first time. You will always have to edit your music and try different melodies, chords, and techniques. To start off, you first need a melody. It’s always good to start off with a melody because as pointed out earlier on, they are the main or lead part of a song. Make a melody up in your mind. If you want, mess around with fruity loops notes, on the piano, on the guitar, or any instrument you have. You can even hum your melody out if you like. Once you have a melody that isn’t extremely complex for a first song, and you are sure you want to use it, you can go ahead and begin putting it in Fruity Loops. Don’t rush yourself to get all of the notes in. Take your time. The most important thing about your melody is that the beats for each note are dead on, and nothing is off key. It may take a long time to get notes from your brain into Fruity Loops for the first couple times, but you will soon speed up. Once you have your melody, fix it up all you want. Sometimes adding higher or lower notes in the melody or on the side of the melody can spice it up. You don’t want a boring melody with empty parts in it. Good music usually always has something playing for each beat, and in rare cases not. Sometimes you might want synthetic notes, strings, or bass instruments playing in the background of most of your song. You also need to add some percussion, whether it is hi hats, maracas, claps, drums, or a low instrument. Editing Okay, so you got most of your song ready. Maybe you can already hear what you want in next. You will always need to edit your song. First of all, are all beats covered with a note? Try adding in notes in the same key as the song to help keep it covered. Is the tempo a little too fast or slow? Up at the top there is a number around 100-150 – raise it for a higher speed, and lower for slower speed. Is an instrument off pitch or off beat? Go to its pattern and channel, and fix it up! You may have to use a little trial and error. Occasionally, you will have an entire channel, pattern, or song that just doesn’t sound right at all. It may be your horrible melodies, harmony, or rhythm, or you may just be inexperienced in Fruity Loops. Whatever the case, you may have to trash sections or songs a few times. Fixing Up Play your song a few times. How does it sound? Is it missing something? Is there just one note that you cringe at whenever you hear it? Fixing up your song is close to editing, but in editing you are basically rewriting your song. In fixing up, you are just picking at little sections that have small problems. Also, you might want to add some effects to your song. Effects can greatly implement a song. Hit F9 to bring up the Mixer, or in your terms, the effects window. Once the Mixer is up, you can choose master effects that you want. Click one of the arrows on the right side to open up a list of effects. A few that I recommend are Chorus, Flanger, Flangus, Reverb, and Soundgoodizer. You can turn an effect on or off by clicking the little light next to it. You can also choose how much the effect should affect the song by moving the slider at the very right. Never have too much effects. You always want enough to make a difference, but not too much so that the user can tell what effects you used. Summary I am going to give you each section in one sentence. You need to know about music theory and have a good ear to make good music. You can display notes through score and tablature. Chords are 2 or more notes that have a different pitch that sound good together. Always keep everything in the same key and in the same type of chords. Melody is the main part of a song, harmony is all of the chords and keys of a song combined, and rhythm is the percussion and beats of a song. You can get the Producer version of Fruity Loops Studio through a crack. It can take some time to get used to Fruity Loops, so you need to learn the basics. Always start off with a melody, but don’t leave any beats without a note. You will need to edit your song a lot. Pick out any parts in your song you don’t like, and try to add effects if needed. Please realize that this is just to get you started in making music - Fruity Loops has a lot more functions, so you will just have to pick them up on your own. Go to www.mydownloadworld.com for more fun, and ENJOY!!!