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Multiple Layer High Strength Balloon For Dilatation Catheter - Patent 5358486

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United States Patent: 5358486


































 
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	United States Patent 
	5,358,486



 Saab
 

 
October 25, 1994




 Multiple layer high strength balloon for dilatation catheter



Abstract

A balloon for a dilatation catheter is formed to define relatively thin
     cone and neck segments at the opposite ends of the balloon by forming the
     balloon in a plurality of separate very thin layers. The balloon is built
     up from a plurality of layers including an inner layer which defines a
     complete balloon having a cylindrical midportion, cones at its ends and
     necks at the ends of the cones. Each successive outer layer is trimmed to
     be shorter than the next adjacent innermost layer, the trimming being
     effected in the region of the cones. The composite balloon thus formed has
     a staggered wall thickness in the region of the cones as to define a cone
     that is approximately uniform in wall thickness in a direction extending
     toward the neck region. The resulting balloon will be better adapted to
     collapse to a low profile about the catheter shaft on which it is mounted.


 
Inventors: 
 Saab; Mark A. (Lawrence, MA) 
 Assignee:


C. R. Bard, Inc.
 (Murray Hill, 
NJ)





Appl. No.:
                    
 07/928,135
  
Filed:
                      
  August 11, 1992

 Related U.S. Patent Documents   
 

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
 523490May., 1990
 

 



  
Current U.S. Class:
  604/103.13  ; 604/103.06; 606/194
  
Current International Class: 
  A61L 29/06&nbsp(20060101); A61L 29/00&nbsp(20060101); A61M 25/00&nbsp(20060101); A61M 029/00&nbsp()
  
Field of Search: 
  
  


 604/96-103 606/192-196 128/207.15
  

References Cited  [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
 
 
 
Re33561
April 1991
Levy

3707151
December 1972
Jackson

4335723
June 1982
Patel

4490421
December 1984
Levy

4637396
January 1987
Cook

4702252
October 1987
Brooks

4819751
May 1989
Shimada

4820349
April 1989
Saab

4952357
August 1990
Euteneur

4963313
October 1990
Noddin et al.

5108415
April 1992
Pinchuk et al.

5270086
December 1993
Hamlin

5290306
March 1994
Trotta et al.



 Foreign Patent Documents
 
 
 
0457456
Nov., 1991
EP

1069826
Jan., 1984
SU



   Primary Examiner:  Rosenbaum; C. Fred


  Assistant Examiner:  Bockelman; Mark


  Attorney, Agent or Firm: Darby & Darby



Parent Case Text



This is continuation of co-pending application Ser. No. 07/523,490, filed
     on May 15, 1990 now abandoned.

Claims  

Having thus described the invention, what I desire to claim and secure by Letters Patent is:

1.  In an inelastic balloon for a dilatation catheter, the interior of the balloon being in fluid
communication with an inflation lumen within the dilatation catheter when mounted on said dilatation catheter, the balloon being formed from polymeric material and having a cylindrical midportion, an outwardly tapering conical portion at each end of the
midportion and a cylindrical neck portion at the ends of the conical portions, the improvement comprising the balloon being formed of at least two inelastic layers including an inner layer and an outer layer, the outer layer having first and second ends
which terminate within the conical portions of the inner layer.


2.  A balloon as defined in claim 1 wherein there are at least three layers with at least one intermediate layer being disposed between the inner layer and the outer layer, the intermediate layer being of a length between that of the inner and
outer layers.


3.  A balloon as defined in claims 1 or 2 wherein the layers are in intimate adhesive-free contact with each other.


4.  A balloon as defined in claims 1 or 2 wherein the more inwardly disposed layers are of overall greater length than the more outwardly disposed layers.


5.  A balloon dilatation catheter comprising an elongate flexible shaft having an inelastic dilatation balloon mounted at the distal end, the shaft having an inflation lumen therein and the interior of the balloon being in fluid communication
with the inflation lumen, the balloon being formed from polymeric material and having a cylindrical midportion, an outwardly tapering conical portion at each end of the midportion and a cylindrical neck portion at the ends of the conical portions, the
balloon being formed of at least two inelastic layers including an inner layer and an outer layer, the outer layer having first and second ends which terminate within the conical portions of the inner layer, the neck portions of the balloon being
adhesively attached to the shaft.


