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Primary Topic            applicable)




Applying technology      Media production

Applying technology      Creating support

Conversation and group
discussion               Critical reading
Conversation and group
discussion
Conversation and group
discussion
Conversation and group
discussion
Conversation and group
discussion


Creating support         Applying technology

Creating support

Creating support
                         Conversation and group
Critical listening       discussion
                         Critically evaluating
                         written/spoken texts and
Critical listening       visual media
                         Critically evaluating
                         written/spoken texts and
Critical listening       visual media
                         Critically evaluating
                         written/spoken texts and
Critical listening       visual media
                         Critically evaluating
                         written/spoken texts and
Critical listening       visual media
                         Critically evaluating
                         written/spoken texts and
Critical listening       visual media

Critical reading

Critical reading         Story/Literary elements
Critical viewing
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media                 Applying technology
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media




Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media

Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media
Critically evaluating
written/spoken texts and
visual media                 Mass media format


Grammar and usage            Applying technology

Grammar and usage            Language in daily use
Informational genres
Informative writing
Language in daily use
Literary genres
Literary style and
techniques
Literary/Narrative writing
Locating
sources/gathering
information                  Creating support
Locating                     Critically evaluating
sources/gathering            written/spoken texts and
information                  visual media
Locating
sources/gathering
information                  Creating support
Mass media format
Media and society          Mass media format



Media and society          Mass media format
Media production
Oral composition and       Organizing information and
presentation               ideas
Oral composition and       Organizing information and
presentation               ideas
Oral composition and       Organizing information and
presentation               ideas
Oral composition and
presentation               Creating support
Oral composition and
presentation
Oral composition and       Organizing information and
presentation               ideas
Organizing information
and ideas                  Writing format
Organizing information
and ideas                  Writing format

Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose

Organizing information
and ideas                  Create support
Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose
Organizing information
and ideas                  Writing format
Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose

Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose
Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose
Organizing information     Writing for an audience and
and ideas                  a purpose
Paragraph development
Personal response to
written/spoken texts and
visual media
Persuasive writing
Reading comprehension
strategies                 Critical reading
Reading comprehension
strategies                 Critical reading
Reading comprehension
strategies
Story/Literary elements
Style and techniques in
visual media
Style, diction, and voice
Verbal and nonverbal        Oral composition and
communication               presentation
Visual media genres
Writing
conventions/mechanics       Grammar and usage
Writing for audience and    Organizing information and
purpose                     ideas

Writing for audience and    Organizing information and
purpose                     ideas

Writing for audience and    Organizing information and
purpose                     ideas
Writing for audience and    Organizing information and
purpose                     ideas


Writing format

                            Organizing information and
Writing format              ideas

                            Organizing information and
Writing format              ideas



Writing format              Creating support

                            Organizing information and
Writing format              ideas


Writing process             Writing process
                            Writing for audience and
Writing process             purpose
                            Locating sources/gathering
Writing process             information
                            Locating sources/gathering
Writing process             information


Writing research papers     Creating support
Writing research papers   Creating support


Writing research papers   Creating support
American Diploma Project (Achieve) Standards
Apply and adapt the principles of written composition to create coherent media productions
using effective images, text, graphics, music and/or sound effects — if possible — and
present a distinctive point of view on a topic (for example, PowerPoint presentations,
videos).
Determine how, when and whether to employ technologies (such as computer software,
photographs and video) in lieu of, or in addition to, written communication.
Participate productively in self-directed work teams for a particular purpose (for example,
to interpret literature, write or critique a proposal, solve a problem, make a decision),
including:
Building on the ideas of others and contributing relevant information or ideas in group
discussions

Posing relevant questions

Extracting essential information from others' input
Describe the structure of a given argument; identify its claims and evidence; and evaluate
connections among evidence, inferences and claims.
Present written material using basic software programs (such as Word, Excel and
PowerPoint) and graphics (such as charts, ratios and tables) to present information and
ideas best understood visually.
Cite print or electronic sources properly when paraphrasing or summarizing information,
quoting, or using graphics.
Write an academic essay that supports judgments with relevant and substantial evidence
and well-chosen details

Listening with civility to the ideas of others;


Identify the thesis of a speech and determine the essential elements that elaborate it.

Analyze the ways in which the style and structure of a speech support or confound its
meaning or purpose.


Paraphrase information presented orally by others.


Summarize information presented orally by others.

Give and follow spoken instructions to perform specific tasks, to answer questions or to
solve problems.
Analyze two or more texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach
similar or different conclusions.
Identify the meaning of common idioms, as well as literary, classical and biblical allusions;
use them in oral and written communication.
Comprehend and communicate quantitative, technical and mathematical information.


Distinguish among facts and opinions, evidence and inferences.


Identify false premises in an argument.


Evaluate the range and quality of evidence used to support or oppose an argument.

Recognize common logical fallacies, such as the appeal to pity (argumentum ad
misericordiam), the personal attack (argumentum ad hominem), the appeal to
common opinion (argumentum ad populum) and the false dilemma (assuming
only two options when there are more options available); understand why these
fallacies do not prove the point being argued.

Analyze written or oral communications for false assumptions, errors, loaded terms,
caricature, sarcasm, leading questions and faulty reasoning.
Understand the distinction between a deductive argument (where, if the premises are all
true and the argument's form is valid, the conclusion is inescapably true) and inductive
reasoning (in which the conclusion provides the best or most probable explanation of the
truth of the premises, but is not necessarily true).

Examine the intersections and conflicts between the visual (such as media images,
painting, film and graphic arts) and the verbal.

Use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauruses and glossaries (print and electronic)
to determine the definition, pronunciation, etymology, spelling and usage of words.
Recognize nuances in the meanings of words; choose words precisely to enhance
communication.

Write an academic essay that makes valid inferences




Gather relevant information from a variety of print and electronic sources, as well as from
direct observation, interviews and surveys.

Make distinctions about the credibility, reliability, consistency, strengths and limitations of
resources, including information gathered from Web sites.


Report findings within prescribed time and/or length requirements, as appropriate.
Recognize how visual and sound techniques or design (such as special effects, camera
angles and music) carry or influence messages in various media.

Evaluate the aural, visual and written images and other special effects used in television,
radio, film and the Internet for their ability to inform, persuade and entertain (for example,
anecdote, expert witness, vivid detail, tearful testimony and humor).

Make oral presentations that exhibit a logical structure appropriate to the audience, context
and purpose

Make oral presentations that group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus;

Make oral presentations that include smooth transitions
Make oral presentations that support judgments with sound evidence and well-chosen
details

Make oral presentations that make skillful use of rhetorical devices

Make oral presentations that provide a coherent conclusion
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that demonstrates
clear and knowledgeable judgment;
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that structure ideas
in a sustained and logical fashion
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that use a range of
strategies to elaborate and persuade, such as descriptions, anecdotes, case studies,
analogies and illustrations
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that clarify and
defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions,
quotations and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that anticipate and
address the reader's concerns and counterclaims
Construct arguments (both orally and in writing) that develop a thesis that provide clear
and effective conclusions

Write an academic essay that provides a coherent conclusion
Organize ideas in writing with a thesis statement in the introduction, well-constructed
paragraphs, a conclusion and transition sentences that connect paragraphs into a
coherent whole.

Write an academic essay that develops a thesis
Write an academic essay that includes relevant information and excludes extraneous
information




Use roots, affixes and cognates to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

Use context to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
Make oral presentations that employ proper eye contact, speaking rate, volume,
enunciation, inflection and gestures to communicate ideas effectively.

Demonstrate control of standard English through the correct use of grammar, punctuation,
capitalization and spelling.

Creates an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience and context;

Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that address audience needs, stated purpose and context
Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that anticipate potential problems, mistakes and
misunderstandings that might arise for the reader
Select and use formal, informal, literary or technical language appropriate for the purpose,
audience and context of the communication
Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that include relevant information and exclude extraneous
information

Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that translate technical language into non-technical English
Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that adopt a customary format, including proper salutation,
closing and signature, when appropriate.
Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that use appropriate strategies, such as providing facts and
details, describing or analyzing the subject, explaining benefits or limitations, comparing or
contrasting, and providing a scenario to illustrate
Produce work-related texts (for example, memos, e-mails, correspondence, project plans,
work orders, proposals, bios) that create predictable structures through the use of
headings, white space and graphics, as appropriate
Drawing on readers' comments on working drafts, revise documents to develop or support
ideas more clearly, address potential objections, ensure effective transitions between
paragraphs and correct errors in logic.
Edit both one's own and others' work for grammar, style and tone appropriate to audience,
purpose and context.

Plan writing by taking notes, writing informal outlines and researching

Define and narrow a problem or research topic.
Write an extended research essay (approximately six to 10 pages), building on primary
and secondary sources, that marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and
related claims
Write an extended research essay (approximately six to 10 pages), building on primary
and secondary sources, that paraphrases and summarizes with accuracy and fidelity the
range of arguments and evidence supporting or refuting the thesis, as appropriate
Write an extended research essay (approximately six to 10 pages), building on primary
and secondary sources, that cites sources correctly and documents quotations,
paraphrases and other information using a standard format
                                                                               Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                        Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project             University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                 Select or Rephrase Definition Here

READING                                                                         Engage in an analytic process to
Critical reading                                                                enhance comprehension and
                                                                                create personal meaning when
                                                                                reading text. This includes the                                            Expands [reading]
                                                                                ability to annotate, question,                                             comprehension by analyzing,
                                                                                agree or disagree, summarize,                                              interpreting, and synthesizing
                                                                                critique and formulate a personal                                          information and ideas

