UNION COLLEGE WEATHER STATION

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					 UNION COLLEGE
WEATHER STATION
   Brian Kruppenbacker
   Jeffrey D’Alessandro

 Advisor: Professor Traver
                          Goals
• Design and implement a weather station for the
    Union College campus community
•   Record
    Temperature               Relative humidity
    Barometric pressure       Precipitation
    UV index                  Wind speed
    Wind direction
• Calculate
    Wind chill & Dew point
• Display current and archived measurement data
    at weather.union.edu
          Performance Criteria
• Measurements must have accuracy within 5%
• The measurements must represent the current
    weather conditions
•   The computer must store the measurement data
    for future reference
•   The system must be able to run for a long
    period of time (years)
•   The station must be low maintenance
•   Any malfunctions must be easy to fix
                         Behavior
• Sensor station located on roof of F.W.
  Olin building will record measurements    Sensor
                                            Station


• Sensor station sends data to a computer

• Computer will perform the additional
  calculations needed


• Computer will store all measurements
                                             Hard
                                             Drive
• Computer will generate webpage to
  display most recent measurements

• Webpage will allow users to view
  archived measurement data
Our Design

  Sensor Station



    Structure



 Communication



     Server
         Types of Sensors
    ANALOG                   DIGITAL
 Based on voltage     Based on number of pulses

   Temperature              Precipitation
 Relative Humidity          Wind Speed
Barometric Pressure
    Ultra-Violet
  Wind Direction
             Sensors: Analog
• 8051 Microcontroller Analog to Digital Converter

• All sensor outputs were adjusted to fit between
  the range of 0 and 2.5 volts through the use of
  voltage dividers

• The voltage division is then taken into account
  when the measurements are calculated
             Sensors: Digital
• 8051 Microcontroller Programmable Counter
  Array

• Signal bounce is handled using both software
  and hardware approaches

• Measurements are calculated based on the
  number of pulses and the number of pulses
  within a time frame

• Pulses are counted using interrupts
Sensor Station: Microcontroller
                                Start


                 Setup Precepitation and Wind Speed
                            (Interrupts)

                        Get Temperature
                      Get Relative Humidity
_____                Get Barometric Pressure
 ENQ                         Get UV
                       Get Wind Direction
                          Check for ENQ
                                    ENQ

                             Turn off Interrupts
                                 Send Data
        If sent correctly, reset Precip and Wind Speed Counters
                          Turn Interrupts back on
                     Structure
• Location:
    F.W. Olin Building
•   Power:
    120 volts from building
•   Safety:
    Grounded (lightning)
    Circuit Breakers
            Communication

• The server will poll the microcontroller for
  new data every 60 seconds

• A communication protocol was created

• Serial Communication via Ethernet using
  Quatech Serial Device Server
Communication: Serial Device Server

• Encapsulates serial data coming from the
  microcontroller and sends it over Ethernet

• Device software on server receives data
  and creates a virtual serial port

• Server uses virtual serial port as if it were
  an actual serial port
     Communication: Protocols
                    SYN               DATA                   DATA
 Start   Emit ENQ

                    TIMEOUT
                                 TIMEOUT          Checksum

         Done             Emit ACK                            Checksum
                                       Good
                                     Checksum
                                                  Bad Checksum


                                             Emit NAK
Server-side Protocol                                         SYN

                                                    TIMEOUT
                      Server
• Polls the microcontroller for data
• Calculates
   – Wind Chill and Dew Point
   – Averages, Highs, Lows, and Totals

• Store measurement data

• Generate webpage
   – Current Weather Conditions
   – Archived Weather Measurement Data
Server: Data Flow Diagram
  Calculations                                  Data Acquisition




                      Current Weather
                       Measurements
                       File/Database



                                                   Archived
                                                   Weather
                                                Measurements
 Web Page Generator                             File/Database




                                        Archived Measurements Manager
             Server: Website
• PHP is used to read
  the current weather
  measurement data
  from a file and display
  the conditions

• Archived data can be
  viewed by selecting
  the month, day,
  and/or year
                  Results

            http://weather.union.edu
• All of the sensors have accuracy within 5%
• All measurements accurately depict the
  current weather conditions of the area
• The sensors purchased are low maintenance
• Station repairs will be simple and explained
  in a manual
              Conclusion
What we learned:
• System design and implementation
• How to handle signal bouncing using both
  software and hardware approaches
• Serial Communication
• PHP and HTML
• Teamwork and time management skills
                  Future Work
• Add additional sensors to the station

• Implement a database to store the current and archived
  measurement data

• Implement a data management program to compress
  and perform calculations on archived data

• Adjust website to obtain the data from the database

• Build station structure and mount on top of F.W. Olin
  building
               Thank You

• Professor Traver
• Professor Hedrick
• Professor Spallholtz
• Professor Almstead
Questions