6.  A balloon dilatation catheter as defined in claim 5 wherein there are at least three layers with at least one intermediate layer being disposed between the inner layer and the outer layer, the intermediate layer being of a length between that
of the inner and outer layers.


7.  A balloon dilatation catheter as defined in claims 5 or 6 wherein the layers are in intimate adhesive-free contact with each other.  Description  

FIELD OF THE INVENTION


This invention relates to balloons used in dilatation catheters and to methods for making such balloons.


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


Balloon dilatation catheters are used in the treatment of a variety of vascular conditions.  Among the more frequent uses for balloon dilatation catheters is in vascular angioplasty of the peripheral and coronary arteries, by which arteries
obstructed by plaque (formed by fatty deposits such as cholesterol) are dilated to improve blood flow through the artery.  In a typical angioplasty procedure, a balloon dilatation catheter is inserted percutaneously into the patient's arterial system and
then is advanced and steered through the patient's arteries until the distal end of the catheter, that carries the balloon, is disposed adjacent the obstruction (stenosis).  The balloon end of the catheter then is advanced into the stenosis and, when so
placed, is inflated under high pressure, to dilate the artery in the region of stenosis.  The catheter typically is used with a small diameter steerable guidewire which is used to guide the catheter to the stenosis.  By way of example, such a catheter
and guidewire system is disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,545,390 issued Oct.  8, 1985 (Leary), reference thereto being made for a more complete description of the catheter and guidewire system and its manner of use.


It is desirable, particularly in coronary angioplasty in which the coronary arteries are narrow and tortuous, and in which the stenoses often may be calcified and difficult to dilate, that the catheter and its balloon meet a number of stringent
requirements.  Among these are that the balloon be capable of folding down to a low profile about the catheter shaft so that the balloon portion of the catheter is more readily insertable through the stenosis.  Inability to insert the balloon portion of
the catheter into the stenosis is among the more frequent causes of an unsuccessful angioplasty.  Also among the important characteristics of the balloon dilatation catheter is that it should be "trackable", that is, it must be able to follow and advance
over the guidewire and through the artery even when the artery is highly tortuous with many sharp bends.  An additional important characteristic of the balloon is that it should have a high burst strength so that it may dilate hard, calcified stenoses as
well as those that require less force for the dilation.


In order to improve the low profile and trackability characteristics of the character in the region of the balloon, efforts have been made to develop dilatation balloons having very thin walls so that the balloon will fold more readily to a low
profile about the catheter shaft and also so that the balloon will be more flexible, thus enhancing the ability of the catheter to bend in the region of the balloon, thereby achieving improved trackability.  To that end, significant advances have been
made in the art.  U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,490,421 describes the manufacture of dilatation balloons by which balloons may be made having a high burst strength and significantly thinner walls than its predecessors.  The procedure was improved further, as
described in U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 001,759, filed Jan.  9, 1987, now abandoned, to enable the manufacture of high strength balloons having even thinner, more flexible walls.


Although the foregoing advances in manufacturing thinner walled balloons have significantly improved the catheters, those efforts have been directed at the cylindrical midportion of the balloon.  The cones and necks of the balloon, at the ends of
the cylindrical midportion, are not as thin as the cylindrical midportion.  Each cone is of increasing wall thickness in a direction away from the cylindrical midportion of the balloon and reaches a maximum wall thickness at its juncture with the necks. 
The wall thickness of the neck is at that maximum value throughout their length.  The increased wall thickness of the balloon in the regions of the cones and the necks detracts from the ability of the balloon to collapse to a low profile as well as the
ability of the balloon to track along the guidewire along sharp tortuous paths.  It would be desirable, therefore, to provide a balloon for a dilatation catheter in which the wall thickness in the cone and neck portions is reduced and, preferably, is not
substantially greater than the thickness in the cylindrical midportion of the balloon.  It is among the objects of the invention to provide such a balloon and method for its manufacture.