                                                                             Think comparatively and make           Compares and contrasts social
                                           Analyze two or more texts         connections across texts and           and cultural perspectives,
                                           addressing the same topic to      points of view, enriching, and         issues, and/or themes between
                                           determine how authors reach       expanding the understanding of         two or more works from
                                           similar or different conclusions. the materials.                         literature and/or the humanities*
                                                                             Are able to discuss with
                                           Identify and explain the themes understanding themes such as             Identifies and interprets
                                           found in a single literary work;  initiation, love and duty, heroism     significant social/cultural issues,
                                           analyze the ways in which similar and death and rebirth that             themes, or commentary
                                           themes and ideas are developed appear across a variety of                represented in a literary,
                                           in more than one literary work.   Decide what and genres.
                                                                             literary workspieces of                philosophical, or artistic work*
                                           Evaluate the range and quality of information are relevant to a          Supports critical judgments
                                           evidence used to support or       particular assignment and note         [about literature] with specific
                                           oppose an argument.               the specific points that support       evidence
                                                                                                                    Indicates awareness of one or
                                                                                                                    more approaches to literary
                                                                                                                    criticism (e.g., personal,
                                                                                                                    historical, biographical,
                                           Analyze works of literature for                                          psychological, sociological,
                                           what they suggest about the                                              formal, "new critical," feminist) in
                                           historical period in which they                                          analyzing and critiquing a literary
                                           were written.                                                            work
                                           Analyze written or oral                                                  Identifies and critically evaluates
                                           communications for false                                                 communications and language
                                           assumptions, errors, loaded                                              which reflect biases,
                                           terms, caricature, sarcasm,                                              stereotypes, persuasive
                                           leading questions and faulty                                             techniques, and propaganda
                                           reasoning.*                                                              from various sources*
                                                                                Identify basic beliefs,
                                                                                perspectives and philosophical
                                                                                assumptions underlying an
                                                                                author's work. This includes
                                                                                identifying points of view,         Examines multiple social or
                                                                                attitudes and the values            cultural viewpoints represented Thinks critically about author's
                                                                                conveyed by specific use of         in a literary, artistic, historical or use of language, style, purpose
                                                                                language.                           philosophical work*                    and perspective
                                                                                               * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11
                                                                   Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                       Oregon State’s Proficiency-         Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                       Knowledge and Skills for           based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English   American Diploma Project            University Success                 System (PASS)                       Pilot Project            Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                    Make supported inferences and
                                                                    draw conclusions based on
                                                                    textual features, seeking such     Establishes and organizes the
                                                                    evidence in text, format,          interpretation [of literature]
                                                                    language use, expository           around several clear ideas,
                                                                    structures and arguments used. premises, or images
                                                                    Take a position about reading      Develops the interpretation [of
                                                                    material and defend that position literature] from a clear,
                                                                    in a discussion.                   compelling central thesis
                                                                    Move between general and
                                                                    specific ideas when analyzing      Relates general observations to
                                                                    information.                       specific textual evidence
                                                                    Demonstrate familiarity with the Identifies the social, cultural,
                                                                    concept of the relativity of all   historical, or political context
                                                                    historical perspectives, including presented in a literary or artistic
                                                                    their own.                         work*
                                                                                                       Identifies the reader's own social
                                                                    Are able to discuss with           and cultural points of view and
                                                                    understanding how personal         biases that influence
                                                                    experiences and values affect      perceptions of and responses to
                                                                    reading comprehension and          a literary, philosophical, or
                                                                    interpretation.                    artistic work*
                                                                                                       Extends beyond literal
                                                                                                       interpretation, summarizing,
                                                                    Think critically about what is     verbatim quoting, or personal
                                                                    read.                              judgment
                                                                     Demonstrate an ability to make
                                                                     connections between the
                                                                     component parts of a text and
                                                                     the larger theoretical structures,
                                                                     including presupposition,
                                Identify interrelationships          audience, purpose, writer's
                                between and among ideas and          credibility or ethos, types of
                                concepts within a text, such as      evidence or material being used
                                cause-and-effect relationships.      and style.
                                Analyze the moral dilemmas in
                                works of literature, as revealed
                                by characters' motivation and
                                behavior.




                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                         12
                                                                Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                  Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                Understand the distinction
                                between a deductive argument
                                (where, if the premises are all
                                true and the argument's form is
                                valid, the conclusion is
                                inescapably true) and inductive
                                reasoning (in which the
                                conclusion provides the best or
                                most probable explanation of the
                                truth of the premises, but is not
                                necessarily true).
                                Describe the structure of a given
                                argument; identify its claims and
                                evidence; and evaluate
                                connections among evidence,
                                inferences and claims.
                                Distinguish among facts and
                                opinions, evidence and
                                inferences.*
                                Identify false premises in an
                                argument.
                                Recognize common logical
                                fallacies, such as the appeal to
                                pity (argumentum ad
                                misericordiam), the personal
                                attack (argumentum ad
                                hominem), the appeal to
                                common opinion (argumentum
                                ad populum) and the false
                                dilemma (assuming only two
                                options when there are more
                                options available); understand
                                why these fallacies do not prove
                                the point being argued.
                                Analyze the ways in which a
                                text's organizational structure
                                supports or confounds its
                                meaning or purpose.
                                                                    Discuss questions in depth and
                                                                    effectively defend a position
                                                                    based on their analysis of the
                                                                    material.*




                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                               13
                                                           Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-  Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                               Knowledge and Skills for          based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English   American Diploma Project    University Success                System (PASS)                Pilot Project              Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                            Are able to discuss with
                                                            understanding the relationships
                                                            between literature and politics,
                                                            including the political
                                                            assumptions underlying an
                                                            author's work and the impact of
                                                            literature on political movements
                                                            and events.

                                                            Go beyond the facts presented
                                                            in readings or lectures. Allow
                                                            questions to emerge from the
                                                            text, identify connections with
                                                            other concepts they have
                                                            learned, and imagine
                                                            alternatives to a text's final
                                                            content message or conclusion.*
                                                            Prepare to answer questions
                                                            about how text makes them feel
                                                            and identify what features of the
                                                            text evoke such feelings.

                                                                                                Analyzes the influences of social
                                                                                                and cultural membership,
                                                                                                ethnicity, or gender within a
                                                                                                literary or artistic work*
                                                                                                Evaluates the effectiveness of
                                                                                                an oral, visual, written, or
                                                                                                multimedia communication in
                                                                                                relationship to its context,
                                                                                                audience, purpose, and
                                                                                                delivery*
                                                                                                Identifies and analyzes the way
                                                                                                in which individuals, groups,
                                                                                                relationships, and social
                                                                                                dynamics are depicted within a
                                                                                                literary or artistic work*
                                                                                                Recognizes, analyzes, and
                                                                                                critiques stereotypical
                                                                                                characterizations*
                                                                                                Establishes and applies a logical
                                                                                                method for analyzing,
                                                                                                interpreting, or critiquing a
                                                                                                literary work


                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                           14
                                                                        Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                          Oregon State’s Proficiency-       Washington Competency-
                ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic           Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS) and analyzes Pilot Project
                                                                                                          Accurately places                                                          Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                          the work within the context of an
                                                                                                          influential movement (or the
                                                                                                          works of other
                                                                                                          authors/creators)*
                                                                                                          Expresses the interpretation [of
                                                                                                          literature] of a written work
                                                                                                          clearly, coherently, and
                                                                                                          vigorously

                                                                                                            Develops, explains, and justifies
                                                                                                            the interpretation [of literature]
                                                                                                            through sustained use of
                                                                                                            examples and textual evidence
                                                                                                            Identifies and explains
                                                                                                            significant biographical or
                                                                                                            contextual influences on an
                                                                                                            author's/creator's work
                                                                                                            Develops an interpretation that
                                                                                                            exhibits personal engagement,
                                                                                                            originality, careful reading,
                                                                                                            understanding, and insight
                                                                                                            Examines how and why a
                                                                                                            literary, philosophical, or artistic
                                                                                                            work attempts to promote or
                                                                                                            resist social/cultural change*
                                                                                                            Uses and responds to the ideas
                                                                                                            of critics in analyzing and
                                                                                                            critiquing a literary work
Informational
genres                                  Interpret and use information in Interpret accurately the content   Accurately interprets information
                                        maps, charts, graphs, time lines, of charts, graphs and visual      presented in text and graphic
                                        tables and diagrams.              media that occur in texts.        forms
                                                                                                                                                   Reads to learn new information,
                                                                                                                                                   such as reading in science,
                                        Comprehend and communicate                                                                                 mathematics, technical
                                        quantitative, technical and                                                                                documents and for personal
                                        mathematical information.*                                                                                 need
                                        Analyze foundational U.S.
                                        documents for their historical
                                        and literary significance (for
                                        example, The Declaration of         Understand instructions for
                                        Independence, the Preamble to       software, job descriptions,
                                        the U.S. Constitution, Abraham      college applications, historical
                                        Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address,"     documents, government
                                        Martin Luther King's "Letter from   publications, newspapers and
                                        Birmingham Jail").                  textbooks.
                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                             Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                               Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                  ACT College Readiness                                       Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic             Standards for English   American Diploma Project            University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                          Distinguish between a summary Distinguish between different
                                          and a critique.                     forms of writing.*
                                                                                                                                             Uses features of non-fiction text
                                          Identify the main ideas of          Identify the primary elements of                               and computer software such as
                                          informational text and determine the types of charts, graphs and                                   titles, headings, pictures, maps,
                                          the essential elements that         visual media that occur most                                   and charts to find and
                                          elaborate them.                     commonly in texts.                                             understand specific information
                                                                                                                                             Locates and uses information to
                                          Follow instructions in                                                                             perform tasks such as using
                                          informational or technical texts to                                                                schedules, following directions,
                                          perform specific tasks, answer                                                                     filling out job applications and
                                          questions or solve problems.                                                                       solving problems
                                          Summarize informational and
                                          technical texts and explain the
                                          visual components that support
                                          them.
                                          Synthesize information from
                                          multiple informational and
                                          technical sources.
                                          Draw conclusions based on
                                          evidence from informational and
                                          technical texts.
                                          Evaluate informational and
                                          technical texts for their clarity,
                                          simplicity and coherence and for
                                          the appropriateness of their
                                          graphics and visual appeal.
Literary genres                                                             Demonstrate familiarity with
                                                                            major literary periods of English
                                          Demonstrate knowledge of 18th and American literature and their Read works of literary merit from
                                          and 19th century foundational     characteristic forms, subjects      a variety of historical literary
                                          works of American literature.     and authors.                        periods and movements
                                          Interpret significant works from
                                          various forms of literature:
                                          poetry, novel, biography, short   Use reading skills and strategies
                                          story, essay and dramatic         to understand a variety of types                                        Reads for literacy experience in
                                          literature; use understanding of of literature, such as epic pieces                                       a variety of forms such as
                                          genre characteristics to make     (for instance, the Iliad) and lyric Read works of literary merit from   novels, short stories, poems,
                                          deeper and subtler                poems, as well as narrative         a variety of cultures and in a      plays, essays to understand self
                                          interpretations of the meaning of novels and philosophical pieces. variety of forms                       and others.
                                                                            Demonstrate familiarity with
                                                                            major works of literature
                                                                            produced by American and
                                                                            British authors.


