Who Are the Recipients of Meals-on-Wheels in New York City? A Profile of Based on a Representative Sample of Meals-on-Wheels Recipients, Part II

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Who Are the Recipients of Meals-on-Wheels in New York City? A Profile of Based on a Representative Sample of Meals-on-Wheels Recipients, Part II Powered By Docstoc
					© 2010 Springer Publishing Company

Editor’s Note. The following article is the second of two parts,         can be described through their use of the meals, use of non–Meals-
reprinted and adapted for the Care Management Journals                   on-Wheels food, and their food insecurity.
format with permission from Citymeals-on-Wheels. Part I
appeared in the previous issue.                                                  FACILITIES FOR FOOD PREPARATION
                                                                         Since delivery times are variable, recipients may choose to eat the
                                                                         delivered meals at a later time, making possession of some facilities
                                                                         for food preparation necessary. Virtually all recipients have a refrig-
                                                                         erator, a freezer, and an oven, while fewer recipients have microwaves
                                                                         and toaster ovens (Table 1). More recipients feel comfortable using a
Who Are the Recipients                                                   microwave or a toaster oven than an oven. While 93.3% of the recip-
                                                                         ients feel comfortable using a microwave and 93.8% feel comfortable
of Meals-on-Wheels                                                       using a toaster oven, only 68.8% feel comfortable using an oven.

in New York City? A                                                                SOURCE, TYPE, AND PREPARATION
                                                                                             OF FOODS
Profile of Based on a                                                     A majority of the recipients in the Meals-on-Wheels program
                                                                         supplement their diet with non–Meals-on-Wheels food, but 13.6%
Representative Sample                                                    are reliant solely on the food provided by the program (Table 2).
                                                                         At times, non–Meals-on-Wheels foods are bought and prepared by
                                                                         someone other than the recipient. Of those who do consume non–
of Meals-on-Wheels                                                       Meals-on-Wheels food, 66.2% prepare it themselves, 12% have
                                                                         relatives prepare it, and 11.3% have home attendants prepare the
Recipients, Part II                                                      meal. In terms of shopping for non–Meals-on-Wheels foods, 35.8%
                                                                         shop themselves, 28.1% have relatives who shop, and 19.6% have
                                                                         home attendants (Table 3).
                                                                             Recipients were asked about their fruit, vegetable, and milk con-
Edward A. Frongillo, PhD                                                 sumption per day. Although most tend to consume fruit, vegetables,
Marjorie H. Cantor, MA                                                   and milk at least once per day, a large portion of the recipients do
Thalia MacMillan, MSW                                                    not (Table 4). Approximately one-fifth (20.2%) eat fruit, 15% eat
Tanushree D. Issacman, BS                                                vegetables, and 13.8% drink milk less than one time per day.
                                                                             Whites (17.2%) were somewhat less likely to not eat fruit
Rachel Sherrow, LCSW                                                     than Blacks (24.2%) or Hispanics (27.8%) ( p < .018). Hispan-
Megan Henry, MS                                                          ics (36.1%) were more likely to not eat vegetables than Whites
Elaine Wethington, PhD                                                   (12.3%) or Blacks (12.7) ( p < .001). Blacks (17.6%) were slightly
Karl Pillemer, PhD                                                       more likely to not drink milk than Whites (12.7%) or Hispanics
                                                                         (11.1%) ( p < 0.085).

                                                                                              FOOD INSECURITY

         number of questions were asked of the recipients of the
         Meals-on-Wheels program in New York City to ascertain           Food insecurity is a concept that refers to the social and economic
         their food preparation methods and their nutrition so that      problem of lack of food due to resource, physical, or other constraints,
we could better understand the context in which they were receiv-        not voluntary fasting or dieting or for other reasons. Food insecurity
ing the Meals-on-Wheels foods. Included were questions about             is experienced when there is uncertainty about future food availability
ownership of food preparation facilities; their comfort with using       and access, insufficiency in the amount and kind of food required for
these facilities; their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and milk per   a healthy lifestyle, and/or the need to use socially unacceptable ways
day; the number of non–Meals-on-Wheels meals they consume;               to acquire food. Food insecurity can also be experienced when food
and whether they shopped for and prepared non Meals-on-Wheels            is available and accessible but cannot be utilized because of physical
foods themselves or with assistance from others. Furthermore,            or other constraints such as limited physical functioning by elders.
recipients were asked to describe their financial situation as it         Some closely linked conse
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