It is among the general objects of the invention to provide improved dilation balloons and a method for their manufacture which provides superior properties of thin walls, flexibility and high strength as well as full dimensional stability both
in storage and when inflated.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


The balloon of the present invention is formed from a plurality of thin layers rather than from a single unitary layer, the aggregate wall thickness of the layers being approximately equal to the wall thickness of a conventional single layer
balloon in the cylindrical midportion.  The balloons are made by blow molding a first balloon in a cylindrical mold from a thin walled polymeric tubular parison, as described in U.S.  patent application Ser.  No. 001,759, filed Jan.  9, 1987, now
abandoned.


In accordance with the invention, the balloon is formed from a tubular thin wall parison of orientable semicrystalline polymer (polyethylene terephthalate being preferred) which is stretched very close to the elastic limit of the material and is
then heat set.  The balloon thus produced is extremely strong and has a very thin and highly flexible wall and is dimensionally stable both in storage and when inflated.  Thus, it is among the objects of the invention to provide dilatation balloons
having superior properties of thin walls, high tensile strength and dimensional stability.  More specifically, it is among the objects of the invention to provide dilatation balloons having radial tensile strength (hoop strength) greater than 35,000 psi. The balloon then is removed from the mold and is trimmed at its ends to remove the necks and a portion of the cones.  The trimmed balloon then is replaced in the mold against the mold walls.  A second polymeric tube then is inserted into the mold and it
is blow molded, expanding outwardly against the confines of the cylindrical mold and the inner surface of the first trimmed balloon.  Then the combined first and second balloons are removed from the mold and the second balloon is trimmed at its ends to
be slightly longer than the first trimmed balloon.  The combined first and second balloons then are replaced in the mold and the process is repeated, inserting a tubular polymeric parison in the mold and blow molding it to expand into engagement with the
second trimmed balloon.  The combined first, second and third balloons then are removed from the mold, the ends of the third tube may be trimmed to leave the necks on the third, innermost balloon.  The resulting balloon thus has cones in which the wall
thickness does not increase substantially and in which the wall thickness in the neck region also is substantially less than with prior techniques for making such balloons.  The resulting balloon is more flexible in the cone and neck region than with
prior balloons.


It is among the objects of the invention to provide a balloon for a dilatation catheter and a method for making the balloon.


Another object of the invention is to provide a balloon dilatation catheter having improved low profile and trackable characteristics in the region of its cones and necks.


Another object of the invention is to provide a dilatation balloon construction in which the cone and neck regions are not substantially greater in wall thickness than the cylindrical midportion of the balloon.


A further object of the invention is to provide a balloon for a dilatation catheter in which the balloon is formed from a plurality of thin layers in intimate contact with each other.


It is also among the objects of the invention to provide dilatation balloons and dilatation catheters having low profiles with superior trackability and balloon foldability.  Also among the objects of the invention is to provide a method for
making such balloons.  The invention thus provides for a method for making a family of such balloons which display the foregoing properties and which are usable in a variety of medical procedures. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS


The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated more fully from the following further description thereof, with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:


FIG. 1 is an illustration, in section, of a multi-part jacketed mold having a balloon formed within the mold and illustrating the tubular parison in phantom; and


FIG. 2 shows the difference in dimensional stability between the balloon made in accordance with the invention in which the balloon is heat set and a balloon which omits heat setting.


FIG. 3 is an illustration of a balloon dilatation catheter;


FIG. 4 is an enlarged diagrammatic cross-sectional illustration of a conventional balloon in which the thicknesses of the balloon material are highly exaggerated to illustrate The relative thicknesses of the balloon at the central cylindrical
portion, the cone portion and the neck portion; and


FIG. 5 is an enlarged diagrammatic cross-sectional illustration of a balloon made in accordance with the present invention;


FIG. 6 is an illustration of the mold process used in making the balloon; and


FIGS. 7A-7E are diagrammatic illustrations of the mold and the sequence of steps for making the balloon of the present invention. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT


The balloon may be formed in a mold as illustrated in FIG. 1 which includes a mold body 110 having an internal bore which defines the intended dimension of the finished balloon, indicated at 112, and a pair of end members including a fixed end
member 114 and a movable end member 116.  Both end members include outwardly tapering portions 114A, 116A, respectively, which merge into smaller diameter end bores 114B, 116B, respectively.  A water jacket 118 having inlet and outlet ports 123, 124
surrounds the mold 110.  The mold parts are formed from a material, such as brass having good heat conductivity.