                                                                                            * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16
                                                                              Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                     ACT College Readiness                                     Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic                Standards for English   American Diploma Project          University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                               Demonstrate awareness of
                                                                               major U.S. and British authors-
                                                                               men and women- and
                                                                               representative literary works
                                                                               from a variety of cultural
                                                                               Demonstrate familiarity with
                                                                               authors from literary traditions
                                                                               beyond the English-speaking
                                                                               world.
                                                                               Comprehend the salient
                                                                               characteristics of major types
                                                                               and genres of texts, such as
                                                                               novels, short stories, horror
                                                                               stories, science fiction,
                                                                               biographies, autobiographies,
                                                                               poems and plays.
                                                                               Distinguish between genres
                                                                               such as comedy, epic, tragedy,
                                                                               romance, and others.
                                                                                   Demonstrate familiarity with
                                                                                   literary forms and genre in
                                                                                   addition to cultural contexts.
                                                                                   Distinguish between different
                                                                                   forms of writing.*
                                                                                   Understand the formal
                                                                                   constraints of different types of
                                                                                   texts and can distinguish
                                                                                   between, for example, a
                                                                                   Shakespearean sonnet and a
                                                                                   poem written in free verse.
                                                                                                                       Read works of literary merit from
                                                                                                                       a variety of contemporary writers
                                                                                                                       and regions
Literary style and
techniques                                   Recognize the use or abuse of
                                             ambiguity, contradiction,             Use aesthetic qualities of style,
                                             paradox, irony, incongruities,        such as diction or mood, as a
                                             overstatement and                     basis to evaluate literature that
                                             understatement in text and            contains ambiguities, subtleties
                                             explain their effect on the reader.   or contradictions.
                                                                                   Are able to identify archetypes,
                                                                                   such as universal destruction,
                                                                                   journeys and tests and
                                                                                   banishment, which appear             Within a variety of literary
                                                                                   across a variety of types of         genres and works, recognizes
                                                                                   literature, including American       and analyzes the patterns and
                                                                                   literature, world literature, myths, motifs developed within and
                                                                                                    * religious texts. among literary works
                                                                                   propaganda and This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                             17
                                                                                   Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                     Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                ACT College Readiness                                               Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic           Standards for English               American Diploma Project        University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                 Select or Rephrase Definition Here

                                                                                      Demonstrate familiarity with the
                                                                                      concept that historical, social
                                                                                      and economic contexts influence
                                                                                      form, style and point of view; and
                                                                                      that social influences affect an
                                                                                      author's descriptions of
                                                                                      character, plot and setting.
                                                                                      Recognize and comprehend
                                                                                      narrative terminology and
                                                                                      techniques, such as author
                                                                                      versus narrator, stated versus
                                                                                      implied author and historical
                                                                                      versus present-day reader.
                                                                                                                           Identifies and critically evaluates
                                                                                                                           communications and language
                                                                                                                           which reflect biases,
                                                                                                                           stereotypes, persuasive
                                                                                                                           techniques, and propaganda
                                                                                                                           from various sources*
                                                                                                                           Analyzes how form, technique,
                                                                                                                           and language are used in a
                                                                                                                           variety of oral, visual, written, or
                                                                                                                           multimedia communications*
                                                                                                                           Draws well-supported
                                                                                                                           conclusions about the effects of
                                                                                                                           motifs and language use and
                                                                                                                           structure on the reader's
                                                                                                                           experience and the meaning,
                                                                                                                           unity, and effectiveness of a
                                                                                                                           literary work
                                                                                                                           Within a variety of literary
                                                                                                                           genres and works, recognizes
                                                                                                                           and analyzes the writer's
                                                                                                                           choices and uses of language
Mass media                                                                                                                                                        Identifies and evaluates the
format                                                                                                                                                            techniques of mass media
                                                                                                                                                                  messages*
Reading         Identify the central idea or main                                   Taking in information, analyzing Identifies key information and
comprehension   topic of a straightforward piece                                    it and recording that which is     ideas from oral, visual, written, Comprehends important ideas
strategies      of writing                                                          meaningful and useful.*            or multimedia presentations*      and details [when reading]
                                                                                    Exercise a variety of strategies                                     Uses word recognition and word
                                                                                    to understand the origins and                                        meaning skills and strategies
                                                                                    meanings of new words,                                               such as phonics, contexts,
                                                    Use roots, affixes and cognates including analysis of word roots                                     pictures clues, and word origins;
                                                    to determine the meaning of     and the determination of word                                        roots, prefixes, and suffixes of
                                                    unfamiliar words.               derivations.                                                         words
                                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      18
comprehension
strategies


                                                                                  Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                     Oregon State’s Proficiency-  Washington Competency-
                ACT College Readiness                                              Knowledge and Skills for          based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic           Standards for English             American Diploma Project         University Success                System (PASS)                Pilot Project                           Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                   Exercise a variety of strategies
                                                                                   to understand the origins and
                                                                                   meanings of new words,
                                                  Use context to determine the     including recognition of cognates                              Builds vocabulary through
                                                  meaning of unfamiliar words.     and contextual clues.                                          reading
                                                                                   Use monitoring and self-
                                                                                   correction, as well as reading
                                                                                   aloud, as means to ensure                                      Reads fluently, adjusting reading
                                                                                   comprehension.                                                 for purpose and material
                                                                                                                                                  Assesses own strengths and
                                                                                   Paraphrase reading material to                                 need for improvement as a
                                                                                   show comprehension.                                            reader
                Identify the focus of a simple
                essay, applying that knowledge                                                                                                             Expands comprehension by
                to add a sentence that                                                                                                                     analyzing, interpreting, and
                sharpens that focus or to                                                                                                                  synthesizing information and
                determine if an essay has met a                                                                                                            ideas*

                Determine relevancy when
                presented with a variety of
                sentence-level details
                                                  Identify the meaning of common
                                                  idioms, as well as literary,
                                                  classical and biblical allusions;
                                                  use them in oral and written
                                                  communication.*
                                                                                      Connect reading to writing and
                                                                                      thinking skills . . . [through]
                                                                                      active reading [which] includes
                                                                                      making notes, summarizing and
                                                                                      critiquing the material.
                                                                                      Understand vocabulary and
                                                                                      content, including subject-area
                                                                                      terminology; connotative and
                                                                                      denotative meanings; and
                                                                                      idiomatic meanings.

                                                                                      Integrate personal experiences
                                                                                      and knowledge with the material
                                                                                      encountered in the coursework.

                                                                                                                        Clearly distinguishes among
                                                                                                                        facts, supported inferences, and
                                                                                                                        opinions in information sources*
                                                                                                                                                      Seeks and uses feedback to
                                                                                                                                                      improve reading; offers
                                                                                                                                                      suggestions and comments to
                                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                      others when appropriate                                                  19
                                                                             Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                               Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                 ACT College Readiness                                        Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic            Standards for English   American Diploma Project             University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                   Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Story/Literary
elements                                 Identify how elements of                                                                              Understands elements of
                                         dramatic literature (for example,                                     Within a variety of literary    literature, such as story
                                         dramatic irony, soliloquy, stage                                      genres and works, recognizes    elements, and use of humor,
                                         direction and dialogue) articulate                                    and analyzes the uses of        exaggeration and figures of
                                         a playwright's vision.                                                elements in literature          speech
                                                                            Understand plot and character
                                         Analyze the setting, plot, theme,  development in literature,
                                         characterization and narration of  including character motive,
                                         classic and contemporary short     causes for actions and the
                                         stories and novels.                credibility of events.
                                                                            Are able to discuss with
                                                                            understanding the effects of an
                                                                            author's style and use of literary
                                                                            devices to influence the reader
                                                                            and evoke emotions. This
                                                                            includes such devices as
                                                                            imagery, characterization, choice
                                                                            of narrator, use of sound, formal
                                         Demonstrate knowledge of           and informal language, allusions,
                                         metrics, rhyme scheme, rhythm, symbols, irony, voice,                 Uses [literary] concepts and
                                         alliteration and other conventions flashbacks, foreshadowing, time terminology correctly and
                                         of verse in poetry.                and sequence and mood.             appropriately
                                         Identify the meaning of common
                                         idioms, as well as literary,
                                         classical and biblical allusions;
                                         use them in oral and written
                                         communication.*
WRITING
Applying                                 Use general and specialized       Know how to use the spell-
technology                               dictionaries, thesauruses and     checker and grammar check
                                         glossaries (print and electronic) function in word processing
                                         to determine the definition,      software while understanding the
                                         pronunciation, etymology,         limitations of relying upon these
                                         spelling and usage of words.*     tools.*
                                                                           Use a variety of print or
                                         Gather relevant information from electronic primary and
                                         a variety of print and electronic secondary sources including         Uses a variety of research
                                         sources, as well as from direct   books, magazines, newspapers,       methods and resources,
                                         observation, interviews and       journals, periodicals and the       including on-line information
                                         surveys.*                         Internet.*                          searches*




                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                            Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                   Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project        University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                 Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                           Present written material using
                                           basic software programs (such
                                           as Word, Excel and PowerPoint)
                                           and graphics (such as charts,
                                           ratios and tables) to present
                                           information and ideas best
                                           understood visually.*
                                           Determine how, when and
                                           whether to employ technologies
                                           (such as computer software,
                                           photographs and video) in lieu
                                           of, or in addition to, written
                                           communication.
                                                                                                                Locates varied and sufficient
                                                                                                                sources of information, using
                                                                                                                available library, electronic, and
                                                                                                                human resources*
                                                                                                                Independently uses
                                                                                                                organizational features of
                                                                                                                libraries, electronic media,
                                                                                                                information sources and texts to
                                                                                                                access information*
Creating support                                                            Articulate a position through a
                                                                            thesis statement and advance it
                                           Write an academic essay that     using evidence, examples and        Supports conclusions and
                                           supports judgments with relevant counterarguments that are           arguments with adequate and          Writing provides connections
                                           and substantial evidence and     relevant to the audience or issue   appropriate researched               between details and pieces of
                                           well-chosen details.             at hand.                            information                          evidence*
                                                                                                                                                     Writing develops a thesis as a
                                           Write an academic essay that    Collect information to develop a                                          suggestion on an idea the writer
                                           develops a thesis.              topic and support a thesis.                                               is invested in
                                           Write an extended research
                                           essay (approximately six to 10
                                           pages), building on primary and
                                           secondary sources, that
                                           marshals evidence in support of
                                           a clear thesis statement and                                                                              Writing integrates evidence with
                                           related claims.*                                                                                          overall claim/perspective
                                                                                                                                                     Develops a topic or theme,
                                                                                                                                                     organizes thoughts around a
                                                                                                                                                     clear beginning, middle and end;
                                                                                                                                                     uses transitional sentences and
                                                                                                                                                     phrases to connect related
                                                                                                                                                     ideas; writes coherently and
                                                                                                                Develops and connects ideas*         compellingly*


