Interactive and Pragmatic Expressions of Spoken Discourse in the

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					Interactive and Pragmatic Expressions of Spoken Discourse in EFL Textbooks

                                  By Aleksandra Czarcińska



 - general information about interactive and pragmatic elements in spoken lg.
 - how important this field of a lg. is in acquiring a second lg.
 - d-items or gambits ‘ conversational strategy signals which constitute speech acts, i.e. the
smallest unit of a conversation which conveys some illocutionary force ‘ ( Bączkowska 2000 )
 - are d- items used in the textbooks for EFL and how do they correspond with natural lg.-
comparing with LLC


-    overview of the textbooks for EFL- Jan Bell and Roger Gower-the authors of the
     textbook Matters for advanced learners mention in the preface ‘speech features’; ‘speech
     features are said to be pinpointed in this coursebook; the authors claim that a great deal of
     emphasis is put on such structures
 - further division and detailed presentation of d-items
 - presentation of the existing research in methodology concerning interactive elements of
     spoken lg. and their usage in teaching materials-from David Crystal and Derek Davy
     Advanced Conversational English
 - in present corpus of spoken English there is the overuse of fillers- ‘ all the range of
     certain verbal and non-verbal signals used to gain time while groping for the right words’
     ( Bączkowska 2000:224 )
 - Stenstrom ( 1990) pinpointed such fillers as
                        hedges- ‘kind of’
                        softeners- ‘I mean’, ‘you know’
                        stallers- ‘well’
                        initiators- ‘anyway’, ‘now’
  presentations of the analysis of this expressions in Crystal and Davy- the matter of
exposition of these to the learners


-   description of the materials that will be used in the paper- the London-Lund Corpus of
    Spoken English
-   creating a corpus from the tapesripts from EFL textbooks
-   description of textbooks chosen for the study
-   the length of utterances as the base for comaprison of dialogues in the LLC and the
    tapescripts corpus
-   comparing the general structure of spoken discourse in the dialogues in corpuses of
    spoken English with the structure of dialogues from the handbooks- special attention put
    on a filler well- it’s pragmatic force and interactive character in spoken language
-   comparing the frequencies of most common D-items in the London-Lund Corpus and the
    tapescript corpus
-   conducting a questionnaire concerning interactive expressions among intermediate and
    advanced students

 Results and discussion

-   conclusions drawn from the comparison the two kinds of corpuses about aims of listening
    exercises in the handbooks
-    on the basis of comparison of frequencies of D-items in the LLC and in the tapescripts
    corpus checking to what extent the use of D-items are used by the authors of handbooks
-   basing on the study of the use of fillers in discourse, checking whether context and uses
    are similar in both cases- the results: whether language in handbooks reflects naturalness
    of real spoken language
-    discussion of the results of the questionnaire- what is the real use of interactive
    expressions among students and their attitude towards interactive expressions


-   summing up of the theoretical and methodological parts of the paper
-   suggestions for further studies in the field of spoken language- creating a corpus of EFL’s
    spoken English as the methodological tool for teachers and authors of syllabi and

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