The mold receives a tubular parison, indicated in phantom at 120 in FIG. 1.  The parison 120 is gripped at its ends which extends outwardly of the mold, one of the ends being sealed and the other end being connected securely to a source of fluid
(such as a gas) under pressure as by a fitting 122.  The clamp 121 and fitting 122 are mounted, by means not shown, to enable them to be drawn apart axially so as to impart an axial stretch to the parison 20.


The parison is formed from an orientable semicrystalline polymer such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET).  In accordance with the invention, the parison is dimensioned with respect to the intended final configuration of the balloon.  It is
particularly important that the parison is relatively thin walled and that it is highly oriented being stretched radially close to the elastic limit of the material at the inner surface of the tube.  The wall thickness is considered relative to the
inside diameter of the parisons which have wall thickness-to-inside diameter ratios of less than 0.5 and, preferably between 0.45 and 0.09 or even lower.  The use of such a thin walled parison enables the parison to be stretched radially to a greater and
more uniform degree because there is less stress gradient through the wall from the surface of the inside diameter to the surface of the outside diameter.  By utilizing thin wall starting parisons, there is less difference in the degree to which the
inner and outer surfaces of the tubular parison are stretched.  By maintaining a lowered stretch gradient across the wall of the parison, it is possible to produce a more uniformly and more highly oriented balloon having tensile strengths substantially
higher than those of the prior art.


Orientation takes place at an elevated temperature, as controlled by a heat transfer fluid, such as hot water, circulated through the water jacket.  The PET parison preferably is drawn axially and while being so drawn, is expanded radially within
the mold.  The orientation takes place at a temperature between the first and second order transition temperatures of the material, preferably about 80.degree.  C.-99.degree.  C. and more preferably at about 90.degree.  C. The tube is drawn from a
starting length L1 to a drawn length L2 which preferably is between 2.5 to 6 L1.  The tubular parison, which has an initial internal diameter ID1 and an outer diameter OD1 is expanded by gas emitted under pressure to the parison through fitting 22 to an
internal diameter ID.sub.2 which preferably is 6 to 8 IDI and an outer diameter OD.sub.2 which is about equal to or preferably greater than 4 OD.sub.1.  The expanded balloon then is subjected to a heat set step in which steam is circulated through the
jacket 18 at a temperature above the stretching temperature and between 110.degree.  to 220.degree.  C. and preferably about 130.degree.  C. and is maintained for a fraction of a second or more, and preferably between about 5 to 30 seconds sufficiently
to increase the degree of crystallinity in the balloon.  The heat setting step is significant in assuring dimensional stability for the balloon, both during storage and also under inflation pressures.  After the heat set step, the mold is cooled to a
temperature less than the second order transition temperature of the material.  The balloon thus formed may be removed from the mold by removing the end piece 16 and withdrawing the formed balloon from the mold.


The degree of radial stretch in the resulting balloon is very close to the elastic limit of the material (at the inner surface) and, preferably is within 10% of the maximum achievable radial expansion for the material under the process conditions
used.  The high degree of orientation strengthens the balloon to tensile strengths of more than 35,000 psi and as high as 90,000 psi or more.  For example, balloons made in accordance with the invention have a wall thickness to balloon diameter ratio
(T/D) of the order of 5.times.10.sup.-3 to 8.times.10.sup.-5, with tensile strengths as high as 90,000 psi.


Table 1 below illustrates the T/D ratios for finished balloons of the present invention in comparison with T/D ratios for prior art balloons.  Data for the balloons identified A-E were taken from Levy U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,490,421 for the
correspondingly designated balloons in that patent.