                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             21
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
              ACT College Readiness                                       Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic         Standards for English   American Diploma Project            University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                       Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                      Produce work-related texts (for
                                      example, memos, e-mails,
                                      correspondence, project plans,      Use a variety of methods to
                                      work orders, proposals, bios)       develop arguments, including
                                      that use appropriate strategies,    compare-contrast reasoning;
                                      such as providing facts and         logical arguments (inductive-
                                      details, describing or analyzing    deductive); and alternation
                                      the subject, explaining benefits    between general and specific
                                      or limitations, comparing or        (e.g., connections between
                                      contrasting, and providing a        public knowledge and personal
                                      scenario to illustrate.             observation and experience).
                                                                                                             Fully develops ideas and
                                      Write an academic essay that                                           content appropriate to mode and
                                      includes relevant information                                          audience, avoiding superficial
                                      and excludes extraneous                                                discussions or disconnected
                                      information.                                                           content
                                      Construct arguments (both orally
                                      and in writing) that use a range
                                      of strategies to elaborate and
                                      persuade, such as descriptions,
                                      anecdotes, case studies,
                                      analogies and illustrations.*
                                      Write an extended research
                                      essay (approximately six to 10
                                      pages), building on primary and
                                      secondary sources, that
                                      paraphrases and summarizes
                                      with accuracy and fidelity the
                                      range of arguments and
                                      evidence supporting or refuting
                                      the thesis, as appropriate*
                                                                          Identify claims in their writing
                                                                          that require outside support or
                                                                          verification.
                                                                                                             Builds from the thinking of
                                                                                                             others while discovering,
                                                                                                             developing, and expressing
                                                                                                             original and well-developed
                                                                                                             ideas
Grammar and                                                                                                  Uses reasonably correct
usage                                 Demonstrate control of standard     Understand the specific ways       spelling, grammar, punctuation,   Knows and applies correct
                                      English through the correct use     that correct grammar makes         capitalization, paragraph         spelling, grammar, sentence
                                      of grammar, punctuation,            writing clearer and helps          structure, and sentence           structure, punctuation and
                                      capitalization and spelling.*       communicate more effectively.      structure*                        capitalization*


                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22
Grammar and
                                                                           Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
usage
                                                                                                             Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
              ACT College Readiness                                         Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic         Standards for English             American Diploma Project    University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
              Determine the need for                                                                          Demonstrates understanding
              punctuation and conjunctions to                                                                 and control of sentence
              avoid awkward-sounding                                                                          structure, uses sentence
              sentence fragments and fused                                  Consistently use proper           fragments sparingly and only
              sentences                                                     sentence structure.               where effective
                                                                                                              Uses language, grammar, and
                                                                                                              syntax correctly to achieve
              Use conjunctions or punctuation                                                                 clarity and style; avoids errors
              to join simple clauses                                                                          that would impede readability
                                                                            Identify and use correctly and
                                                                            consistently parts of speech,
                                                                            including nouns, pronouns,        Uses conventions of usage,
                                                                            verbs, adverbs, conjunctions,     form, and style appropriate for
                                                                            prepositions, adjectives and      content, context, audience,
                                                                            interjections.                    mode, and purpose*
              Decide the appropriate verb
              tense and voice by considering                                Use subject-verb agreement and
              the meaning of the entire                                     verb tense consistently and
              sentence                                                      correctly.
                                                                            Demonstrate consistent, correct
                                                                            and appropriate pronoun
                                                                            agreement and the use of
              Ensure that a pronoun agrees                                  different types of clauses and
              with its antecedent when the                                  phrases, including adverb
              two occur in separate clauses                                 clauses, adjective clauses and
              or sentences                                                  adverb phrases.
              Revise shifts in the verb tense
              between simple clauses in a
              sentence or between simple
              adjoining sentences
              Recognize and correct marked
              disturbances of sentence flow
              and structure (e.g. participle
              phrase fragments, missing or
              incorrect relative pronouns,
              dangling or misplaced
              modifiers)
              Work comfortably with long
              sentences and complex causal
              relationships within sentences,
              avoiding weak conjunctions
              between independent clauses
              and maintaining parallel
              structure between clauses



                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                          23
                                                                    Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                      Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                        Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English            American Diploma Project    University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
        Use sentence-combining
        techniques, effectively avoiding
        problematic comma splices, run-
        on sentences, and sentence
        fragments, especially in
        sentences containing
        compound subjects or verbs
        Maintain a consistent and
        logical use of verb tense and
        pronoun person on the basis of
        information in the paragraph or
        essay as a whole
        Ensure that a verb agrees with
        its subject when there is some
        text between the two
        Ensure that a verb agrees with
        its subject when a phrase or
        clause between the two suggest
        a different number for the verb

        Ensure that a verb agrees with
        its subject in unusual situations
        (e.g. when the subject-verb
        order is inverted or when the
        subject is an indefinite pronoun)
        Maintain consistent verb tense
        and pronoun person on the
        basis of the preceding clause or
        sentence
        Correctly use reflexive
        pronouns, the possessive
        pronouns its and your and the
        relative pronouns of who and
        whom
        Solve such grammatical
        problems as whether to use an
        adverb or adjective form, how to
        ensure straightforward subject-
        verb and pronoun-antecedent
        agreement, and which
        preposition to use in simple
        contexts
        Provide idiomatically and
        contextually appropriate
        prepositions following verbs in
        situations involving
        sophisticated language or ideas                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                   24
                                                                               Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
              ACT College Readiness                                             Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic         Standards for English              American Diploma Project       University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                 Select or Rephrase Definition Here
              Use idiomatically appropriate
              prepositions especially in
              combination with verbs (e.g.
              long for, appeal to)
              Recognize and use the
              appropriate word in frequently
              confused pairs such as there
              and their , past and passed ,
              and led and lead
              Solve such basic grammatical
              problems as how to form the
              past and past participle of
              irregular but commonly used
              verbs and how to form
              comparative and superlative
              adjectives
              Identify the correct past and
              past participle forms of irregular
              and infrequently used verbs and
              form present-perfect verbs by
              using have rather than of
              Revise to avoid faulty
              placement of phrases and faulty
              coordination and subordination
              of clauses in sentences with
              subtle structural problems
                                                                                Consistently avoid run-on
                                                                                sentences and sentence
                                                                                fragments.
Informative                                                                     Use appropriate strategies to
writing                                                                         write expository essays that
                                                                                employ supporting evidence; use
                                                                                information from primary and
                                                                                secondary sources; incorporate
                                                                                charts, graphs, tables and         Writes effectively in a variety of
                                                                                illustrations where appropriate;   forms (e.g., essays, research        Ability to write a technical piece
                                             Produce work-related texts (for    anticipate and address readers'    papers, technical reports, letters   which may include a memo
                                             example, memos, e-mails,           biases and expectations; and       or business and electronic           report, a project proposal, an
                                             correspondence, project plans,     explain technical terms and        communications, fiction, poetry,     informative brochure, a progress
                                             work orders, proposals, bios)      notations.                         drama)*                              or status report, or a web page
                                                                                                                                                        Writing makes a claim that
                                             Write an academic essay that                                                                               shows evidence of some
                                             makes valid inferences.                                                                                    significance/complexity




                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25
                                                              Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                  Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English   American Diploma Project       University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                 Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                               Use strategies to write fictional,
                                                               autobiographical, and
                                                               biographical narratives that
                                                               include a well-developed point of
                                                               view and literary elements;
                                                               present events in logical
                                                               sequence; convey a unifying                                             Writes in a variety of forms
                                                               theme or tone; use concrete and                                         including narratives, journals,
                                                               sensory language; and pace                                              poems, essays, stories, and
                                                               action.                                                                 technical writing*

                                Comprehend and communicate
                                quantitative, technical and
                                mathematical information.*
                                                               Be aware of the difference
                                                               between summary and
                                                               description and interpretation
                                                               and analysis.

                                                                                                    Demonstrates the principles of a
                                                                                                    chosen form of communication*

                                                                                                    Selects, categorizes, organizes,
                                                                                                    and records information to
                                                                                                    facilitate access and use*
                                                                                                                                       Writing uses effective elements
                                                                                                                                       of design*
                                                                                                                                       Writing makes assumptions
                                                                                                                                       explicit and shows chain of
                                                                                                                                       reasoning
                                                                                                                                       Writing includes at least one
                                                                                                                                       paper that integrates textual
                                                                                                                                       information (research, literary
                                                                                                                                       analysis, etc.)*

                                                                                                                                       Ability to write an academic
                                                                                                                                       piece which may include an
                                                                                                                                       analytical essay (e.g. literary
                                                                                                                                       criticism), a review (e.g. of a
                                                                                                                                       book, movie, concert, computer
                                                                                                                                       game, web site, restaurant, etc),
                                                                                                                                       an op-ed piece, a lab report, or a
                                                                                                                                       shorter inquiry paper (3-5 page
                                                                                                                                       research-based paper using
                                                                                                                                       primary/secondary sources)

                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 26
                                                                               Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                        Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project             University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                         Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Literary/Narrative
Writing                                                                                                                  Writes effectively in a variety of
                                                                                                                         forms (e.g., essays, research
                                                                                                                         papers, technical reports, letters   Writes in a variety of forms
                                                                                                                         or business and electronic           including narratives, journals,
                                                                                                                         communications, fiction, poetry,     poems, essays, stories, and
                                                                                                                         drama)*                              technical writing*

                                                                                                                         Demonstrates the principles of a
                                                                                                                         chosen form of communication*

                                                                                                                                                              Ability to write an expressive
                                                                                                                                                              piece which may include a
                                                                                                                                                              personal essay, a photo
                                                                                                                                                              essay/narrative, a memoir, a
                                                                                                                                                              travel narrative, or a short fiction
Locating                                                                         Use a variety of print or
sources/gatherin                           Gather relevant information from      electronic primary and
g information                              a variety of print and electronic     secondary sources including             Locates varied and sufficient
                                           sources, as well as from direct       books, magazines, newspapers,           sources of information, using
                                           observation, interviews and           journals, periodicals and the           available library, electronic, and
                                           surveys.*                             Internet.*                              human resources*

                                           Make distinctions about the
                                           credibility, reliability, consistency,                                        Uses a variety of primary and
                                           strengths and limitations of           Ability to distinguish the degree      secondary sources,
                                           resources, including information and quality and reliability of               distinguishing the nature and
                                           gathered from Web sites.               information                            value of each
                                                                                  Evaluate sources of information
                                                                                  located on the Internet in
                                                                                  particular to ascertain their
                                                                                  credibility, origin, potential bias,
                                                                                  and overall quality.
                                                                                 Evaluate sources critically,
                                                                                 discerning the quality of the
                                                                                 materials and qualifying the
                                                                                 strength of the evidence and
                                                                                 arguments, as well as
                                                                                 determining credibility, identifying
                                                                                 bias and perspective of the
                                                                                 author and using prior
                                                                                 knowledge of the source.
                                                                                 Identify a source and understand
                                                                                 what plagiarism is.
                                                                                 Understand the difference
                                                                                 between primary and secondary
                                                                                 sources.        * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          27
                                                                                  Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                    Oregon State’s Proficiency-      Washington Competency-
                  ACT College Readiness                                            Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic             Standards for English           American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                    Pilot Project                               Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                                    Plans and conducts scripted
                                                                                                                    and/or open-ended interviews,
                                                                                                                    using appropriate questioning,
                                                                                                                    recording, and analyzing
                                                                                                                    techniques.*
                                                                                                                    Uses a variety of research
                                                                                                                    methods and resources,
                                                                                                                    including on-line information
                                                                                                                    searches*
                                                                                                                    Independently uses
                                                                                                                    organizational features of
                                                                                                                    libraries, electronic media,
                                                                                                                    information sources and texts to
                                                                                                                    access information*

                                                                                                                        Clearly distinguishes among
                                                                                                                        facts, supported inferences, and
                                                                                                                        opinions in information sources*
                                                                                                                        Identifies possible bias,
                                                                                                                        stereotyping, unsupported
                                                                                                                        inferences, fallacious reasoning,
                                                                                                                        etc. in information sources
Organizing                                         Organize ideas in writing with a                                                                           Develops a topic or theme,
information and                                    thesis statement in the                                                                                    organizes thoughts around a
ideas                                              introduction, well-constructed      Use paragraph structure in                                             clear beginning, middle and end;
                                                   paragraphs, a conclusion and        writing as manifested by the     Establishes smooth, effective         uses transitional sentences and
                                                   transition sentences that connect   ability to construct coherent    connections and transitions           phrases to connect related
                  Decide the most logical place to paragraphs into a coherent          paragraphs and arrange           among ideas, paragraphs, and          ideas; writes coherently and
                  add a sentence in an essay       whole.                              paragraphs in logical order.*    sentences                             compellingly*
                  Rearrange the sentences in a Creates an organizing structure                                          Sequences ideas and
                  fairly uncomplicated paragraph appropriate to purpose, audience                                       information clearly, logically, and
                  for the sake of logic            and context.*                                                        coherently
                  Rearrange sentences to
                  improve the logic and                                                                                 Integrates details, examples,
                  coherence of a complex                                                                                and supporting evidence
                  paragraph                                                                                             smoothly and appropriately*
                  Consider the need for
                  introductory sentences or
                  transitions, basing decisions on
                  a thorough understanding of
                  both the logic and rhetorical
                  effect of the paragraph and
                  essay                                                                                                 Develops and connects ideas*




                                                                                                      * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      28
                                                                                  Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                    Oregon State’s Proficiency-      Washington Competency-
              ACT College Readiness                                                Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic         Standards for English             American Diploma Project           University Success               System (PASS)                    Pilot Project                   Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                   Present ideas to achieve overall
              Use conjunctive adverbs or                                           coherence and logical flow in
              phrases to express                Construct arguments (both orally writing and use appropriate        Synthesizes information attained
              straightforward logical           and in writing) that structure     techniques such as transitions   through research to develop      Writing provides connections
              relationships (e.g. first,        ideas in a sustained and logical and repetition to maximize         coherent conclusions,            between details and pieces of
              afterward, in response)           fashion.*                          cohesion.                        discussions, and presentations* evidence*
                                                                                   Categorize information
                                                                                   thematically, see the larger
              Use conjunctive adverbs or                                           constructs in the information,
              phrases to show time              Construct arguments (both orally and see the relationships
              relationships in simple narrative and in writing) that provide clear between ideas, concepts, and                                      Writing provides connections
              essays (e.g. then, this time)     and effective conclusions.*        theories                                                          between evidence and claim

                                                 Write an academic essay that
                                                 provides a coherent conclusion.
                                                 Produce work-related texts (for
                                                 example, memos, e-mails,
                                                 correspondence, project plans,
                                                 work orders, proposals, bios)
                                                 that include relevant information
                                                 and exclude extraneous
                                                 information.
                                                                                     Know the difference between a
                                                                                     topic and a thesis.
                                                                                                                      Understands and uses a variety
                                                                                                                      of organizational patterns, based
                                                                                                                      on content, context, purpose
                                                                                                                      and audience*
                                                                                                                      Organizes to unify, highlight,
                                                                                                                      develop, and enhance central
                                                                                                                      ideas or images

                                                                                                                      Uses repetition, contrast, and
                                                                                                                      parallel organizational structures
                                                                                                                      where appropriate to highlight
                                                                                                                      relationships among ideas,
                                                                                                                      paragraphs, and sentences
Paragraph                                                                                                             Manages complex ideas through
development                                                                          Use paragraph structure in       effective paragraphing, uses
                                                                                     writing as manifested by the     paragraph structures and breaks
                                                                                     ability to construct coherent    to communicate and enhance
                                                                                     paragraphs and arrange           the organizational structure of
                                                                                     paragraphs in logical order.*    the work
              Select the most logical place to
              add a sentence in a paragraph
              Add a sentenced that
              introduces a simple paragraph                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          29
                                                                      Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency- Washington Competency-
             ACT College Readiness                                      Knowledge and Skills for           based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic        Standards for English   American Diploma Project           University Success                 System (PASS)               Pilot Project               Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Persuasive                           Construct arguments (both orally
writing                              and in writing) that clarify and
                                     defend positions with precise
                                     and relevant evidence, including Support their arguments with
                                     facts, expert opinions, quotations logic and evidence relevant to
                                     and/or expressions of commonly their audience and that
                                     accepted beliefs and logical       explicates their position as fully
                                     reasoning.*                        as possible.
                                                                        Write to persuade the reader by
                                                                        anticipating and addressing
                                                                        counterarguments, by using
                                     Construct arguments (both orally rhetorical devices and by
                                     and in writing) that use a range developing an accurate and
                                     of strategies to elaborate and     expressive style of
                                     persuade, such as descriptions, communication that moves
                                     anecdotes, case studies,           beyond mechanics to add flair
                                     analogies and illustrations.*      and elegance to writing.

                                     Construct arguments (both orally
                                     and in writing) that develop a
                                     thesis that demonstrates clear
                                     and knowledgeable judgment.*
                                     Construct arguments (both orally
                                     and in writing) that structure
                                     ideas in a sustained and logical
                                     fashion.*
                                     Distinguish among facts and
                                     opinions, evidence and
                                     inferences.*
                                     Construct arguments (both orally
                                     and in writing) that anticipate and
                                     address the reader's concerns
                                     and counterclaims.*

                                     Construct arguments (both orally
                                     and in writing) that provide clear
                                     and effective conclusions.*
                                                                           Understand how to support an
                                                                           argument well enough that a
                                                                           strong position emerges while at
                                                                           the same time understand the
                                                                           consequences of taking a
                                                                           particular position



                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                        30
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                             Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                 ACT College Readiness                                     Knowledge and Skills for          based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic            Standards for English   American Diploma Project          University Success                System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                         Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Research writing                                                           Select relevant sources when
                                                                           writing research papers and
                                                                           appropriately include English 27
                                                                           A report from Standards for
                                                                           Success information from such
                                                                           sources; logically introduce and
                                                                           incorporate quotations;
                                                                           synthesize information in a
                                                                           logical sequence; identify
                                                                           different perspectives; identify  Plans and conducts multi-step
                                                                           complexities and discrepancies information searches and/or
                                                                           in information; and offer support investigations for varied
                                                                           for conclusions.                  purposes
                                         Cite print or electronic sources                                    Quotes or paraphrases
                                         properly when paraphrasing or     Ability to connect information    information accurately and
                                         summarizing information,          from sources to support an        appropriately, avoiding       Writing acknowledges sources
                                         quoting, or using graphics.       argument                          plagiarism and parroting      of information
                                         Write an extended research
                                         essay (approximately six to 10  Use a style manual such as the
                                         pages), building on primary and Modern Language Association
                                         secondary sources, that cites   (MLA) or the American               Correctly uses appropriate MLA,
                                         sources correctly and           Psychological Association (APA)     APA, or other accepted
                                         documents quotations,           to apply writing conventions and    conventions (include style sheet
                                         paraphrases and other           to create documentation formats     if style other than MLA or APA is Uses appropriate conventions of
                                         information using a standard    in a manner consistent with the     used) for in-text documentation style and format in citing and
                                         format.                         manual.                             and works cited                    documenting textual references
                                                                         Formulate research questions,       Identifies topics, asks questions,
                                                                         refine topics, develop a plan for   and develops ideas leading to
                                         Define and narrow a problem or research and organize what is        inquiry, investigation, and
                                         research topic.*                known about the topic.              research*
                                                                         Understand the concept of
                                                                         plagiarism and how (or why) to
                                                                         avoid it and understand rules for
                                                                         paraphrasing, summarizing and
                                                                         quoting, as well as conventions
                                                                         for incorporating information       Achieves an accurate, balanced,
                                                                         from Internet based sources in      and honest research
                                                                         particular.                         presentation*
                                         Write an extended research
                                         essay (approximately six to 10
                                         pages), building on primary and
                                         secondary sources, that
                                         marshals evidence in support of
                                         a clear thesis statement and
                                         related claims.*

                                                                                        * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31
                                                                                       Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                         Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                  ACT College Readiness                                                 Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic             Standards for English              American Diploma Project           University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                              Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                     Write an extended research
                                                     essay (approximately six to 10
                                                     pages), building on primary and
                                                     secondary sources, that
                                                     paraphrases and summarizes
                                                     with accuracy and fidelity the
                                                     range of arguments and
                                                     evidence supporting or refuting
                                                     the thesis, as appropriate.*
                                                                                        Know how to make a research
                                                                                        plan and carry it out: Identifying
                                                                                        what questions need to be
                                                                                        asked, who has the knowledge
                                                                                        and authority to answer them
                                                                                        and what sources can be used
                                                                                        to answer these questions.
                                                                                                                             Integrates quotations and
                                                                                                                             citations into written text,
                                                                                                                             maintaining flow of ideas,
                                                                                                                             avoiding overuse of quotations,
                                                                                                                             and achieving a balance
                                                                                                                             between information and own
                                                                                                                             ideas
                                                                                                                             Reports and reflects upon
                                                                                                                             research processes (in journals,
                                                                                                                             oral reports, "I-search" papers,
                                                                                                                             research logs, etc.)
                                                                                                                             Coherently and appropriately
                                                                                                                             combines and integrates
                                                                                                                             information from inquiry-based
                                                                                                                             research*
                                                                                                                             Integrates textual references
                                                                                                                             and quotations smoothly and
                                                                                                                             appropriately to achieve a
                                                                                                                             coherent discussion
                                                                                                                                                                Writing includes at least one
                                                                                                                                                                paper that integrates textual
                                                                                                                                                                information (research, literary
                                                                                                                                                                analysis, etc.)*
Style, diction,                                      Recognize nuances in the           Use words correctly; use words
and voice         Determine the clearest and         meanings of words; choose          that mean what the writer
                  most logical conjunction to link   words precisely to enhance         intends to say; and use a varied Communicates clear, coherent
                  clauses                            communication.                     vocabulary.                      thinking*
                  Correct vague and word or                                                                               Achieves clarity, focus, and
                  clumsy and confusing writing                                                                            control of thinking through a
                  containing sophisticated                                                                                balanced and insightful
                  language                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                          treatment of the topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       32
Style, diction,
and voice