 TABLE 1  ______________________________________ WALL THICKNESS (T)/  BALLOON DIAMETER (D) RADIO  ______________________________________ PRIOR ART  A B C D E  ______________________________________ T .028 mm .038 mm .028 mm .038 mm  .045 mm  D
3.7 mm 5.0 mm 3.7 mm 5.0 mm  6.0 mm  T/D 7.57.times.10.sup.-3  7.6.times.10.sup.-3  7.57.times.10.sup.-3  7.6.times.10.sup.-3  7.5.times.10.sup.-3  ______________________________________ PRESENT INVENTION  F G H I  ______________________________________
T .0136 mm .0054 mm .00806 mm  .0016 mm  D 3.0 mm 4.0 mm 20.0 mm 20.0 mm  T/D 4.5.times.10.sup.-3  1.8.times.10.sup. -3  4.03.times.10.sup.-4  8.05.times.10.sup.-5  Burst at 352 psi  .sup. 220 psi  .sup. 73.5 psi  ______________________________________


The balloons of the present invention display a remarkable increase in flexibility as compared to the prior PET balloons (Levy '421 patent).  Flexibility is a function of the cube of the wall thickness, assuming all other variables, such as
balloon material, balloon diameter, etc. are held constant.  Table 2 illustrates the effect on flexibility of the thinner balloons of the present invention as compared with those of the prior art.


 TABLE 2  __________________________________________________________________________ Improvement in  Prior art (Levy) Saab Disclosure  Flexibility  (Bars)PressureBurst  (psi)StrengthTensileRadial  (mils)ThicknessWall 
(t.sup.3)StiffnessRelativeRadial  (psi)StrengthTensile  (mils)nessThick-Wall  (T.sup.3)nessStiff-Relative  ##STR1##  __________________________________________________________________________ 5 34,000  0.13 0.0022  90,000  0.048  0.00011 1,900  10 34,000 0.25 0.016  75,000  0.114  0.0015 1,000  15 34,000  0.38 0.054  65,000  0.20  0.0077 600  20 34,000  0.50 0.127  52,000  0.33  0.15 65  25 34,000  0.63 0.249  40,000  0.53  0.15 65 
__________________________________________________________________________


From Table 2 it can be seen that for balloons having burst pressures up to about 25 bars, the relative stiffness of the balloons of the present invention is far less than that of the prior art PET balloons.  The flexibility of the balloons of the
present invention, considered as a function of the cube of the thickness (t.sub.2) of the balloons far exceeds those of the prior art.  In the data presented in Table 2, the radial tensile strength was calculated at burst pressure.  Wall thicknesses were
calculated using the well known pressure vessel equation ##EQU1## where S.sub.c is the radial tensile strength, P is the burst pressure and D is the diameter of the balloon and t is the wall thickness.  Wall thicknesses similarly where calculated and the
thicknesses were cubed to provide an indication of relative stiffness.


FIG. 2 shows the effect of the heat set step in the practice of the invention and compares the dimensional stability in storage as well as when inflated, of a balloon which has been heat set (curve A) to one which has not been heat set (curve B). Both balloons were formed in a cylindrical mold having a diameter of 0.117", under identical conditions of temperature, time and pressure except that the heat set balloon was subjected to the heat set procedure as described above.  The other balloon was
cooled following the radial expansion, without any heat set.  The balloons were removed from their molds and were permitted to remain in ambient conditions (20.degree.  C.) for 48 hours.  The balloons then were tested by inflating them under increasing
pressures and measuring the balloon diameter as the pressure was increased.  As shown in FIG. 2, the heat set balloon, when nominally inflated to remove wrinkles (about 10 psi) had a diameter of about 0.0116", reflecting a shrinkage of 0.001".  By
contrast, the non-heat sealed balloon showed a nominal diameter of 0.1060, indicating a very substantial diametral shrinkage of 0.011".  As the pressure was increased, the heat set balloon showed relatively steady and slow yielding, reaching 5% radial
expansion at about 170 psi.  In contrast, the non-heat set balloon displayed very substantially yielding and radial expansion in the range of 50 to 100 psi, reaching 5% radial expansion at about 85 psi.