                                                                                      Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                        Oregon State’s Proficiency-    Washington Competency-
                  ACT College Readiness                                                Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic             Standards for English               American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                  Pilot Project                      Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                       Write coherently. Think
                                                                                       rhetorically when they write,
                                                                                       consider the audience, carefully
                                                      Select and use formal, informal, select the evidence used to
                                                      literary or technical language   support ideas, and cogently      Adapts voice, style, sentence
                                                      appropriate for the purpose,     present the overall argument and patterns, and word choice to
                                                      audience and context of the      understand the purposes of their content, context, purpose, and
                                                      communication.                   writing.                         audience*
                  Use the word or phrase most                                       Demonstrate development of a
                  consistent with the style and                                     controlled yet unique style and                                    Uses voice, word choice, and
                  tone of fairly straightforward                                    voice in writing where            Uses language in natural, fresh, sentence fluency for appropriate
                  essay                                                             appropriate.                      vivid, and lively ways           [writing] style
                  Use the word or phrase most
                  appropriate in terms of the
                  content of the sentence and                                                                         Varies language to achieve       Writing uses appropriate word
                  tone of the essay                                                                                   interest                         choice and tone
                                                                                                                                                       Writing abides by the stylistic
                  Revise expressions that deviate                                                                                                      conventions of the genre
                  from the style of an essay                                                                                                           selected
                  Delete redundant material when
                  information is repeated in
                  different parts of speech (e.g.
                  'alarmingly startled')
                  Delete obviously synonymous
                  and wordy material in a
                  sentence
                  Revise a phrase that is
                  redundant in terms of the
                  meaning and logic of the entire
                  sentence
                  Correct redundant material that
                  involves sophisticated
                  vocabulary and sounds
                  acceptable as conversational
                  English (e.g. 'an aesthetic
                  viewpoint' versus 'the outlook of
                  an aesthetic viewpoint')
                  Delete redundant material that
                  involves subtle concepts or that
                  is redundant in terms of the
                  paragraph as a whole
                  Make sophisticated distinctions
                  concerning the logical use of
                  conjunctive adverbs or phrases,
                  particularly when signaling a
                  shift between paragraphs
                                                                                                   * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               33
                                                                                Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                    Oregon State’s Proficiency-      Washington Competency-
               ACT College Readiness                                             Knowledge and Skills for           based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic          Standards for English          American Diploma Project           University Success                 System (PASS)                    Pilot Project                     Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                              Identify the meaning of common
                                              idioms, as well as literary,
                                              classical and biblical allusions;
                                              use them in oral and written
                                              communication.*
                                                                                 Use a variety of sentence
                                                                                 structures appropriately in
                                                                                 writing, including compound,
                                                                                 complex, compound-complex,
                                                                                 parallel, repetitive and analogous
                                                                                 sentence structures.
                                                                                                                    Evokes clear and compelling
                                                                                                                    images, using figurative
                                                                                                                    language when appropriate
                                                                                                                    Crafts and varies sentences to
                                                                                                                    achieve clarity and interest and
                                                                                                                    to enhance meaning

                                                                                                                In written communication, uses
                                                                                                                clear and precise language,
                                                                                                                whose tone and aesthetic effect
                                                                                                                are appropriate for the ideas and
                                                                                                                purpose of the communication
                                                                                                                                                    Writing provides the writer's
                                                                                                                                                    overall
                                                                                                                                                    perspective/claim/direction

                                                                                                                                                    Writing situates own perspective
                                                                                                                                                    in the context of others' views
                                                                                                                                                    Writing uses a speculative
                                                                                                                                                    exploratory
Writing                                                                                                         Uses reasonably correct
conventions/                                   Demonstrate control of standard                                  spelling, grammar, punctuation,     Knows and applies correct
mechanics      Provide appropriate punctuation English through the correct use                                  capitalization, paragraph           spelling, grammar, sentence
               in straightforward situations   of grammar, punctuation,                                         structure, and sentence             structure, punctuation and
               (e.g. items in a series)        capitalization and spelling.*                                    structure*                          capitalization*
               Delete commas that create                                       Use commas with nonrestrictive
               basic sentence problems (e.g.                                   clauses and contrasting
               between verb and direct object)                                 expressions.
               Deal with multiple punctuation
               problems (e.g. compound
               sentences containing
               unnecessary commas and                                                                           Selects and uses punctuation
               phrases that may or may not be                                                                   effectively to guide the reader
               parenthetical)                                                                                   through the text


                                                                                            * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            34
                                                                     Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                       Oregon State’s Proficiency-     Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                         Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English             American Diploma Project    University Success               System (PASS)                   Pilot Project            Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                       Spells words correctly in final
                                                                      Use a dictionary and other       drafts, using spell checks and
                                                                      resources to spell new,          other support resources when
                                                                      unfamiliar or difficult words.   necessary
                                                                      Use ellipses, colons, hyphens,
        Use apostrophes to indicate                                   semi-colons, apostrophes and
        simple possessive nouns                                       quotation marks correctly.

        Use punctuation to set off
        complex parenthetical phrases
        Recognize and delete
        unnecessary commas based on
        a careful reading of a
        complicated sentence (e.g.
        between the elements of a
        compound subject or compound
        verb joined by and )

        Delete commas that disturb the
        sentence flow (e.g. between
        modifier and modified element)

        Use commas to set off simple
        parenthetical phrases
        Delete unnecessary commas
        when an incorrect reading of
        the sentence suggests a pause
        that should be punctuated (e.g.
        between verb and direct object
        clause)
        Use commas to set off a
        nonessential/nonrestrictive
        appositive or clause
        Use an apostrophe to show
        possession especially with
        irregular plural nouns
        Use a semicolon to indicate a
        relationship between closely
        related independent clauses

        Use a colon to introduce an
        example or an elaboration

        Recognize inappropriate uses
        of colons and semicolons

                                                                                   * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                     35
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
               ACT College Readiness                                      Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic          Standards for English   American Diploma Project           University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                              Select or Rephrase Definition Here

                                                                             Have a good grasp of writing
                                                                             conventions.

                                                                        Capitalize sentences and proper
                                                                        nouns correctly.
Writing for                                                             Use a variety of strategies to
audience and                           Select and use formal, informal, adapt writing for different
purpose                                literary or technical language   audiences and purposes, such         Adapts voice, style, sentence
                                       appropriate for the purpose,     as including appropriate content     patterns, and word choice to
                                       audience and context of the      and using appropriate language,      content, context, purpose, and
                                       communication.                   style, tone and structure.           audience*

                                                                                                             Understands and uses a variety
                                       Creates an organizing structure                                       of organizational patterns, based
                                       appropriate to purpose, audience                                      on content, context, purpose
                                       and context.*                                                         and audience*


                                                                                                                                                 Writes for a variety of purposes
                                       Produce work-related texts (for                                                                           such as telling stories,
                                       example, memos, e-mails,                                              Writes effectively for a variety of presenting analytical responses
                                       correspondence, project plans,                                        purposes (to discover and work to literature, conveying technical
                                       work orders, proposals, bios)                                         out ideas, express self, inform, information, completing a team
                                       that address audience needs,                                          report, persuade, narrate,          project, explaining concepts and
                                       stated purpose and context.                                           entertain)                          procedures, and persuading
                                                                                                             Conveys thinking that is
                                                                                                             comprehensible and interesting Identifies, analyzes, and writes
                                                                                                             for its intended audience*          for the chosen audience
                                                                                                                                                 Writing demonstrates a
                                                                                                             Selects a communication form rhetorical 'savvyness' - an
                                                                                                             appropriate for audience and        understanding of audience
                                                                                                             purpose                             needs and intended purpose
                                       Produce work-related texts (for
                                       example, memos, e-mails,
                                       correspondence, project plans,
                                       work orders, proposals, bios)
                                       that anticipate potential
                                       problems, mistakes and
                                       misunderstandings that might
                                       arise for the reader.

                                       Construct arguments (both orally
                                       and in writing) that anticipate and
                                       address the reader's concerns
                                       and counterclaims.*
                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         36
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                 ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic            Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                          Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                         Produce work-related texts (for
                                         example, memos, e-mails,
                                         correspondence, project plans,
                                         work orders, proposals, bios)
                                         that translate technical language
                                         into non-technical English.
                                                                              Identify through research the
                                                                              major concerns and debates in a
                                                                              given community or field of
                                                                              inquiry and address these in
                                                                              their writing.
                                                                                                                Uses conventions of usage,
                                                                                                                form, and style appropriate for
                                                                                                                content, context, audience,
                                                                                                                mode, and purpose*
                                                                                                                Reflects upon and critically
                                                                                                                evaluates student's own use of
                                                                                                                language in relationship to
                                                                                                                context, audience, purpose,
                                                                                                                personal voice and style.
                                                                                                                Chooses language to achieve
                                                                                                                desired audience response*

                                                                                                                Establishes a tone appropriate
                                                                                                                for the form of communication,
                                                                                                                context, audience, and purpose*
Writing format                                                                                                  Effectively uses a variety of
                                                                                                                communication forms (oral,
                                                                                                                visual, written, multimedia) and
                                         Produce work-related texts (for                                        methods (speeches,
                                         example, memos, e-mails,                                               dramatizations, informal
                                         correspondence, project plans,       Use appropriate strategies and    presentations, slide
                                         work orders, proposals, bios)        formats to write personal and     presentations, computer and
                                         that adopt a customary format,       business correspondence,          web graphics, posters,
                                         including proper salutation,         including appropriate             films/videos, print journalism,
                                         closing and signature, when          organizational patterns, formal   reports, essays, creative
                                         appropriate.                         language and tone.                writing)*
                                         Produce work-related texts (for
                                         example, memos, e-mails,
                                         correspondence, project plans,                                         Uses page formats, layouts,
                                         work orders, proposals, bios)                                          fonts, and spacing to increase
                                         that create predictable structures                                     readability and impact of
                                         through the use of headings,                                           document that is appropriate for
                                         white space and graphics, as                                           content, context, audience, and Writing includes at least one
                                         appropriate.                                                           purpose                          piece that is 5-7 pages long

                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     37
                                                                                 Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                   Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                  ACT College Readiness                                           Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic             Standards for English         American Diploma Project          University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                              Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                  Distinguish between formal and
                                                                                  informal styles, for example,
                                                                                  between academic essays and
                                                                                  personal memos.