The superior properties of balloons made in accordance with the invention may be appreciated further from the "F5" characteristics of the balloon.  In oriented polymers the tensile strength at 5% elongation is referred to as "F5".  FIG. 2
illustrates, on curve A, the point on which a balloon made in accordance with the invention has achieved 5% radial expansion.  In curve A the F5 point occurs at about 170 psi inflation pressure.  The balloon reflected in curve A is the balloon identified
as balloon G in Table 1 (and in Example 2 below), having a wall thickness of 0.0054 mm and a diameter of 3.0 mm.  From the pressure vessel equation, the radial tensile strength at 5% radial expansion is calculated to be 47,600 psi.  That is contrasted
with the prior art (Levy '421) balloons in which the maximum tensile strength achievable to burst is of the order of 34,000 psi.  Thus, the present invention provides for F5 radial tensile strengths greater than 30,000 psi.


The following examples illustrate several balloons which may be made in the range of balloons achievable in accordance with the present invention.


EXAMPLE 1


A tubular parison was extruded from high molecular weight PET homopolyester resin having an initial intrinsic viscosity of about 111111.04.  The parison had an inner diameter of 0.789 mm, a wall thickness of 0.180 for a wall thickness-to-ID ratio
of 0.42.  The parison was stretched axially 3.times., was stretched 7.times.  ID and 3.8.times.  OD to form a 3.0 mm balloon having a wall thickness of 0.0136 mm.  The balloon was heat set.  The balloon had a burst pressure of 24 bars (23.7 atm) and a
calculated radial tensile strength of about 38,900 psi.  This balloon corresponds to the balloon designated "F" in Table 1.


EXAMPLE 2


A parison was formed in the manner described above in Example 1 to have an inner diameter of 0.429 mm and an outer diameter of 0.638 mm, having a parison wall thickness/ID ratio of 0.25.  The parison was stretched axially 3.3.times., was
stretched 7.times.  ID and 4.7.times.  OD to produce a heat set 3.0 mm balloon having a wall thickness of 0.0054 mm measured burst strength of 15 bars (14.8 atm) and a calculated radial tensile strength of about 61,250 psi.  This balloon corresponds to
balloon G in Table 1.


EXAMPLE 3


A parison was formed in the manner described about in Example 1 to have an ID of 2.86 mm and an OD of 3.39 mm, with a wall thickness/ID ratio of 0.09.  The parison was stretched at 90.degree.  C. in an axial direction 3.75.times.  and radially
7.times.  ID and 5.9.times.  OD to produce a heat set 20 mm balloon having a wall thickness of 0.00806, a measured burst strength of 5 bars (4.9 atm) and calculated radial tensile strength of 91,200 psi.  This balloon corresponds to balloon H in Table 1.


It should be understood that the foregoing description of the invention is intended merely to be illustrative and that other embodiments and modifications may be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit.


For example, the preferred aromatic linear polyester described for making balloons in accordance with the invention is polyethylene terephthalate derived from an aromatic dicarboxylic acid or its derivatives as a main acid component and an
aliphatic glycol as a main glycol component.  This polyester is a melt extrudable orientable semicrystalline polymer that can be fabricated into a variety of formed structures.  Typical examples of other aromatic dicarboxylic acid polymers that meet
these criteria utilize materials such as terepthalic acid, isothalic acid, naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, together with aliphatic polyethylene glycols having two to ten carbon atoms.  Among these are ethylene glycol, trimethylene glycol, tetramethylene
glycol, pentamethylene glycol, hexamethylene glycol, didecamethylene glycol and cyclohexane dimethanol.


FIG. 3 illustrates a balloon dilatation catheter of the type with which the present invention is concerned.  The catheter 10 has a proximal end (to the left in FIG. 3) and a distal end (to the right in FIG. 3).  An elongate flexible shaft 12
typically is provided with appropriate lumens, for example, a guidewire lumen (not shown) that extends the length of the shaft and an inflation lumen (not shown) that extends from the proximal end of the shaft to the distal region of the shaft and
communicates with the interior of a dilatation balloon 14 that is mounted to the distal region of the shaft.  Reference is made to the aforementioned Leary U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,545,390 for further description of the type of catheter, the Leary patent being
incorporated by reference herein.  By way of example, the catheter shaft 12 may be of the order of 150 cm long and of the order of 0.50" diameter.  The balloon may vary in size from about 1.5 mm to 4.5 mm diameter, for coronary use.  The balloon may be
considered as having a constant diameter cylindrical midportion 14M which expands to the nominal diameter, a pair of end cones 14C at the ends of the midsection 14M and a pair of neck sections 14N that extend outwardly from the narrow ends of the cones
14C.  The balloon 14 is attached to the catheter shaft 12 by adhesively bonding the necks 14N to the catheter shaft 12.