                                                                                                                     Demonstrates the principles of a
                                                                                                                     chosen form of communication*
                                                                                                                     Writes in, uses, and adjusts
                                                                                                                     writing for a variety of modes
                                                                                                                     (expository, persuasive,
                                                                                                                     narrative, imaginative)
                                                                                                                     Selects, categorizes, organizes,
                                                                                                                     and records information to
                                                                                                                     facilitate access and use*
                                                                                                                                                         Ability to write a piece
                                                                                                                                                         (academic, expressive, or
                                                                                                                                                         technical) which would serve as
                                                                                                                                                         the writer's gloss or editorial
                                                                                                                                                         commentary on all of these
                                                                                                                                                         genres and which gives insight
                                                                                                                                                         into the student's perspective
                                                                                                                                                         and understanding of the
                                                                                                                                                         categories
                                                                                                                                                         Writing uses effective elements
                                                                                                                                                         of design*
Writing process                                                                                                                                          Understands the writing
                                                                                 Reflect on and assess the                                               process: revise: considers
                  Delete a clause or sentence                                    strengths and weaknesses of                                             changes on content,
                  because it is obviously                                        their ideas and the expression of                                       organization, or structure to
                  irrelevant to the essay                                        those ideas.                                                            better communicate ideas
                                                                                 Know how to use the spell-
                                                                                 checker and grammar check
                                                Edit both one's own and others' function in word processing          Reviews and proofs documents        Understands the writing
                                                work for grammar, style and tone software while understanding the    so they are essentially free from   process: edit: correct spelling,
                                                appropriate to audience, purpose limitations of relying upon these   mechanical, typographic, or         punctuation, grammar and
                                                and context.                     tools.*                             production errors                   usage
                                                                                 Know and use several pre-
                                                                                 writing strategies, including
                                                                                 developing a focus; determining
                                                                                 the purpose; planning a           Uses effective processes to
                                                Plan writing by taking notes,    sequence of ideas; using          organize and order ideas, either Understands the writing
                                                writing informal outlines and    structured overviews; and         before composing or in revising process: pre-write: generates
                                                researching.                     creating outlines.                early drafts                       topics and develops ideas
                                                                                                                   Identifies topics, asks questions,
                                                                                                                   and develops ideas leading to
                                                Define and narrow a problem or                                     inquiry, investigation, and
                                                research topic.*                                                   research*
                                                                                                * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 38
                                                                        Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                          Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
        ACT College Readiness                                            Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic   Standards for English              American Diploma Project      University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                              Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                        Drawing on readers' comments
                                        on working drafts, revise
                                        documents to develop or support
                                        ideas more clearly, address
                                        potential objections, ensure                                                                            Seeks and uses feedback to
                                        effective transitions between                                                                           improve writing; offers
                                        paragraphs and correct errors in Use feedback from others to                                            suggestions and comments to
                                        logic.                           revise written work.                                                   others when appropriate
        Add a phrase or sentence to                                      Review ideas and structure in        Employs writing processes and
        accomplish a complex purpose,                                    substantive ways to improve          strategies that fit purpose,      Understands the writing
        often expressed in terms of the                                  depth of information and logic of    context, audience, and personal   process: draft: elaborates on a
        main focus of the essay                                          organization.                        style                             topic and supporting ideas
                                                                         Reassess appropriateness of          Demonstrates a focused            Assesses own strengths and
                                                                         writing in light of genre, purpose   process of improvement from       needs as a writer and sets goals
                                                                         and audience.                        early to final drafts             for improvement

        Delete material primarily
        because it disturbs the flow and
        development of the paragraph
        Add a sentence to accomplish a
        subtle rhetorical purpose such
        as to emphasize, to add
        supporting detail, or to express
        meaning through connotation
        Add a sentence to introduce or
        conclude the essay or to
        provide a transition between
        paragraphs when the essay is
        fairly straightforward
        Add a sentence to accomplish a
        fairly straightforward purpose
        such as illustrating a given
        statement
        Add a sentence to introduce or
        conclude a fairly complex
        paragraph
        Revise sentences to correct
        awkward and confusing
        arrangements of sentence
        elements
        Revise vague nouns and
        pronouns that create obvious
        logic problems

        Identify and correct ambiguous
        pronoun references
                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                            Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                   Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project        University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                           Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                            Ability to proofread, check for
                                                                            mistakes on their own, and
                                                                            appreciate the value of the
                                                                            revision and re-writing process
                                                                            Employ basic editing skills
                                                                            proficiently to identify obvious
                                                                            mechanical errors, clarify and
                                                                            improve the structure of the
                                                                            piece and sharpen language and
                                                                            meaning.

                                                                                                                                              Understands the writing
                                                                                                                                              process: publish: uses a variety
                                                                                                                                              of tools such as pen, pencil, and
                                                                                                                                              technology to share completed
                                                                                                                                              writing with chosen audience
SPEAKING,
LISTENING, AND
VIEWING
Applying                                   Present written material using
technology                                 basic software programs (such
                                           as Word, Excel and PowerPoint)
                                           and graphics (such as charts,
                                           ratios and tables) to present
                                           information and ideas best
                                           understood visually.*
Conversation and                                                             Discuss questions in depth and
group discussion                           Participate productively in self- effectively defend a position
                                           directed work teams, including: based on their analysis of the
                                           posing relevant questions.        material.*
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams for a
                                           particular purpose (for example,
                                           to interpret literature, write or                                                                   Participates in discussions to
                                           critique a proposal, solve a                                                                        reach agreement or seek
                                           problem, make a decision). .                                                                        solutions
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:                                                                     Applies content knowledge and
                                           consulting texts as a source of                                                                     skills to perform tasks as a
                                           ideas.                                                                                              member of a group
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:
                                           building on the ideas of others
                                           and contributing relevant
                                           information or ideas in group
                                           discussions.
                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       40
                                                                               Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                        Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project             University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:
                                           extracting essential information
                                           from others' input.
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:
                                           understanding the purpose of
                                           the team project and the group
                                           rules for decision-making.
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:
                                           defining individuals roles and
                                           responsibilities and setting clear
                                           goals.
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams, including:
                                           selecting leader/spokesperson
                                           when necessary.
                                           Give and follow spoken
                                           instructions to perform specific
                                           tasks, to answer questions or to
                                           solve problems.
Creating support                           Make oral presentations that
                                           support judgments with sound
                                           evidence and well-chosen
                                           details
                                           Construct arguments (both orally
                                           and in writing) that use a range
                                           of strategies to elaborate and
                                           persuade, such as descriptions,
                                           anecdotes, case studies,
                                           analogies and illustrations*
                                           Construct arguments (both orally
                                           and in writing) that clarify and
                                           defend positions with precise
                                           and relevant evidence, including
                                           facts, expert opinions, quotations
                                           and/or expressions of commonly
                                           accepted beliefs and logical
                                           reasoning.*

                                           Construct arguments (both orally
                                           and in writing) that anticipate and
                                           address the reader's concerns
                                           and counterclaims.*

                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                              41
                                                                               Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                     ACT College Readiness                                      Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic                Standards for English   American Diploma Project           University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                                   Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Critical listening                           Identify the thesis of a speech                                         Identifies key information and
                                             and determine the essential                                             ideas from oral, visual, written,
                                             elements that elaborate it.                                             or multimedia presentations*
                                                                                                                                                           Asks questions to clarify content
                                                                                                                                                           and meaning; demonstrates the
                                             Paraphrase information                                                                                        ability to paraphrase accurately
                                             presented orally by others.                                                                                   and precisely
                                                                                  Go beyond the facts presented
                                                                                  in readings or lectures. Allow
                                                                                  questions to emerge from the
                                                                                  text, identify connections with
                                                                                  other concepts they have                                                 Expands comprehension by
                                                                                  learned, and imagine                                                     analyzing, interpreting, and
                                                                                  alternatives to a text's final                                           synthesizing information and
                                                                                  content message or conclusion.*                                          ideas*
                                             Analyze written or oral                                                 Identifies and critically evaluates
                                             communications for false                                                communications and language
                                             assumptions, errors, loaded                                             which reflect biases,
                                             terms, caricature, sarcasm,                                             stereotypes, persuasive
                                             leading questions and faulty                                            techniques, and propaganda
                                             reasoning.*                                                             from various sources*

                                             Evaluate the aural, visual and
                                             written images and other special
                                             effects used in television, radio,
                                             film and the Internet for their
                                             ability to inform, persuade and
                                             entertain (for example, anecdote,
                                             expert witness, vivid detail,
                                             tearful testimony and humor).*
                                             Give and follow spoken
                                             instructions to perform specific
                                             tasks, to answer questions or to
                                             solve problems.
                                             Summarize information
                                             presented orally by others.
                                             Analyze the ways in which the
                                             style and structure of a speech
                                             support or confound its meaning
                                             or purpose.
                                                                                  Take useful notes during
                                                                                  lectures.
                                                                                  Taking in information, analyzing
                                                                                  it and recording that which is
                                                                                  meaningful and useful.*
                                                                                                                                                   Ability to focus attention
                                                                                                 * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic and observing]
                                                                                                                                                   [listening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    42
                                                                           Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                             Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                           Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                                                                    Listens and observes to gain
                                                                                                                                                    and interpret information
Critical viewing
                                           Evaluate the aural, visual and
                                           written images and other special
                                           effects used in television, radio,                              Identifies and critically evaluates
                                           film and the Internet for their                                 communications and language
                                           ability to inform, persuade and                                 which reflect biases,
                                           entertain (for example, anecdote,                               stereotypes, persuasive
                                           expert witness, vivid detail,                                   techniques, and propaganda
                                           tearful testimony and humor).*                                  from various sources*

                                                                                                           Identifies and interprets
                                                                                                           significant social/cultural issues,
                                                                                                           themes, or commentary
                                                                                                           represented in a literary,
                                                                                                           philosophical, or artistic work*

                                                                                                           Examines how and why a
                                                                                                           literary, philosophical, or artistic
                                                                                                           work attempts to promote or
                                                                                                           resist social/cultural change*
                                                                                                           Examines multiple social or
                                                                                                           cultural viewpoints represented
                                                                                                           in a literary, artistic, historical or
                                                                                                           philosophical work*