FIG. 4 shows a conventional balloon formed in one-piece, shown with its wall thicknesses exaggerated for ease of illustration.  Such a balloon may be made according to the procedure described in U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,490,421 and U.S.  application
Ser.  No. 001,759, filed Jan.  9, 1987, now abandoned, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.  The balloon is formed in a biaxially stretching process that includes blow molding in a mold of the type illustrated in FIG. 6.  As
described in further detail in the Levy patent, which is incorporated herein by reference, a tubular parison 15 of uniform inner and outer diameters and wall thickness is extended through the mold 17.  The tubular parison is stretched axially and is blow
molded radially within the mold 17.  The portion of the tube 15 that forms the cylindrical midportion 14M is subjected to a greater degree of radial stretching than the neck portions 14N.  Consequently, the midportion 14M will have less wall thickness
than the neck portion 14N.  The cones 14C are radially stretched to progressively varying degree as the diameter of the cones change.  Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 4 the midportion 14M will have the thinnest wall, the neck 14N will have the thickest wall
and the cones 14C will have a progressively increasing wall thickness in a direction extending from the ends of the midportion 14M to the necks 14N.  The cones 14C and necks 14N thus are thicker than required.  The increased thickness in the cones
adversely affects the ability of the balloon to contract to a low profile.  The greater thickness of the cones and the necks detracts from the trackability of the catheter.


In accordance with the present invention, the balloon is formed from a plurality of relatively thin layers rather than a single unitary relatively thick layer.  The configuration of a balloon made in accordance with the invention is shown in FIG.
5 in highly diagrammatic enlarged and exaggerated form.  The illustrated balloon, indicated generally at 16, is formed from three layers including an outer layer 18, an intermediate layer 20 and an inner layer 22.  The layers 18, 20, 22 are each in
continuous intimate contact with each other and need not be adhesively attached.  The balloon 16 is formed in a procedure illustrated diagrammatically in FIGS. 7A-7E.  The mold 17, described in further detail in the Levy patent, receives a tubular
parison 15 of the polymer from which the balloon is to be formed.  The parison is relatively thin walled.  The parison is stretched and expanded biaxially by combined axial stretching and blow molding as described in the Levy patent, to form a balloon
having cones and neck extensions.  In accordance with the invention, a first such balloon 18 is formed and is heat set at an elevated temperature as described in said U.S.  application Ser.  No. 001,759 and is then removed from the mold.  The first
balloon then is trimmed at each end between the ends of its cones as suggested at 24 in FIG. 7A, thus leaving a balloon midportion 18M and a pair of partial cones 18C.  The first balloon, thus trimmed, then is replaced in the mold.  A second elongate
tubular parison 20P then is inserted into the mold as suggested in FIG. 7B and it is biaxially stretched and expanded.  When the second parison 20P expands, it contacts fully and intimately the inner surface of the outer layer 18 contained within the
mold.  The second balloon thus formed also is heat set.  After the intermediate balloon 20 has been formed, the combined outer and intermediate balloons 18, 20 are removed from the mold.  The ends of the intermediate balloon layer 20 then are trimmed as
suggested at 26 in FIG. 7C so that the intermediate cones 20C extend slightly outwardly of the shorter outer cones 18C.  The two layer, partially formed balloon then may be reinserted into the mold and the process repeated with a third parison 22P of
polymeric material as suggested in FIG. 7D.  When the third layer 22 has been formed, the assembly of layers is again removed from the mold.  The ends of the inner layer 22 then may be trimmed as suggested at 28 in FIG. 7E to leave the necks 22N and an
exposed portion of the cones 22C.  The balloon thus formed may be attached to the catheter shaft 12 by adhesively bonding the necks 22N to the catheter shaft.


It will be appreciated from the foregoing that the neck of the multiluminal balloon which is formed from an initial thin parison, although not expanded as much as the balloon midportion still is substantially thinner than the corresponding neck
in a balloon formed in one-piece in a single layer.  The regions of the cones similarly define a series of stepped thicknesses in which the thickness of the cone decreases in a direction extending away from the balloon midportion.  Thus, although the
cone segment in each of the three layers will tend to have increased thickness in an outward direction, the stepped down configuration of the cones, considered together, results overall in a cone thickness that is relatively small.  For example, even in
a thin wall high strength balloon made in accordance with the procedure described in U.S.  application Ser.  No. 001,759, filed Jan.  9, 1987, now abandoned, the wall thickness in the cone ranges from about 0.0003" at its juncture with the cylindrical
midportion to approximately 0.001" at its juncture with the neck.  The neck portion may be of the order of 0.001".


By way of example, balloons made in accordance with the present invention may be formed from a tubular parison of polyethylene terephthalate having an inner diameter of the order of 0.0168" inner diameter and a wall thickness of the order of
0.0022".  The parison is biaxially stretched about 3.times.  in an axial direction and radially about 7.times.  inner diameter stretch and about 5.5.times.  outer diameter stretch.  The resulting balloon will have a wall thickness in the cylindrical
midportion region of the order of 0.0001", a cone thickness gradually increases from 0.0001" to about 0.0004" where the cone joins the neck and a neck portion having a wall thickness of the order of 0.0004".  The aggregate wall thickness in the
cylindrical midportion of the multiple layers is of the order of 0.0003" which is comparable to currently commercially available balloons.  From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the invention provides a new balloon dilatation catheter
comprising an elongate, flexible shaft having a dilatation balloon mounted at the distal end.  The balloon is formed from polymeric material and having a cylindrical midportion, an outwardly tapering conical portion at each end of the midportion and a
cylindrical neck portion at the ends of the conical portions.  The balloon is formed in at least two layers including an inner and outer layer, one of which is shortened and terminates in the region of the cones of the other, the necks of the balloon
being adhesively attached to the shaft.


From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that the invention provides a new construction for a dilatation balloon, a new method for its manufacture and a new resulting catheter that will display improved characteristics as to trackability and
reduced profile.  It should be understood, however, that the foregoing description of the invention is intended merely to be illustrative thereof and that other embodiments, modifications and equivalents may be apparent to those skilled in the art
without departing from its spirit.


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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: This invention relates to balloons used in dilatation catheters and to methods for making such balloons.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONBalloon dilatation catheters are used in the treatment of a variety of vascular conditions. Among the more frequent uses for balloon dilatation catheters is in vascular angioplasty of the peripheral and coronary arteries, by which arteriesobstructed by plaque (formed by fatty deposits such as cholesterol) are dilated to improve blood flow through the artery. In a typical angioplasty procedure, a balloon dilatation catheter is inserted percutaneously into the patient's arterial system andthen is advanced and steered through the patient's arteries until the distal end of the catheter, that carries the balloon, is disposed adjacent the obstruction (stenosis). The balloon end of the catheter then is advanced into the stenosis and, when soplaced, is inflated under high pressure, to dilate the artery in the region of stenosis. The catheter typically is used with a small diameter steerable guidewire which is used to guide the catheter to the stenosis. By way of example, such a catheterand guidewire system is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,545,390 issued Oct. 8, 1985 (Leary), reference thereto being made for a more complete description of the catheter and guidewire system and its manner of use.It is desirable, particularly in coronary angioplasty in which the coronary arteries are narrow and tortuous, and in which the stenoses often may be calcified and difficult to dilate, that the catheter and its balloon meet a number of stringentrequirements. Among these are that the balloon be capable of folding down to a low profile about the catheter shaft so that the balloon portion of the catheter is more readily insertable through the stenosis. Inability to insert the balloon portion ofthe catheter into the stenosis is among the more frequent causes of an unsuccessful angioplasty. Also among the important characteristics of the balloon dilatat