                                                                                                            Compares and contrasts social
                                                                                                            and cultural perspectives,
                                                                                                            issues, and/or themes between
                                                                                                            two or more works from
                                                                                                            literature and/or the humanities*
                                                                                                            Identifies the reader's own social
                                                                                                            and cultural points of view and
                                                                                                            biases that influence
                                                                                                            perceptions of and responses to
                                                                                                            a literary, philosophical, or
                                                                                                            artistic work*
                                                                                                            Identifies the social, cultural,
                                                                                                            historical, or political context
                                                                                                            presented in a literary or artistic
                                                                                                            work*
                                                                                                            Identifies and analyzes the way
                                                                                                            in which individuals, groups,
                                                                                                            relationships, and social
                                                                                                            dynamics are depicted within a
                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                            literary or artistic work*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        43
                                                                            Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-       Washington Competency-
                    ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic               Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                     Pilot Project                       Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                              Accurately places and analyzes
                                                                                                              the work within the context of an
                                                                                                              influential movement (or the
                                                                                                              works of other
                                                                                                              authors/creators)*
                                                                                                             Recognizes, analyzes, and
                                                                                                             critiques stereotypical
                                                                                                             characterizations*
                                                                                                             Identifies key information and
                                                                                                             ideas from oral, visual, written,
                                                                                                             or multimedia presentations*

                                                                                                             Analyzes the influences of social
                                                                                                             and cultural membership,
                                                                                                             ethnicity, or gender within a
                                                                                                             literary or artistic work*
Language in daily                                                                                            Reflects upon and critically
use                                                                                                          evaluates student's own use of
                                                                                                             language in relationship to
                                                                                                             context, audience, purpose,
                                                                                                             personal voice and style.
                                                                                                                                                 Uses language to interact
                                                                                                                                                 effectively and responsibly with
                                                                                                                                                 others
Mass media                                  Recognize how visual and sound
format                                      techniques or design (such as
                                            special effects, camera angles                                                                       Identifies and evaluates the
                                            and music) carry or influence                                                                        techniques of mass media
                                            messages in various media.                                                                           messages*
                                            Examine the intersections and
                                            conflicts between the visual
                                            (such as media images, painting,
                                            film and graphic arts) and the
                                            verbal.
Media production                                                                                             Effectively uses a variety of
                                            Apply and adapt the principles of                                communication forms (oral,
                                            written composition to create                                    visual, written, multimedia) and
                                            coherent media productions                                       methods (speeches,
                                            using effective images, text,                                    dramatizations, informal
                                            graphics, music and/or sound                                     presentations, slide
                                            effects — if possible — and                                      presentations, computer and
                                            present a distinctive point of                                   web graphics, posters,
                                            view on a topic (for example,                                    films/videos, print journalism,
                                            PowerPoint presentations,                                        reports, essays, creative
                                            videos).                                                         writing)*
                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         44
                                                                             Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                               Oregon State’s Proficiency-       Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                      Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project           University Success               System (PASS)                     Pilot Project                         Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                                                                                               Effectively integrates forms of
                                                                                                               communication in multimedia
                                                                                                               presentations
                                                                                                               In visual/multimedia
                                                                                                               communication, uses clear and
                                                                                                               effective graphic language and
                                                                                                               symbols, elements and
                                                                                                               principles of design; appropriate
                                                                                                               and effective use of media;
                                                                                                               correct techniques and
                                                                                                               processes
Oral composition                                                                                                                                 Uses language that is
and presentation                           Make oral presentations that                                                                          grammatically correct, precise,
                                           make skillful use of rhetorical                                                                       engaging, and well-suited to
                                           devices.                                                                                              topic, audience, and purpose
                                                                                                                Integrates visuals effectively to   Uses appropriate action, sound,
                                                                                                                enhance audience interest and       and image to support
                                                                                                                understanding                       presentation*
                                           Identify the meaning of common
                                           idioms, as well as literary,
                                           classical and biblical allusions;
                                           use them in oral and written
                                           communication.*
                                           Comprehend and communicate
                                           quantitative, technical and
                                           mathematical information.*
                                           Construct arguments (both orally
                                           and in writing) that develop a
                                           thesis that demonstrates clear
                                           and knowledgeable judgment.*
                                                                                                                Achieves an accurate, balanced,
                                                                                                                and honest research
                                                                                                                presentation*
                                                                                                                                                    Communicates clearly to a
                                                                                                                                                    range of audiences for a variety
                                                                                                                                                    of purposes
Organizing                                 Make oral presentations that
information and                            exhibit a logical structure                                          Use an effective organizational
ideas                                      appropriate to the audience,                                         pattern based on audience and
                                           context and purpose                                                  purpose
                                                                                                                                               Develops a topic or theme;
                                                                                                                                               organizes thoughts around a
                                                                                                                                               clear beginning, middle, and
                                                                                                                                               end; uses transitional sentences
                                                                                                                Incorporates an effective      and phrases to connect related
                                           Make oral presentations that                                         beginning, smooth transitions, ideas; speaks coherently and
                                           include smooth transitions.                                          and a verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                             * This statement appears strong sense of closure  compellingly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            45
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-      Washington Competency-
                ACT College Readiness                                     Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic           Standards for English   American Diploma Project          University Success               System (PASS)                    Pilot Project                        Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                        Construct arguments (both orally
                                        and in writing) that structure
                                        ideas in a sustained and logical                                   Sequences ideas clearly,
                                        fashion.*                                                          logically, and coherently
                                                                                                           Synthesizes information attained
                                                                                                           through research to develop
                                        Make oral presentations that                                       coherent conclusions,
                                        provide a coherent conclusion.                                     discussions, and presentations*

                                        Construct arguments (both orally
                                        and in writing) that provide clear
                                        and effective conclusions.*
                                        Make oral presentations that
                                        group related ideas and maintain
                                        a consistent focus.
                                                                                                      Integrates details, examples,
                                                                                                      and supporting evidence
                                                                                                      smoothly and appropriately*
                                                                                                      Coherently and appropriately
                                                                                                      combines and integrates
                                                                                                      information from inquiry-based
                                                                                                      research*
Style and                                                                                             Analyzes how form, technique,
techniques in                                                                                         and language are used in a
visual media                                                                                          variety of oral, visual, written, or
                                                                                                      multimedia communications*
                                                                                                      Evaluates the effectiveness of
                                                                                                      an oral, visual, written, or
                                                                                                      multimedia communication in
                                                                                                      relationship to its context,
                                                                                                      audience, purpose, and
                                                                                                      delivery*
Verbal and                                                                                            In oral communication, uses
nonverbal                                                                                             precise language; clear
communication                                                                                         enunciation; correct
                                        Make oral presentations that                                  pronunciation; fluent delivery;
                                        employ proper eye contact,                                    variations in rate, volume, tone,      Adjusts speaking strategies for a
                                        speaking rate, volume,                                        and inflection; effective eye          variety of audiences and
                                        enunciation, inflection and                                   contact, expressions, and              purposes by varying tone, pitch,
                                        gestures to communicate ideas                                 gestures; visual aids, media,          pace of speech to create effect
                                        effectively.                                                  and props, where appropriate           and aid communication

                                                                                                      Establishes a tone appropriate
                                                                                                      for the form of communication,
                                                                                                      context, audience, and purpose*

                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46
                                                                           Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                             Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                    Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English   American Diploma Project         University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                        Select or Rephrase Definition Here

                                                                                                           Demonstrates the principles of a
                                                                                                           chosen form of communication*
                                                                                                           Communicates clear, coherent
                                                                                                           thinking*
                                                                                                           Chooses language to achieve
                                                                                                           desired audience response*
                                                                                                           Conveys thinking that is
                                                                                                           comprehensible and interesting
                                                                                                           for its intended audience*
                                                                                                           Plans and conducts scripted
                                                                                                           and/or open-ended interviews,
                                                                                                           using appropriate questioning,
                                                                                                           recording, and analyzing
                                                                                                           techniques.*
                                                                                                                                              Uses appropriate action, sound,
                                                                                                                                              and image to support
                                                                                                                                              presentation*
                                                                                                                                              Assesses own communication
                                                                                                                                              strengths and needs, and sets
                                                                                                                                              goals for improvement
                                                                                                                                              Seeks and uses feedback to
                                                                                                                                              improve communication, offers
                                                                                                                                              suggestions and comments to
                                                                                                                                              others when appropriate
FOUNDATIONAL
SKILLS FOR
ENGLISH
Conversation and                           Participate productively in self-
group discussion                           directed work teams for a
                                           particular purpose (for example,
                                           to interpret literature, write or
                                           critique a proposal, solve a
                                           problem, make a decision),
                                           including acknowledging the
                                           ideas and contributions of
                                           individuals in the group.
                                           Participate productively in self-
                                           directed work teams for a
                                           particular purpose (for example,
                                           to interpret literature, write or
                                           critique a proposal, solve a
                                           problem, make a decision),
                                           including gaining the floor in
                                           respectful ways.

                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     47
                                                                            Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                 ACT College Readiness                                       Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic            Standards for English   American Diploma Project            University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project             Select or Rephrase Definition Here
                                         Participate productively in self-
                                         directed work teams for a
                                         particular purpose (for example,
                                         to interpret literature, write or
                                         critique a proposal, solve a
                                         problem, make a decision),
                                         including listening with civility to
                                         the ideas of others.
                                         Participate productively in self-
                                         directed work teams for a
                                         particular purpose (for example,
                                         to interpret literature, write or
                                         critique a proposal, solve a
                                         problem, make a decision),
                                         including maintaining
                                         independence of judgment,
                                         offering dissent courteously,
                                         ensuring a hearing for the range
                                         of positions on an issue and
                                         avoiding premature consensus.
                                         Participate productively in self-
                                         directed work teams for a
                                         particular purpose (for example,
                                         to interpret literature, write or
                                         critique a proposal, solve a
                                         problem, make a decision),
                                         including tolerating ambiguity
                                         and a lack of consensus.

                                                                                Participate in group discussions
                                                                                by offering ideas and questions
                                                                                to the conversation.

HABITS OF MIND
Time/task                                Report findings within prescribed
management                               time and/or length requirements, Demonstrate time management
                                         as appropriate.                   in research and coursework.
Perseverance                                                               Ability to be disciplined in doing
                                                                           research, regardless of what the
                                                                           field may be.
                                                                           Accept constructive criticism of
                                                                           their own work without taking it
                                                                           personally.
Responding to                                                                   Approach their work with an
criticism                                                                       open mind and willingness to
                                                                                push forward.
                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                           48
                                                                              Comparative Analysis of English College/Workplace Readiness Documents
                                                                                                                Oregon State’s Proficiency-   Washington Competency-
                   ACT College Readiness                                       Knowledge and Skills for         based Admissions Standards based Admissions Standards
Topic              Standards for English           American Diploma Project    University Success               System (PASS)                 Pilot Project                     Select or Rephrase Definition Here
Sharing                                                                        Are comfortable formulating and
feedback/ideas                                                                 expressing their own ideas.
                                                                               Assert their opinions and ask
                                                                               bold questions in order to
                                                                               develop a consciousness and
                                                                               distinct voice.
OTHER
Career                                                                                                                                         Explores options for career
goals/options                                                                                                                                  opportunities in communication
                                                                                                                                               Explores options for career
                                                                                                                                               opportunities in writing

* This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic




                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     49

								
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