Retranslation of "A Key into the Language of America" by Roger Williams, 1643. A Key was the first book written in America on southern New England Indian tribes. Williams provides an introduction to the Narragansett language, now extinct, as well as in depth anthropological studies.
The author’s companion dictionary is a separate book. See "Indian Grammar Dictionary". A comparative overview of Narragansett grammar is in the author’s "Grammatical Studies in the Narragansett Language". All available on docStore.
Introduction to the Narragansett Language: A Study of Roger Williams’ A Key into the Language of America By Moondancer ⊗ Strong Woman Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data O’Brien, Francis Joseph, Jr. (Moondancer) Jennings, Julianne (Strong Woman) Introduction to the Narragansett Language: A Study of Roger Williams' A Key into the Language of America, 1643 (First Edition). p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Algonquian Indian Languages (Narragansett). 2. Grammar, Vocabulary, Phonology of Narragansett language. I. The Massachusett Language Revival Project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001116679 They want to dry the tears that drowned the sun They want laughter to return to their hearts They want to go home xo to Mother and Grandmother They want to hear their ancestral voices ‘round the fire Wunnohteaonk MAY PEACE BE IN YOUR HEARTS Copyright © 2001 by Moondancer and Strong Woman Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc., 12 Curry Avenue, Newport, RI 02840-1412, USA. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc. Printed in the United States of America. Introduction to the Narragansett Language Annotated Edition Aquidneck Indian Council, Inc. A Public Foundation Preserving the Past TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD PRONUNCIATION GUIDE i A Key into the Language of America Retranslated and Annotated To the Reader 1 Chapter I. Of Salutation 4 Chapter II. Of Eating and Entertainment 12 Chapter III. Of Sleepe 17 Chapter IV. Of Their Numbers 19 Chapter V. Of Relations of Consanguinity, &c. 23 Chapter VI. Of House, Family, &c 26 Chapter VII. Of Parts of Body 36 Chapter VIII. Of Discourse and News 39 Chapter IX. Of Time of Day 43 Chapter X. Of Seasons of the Yeere 45 Chapter XI. Of Travell 48 Chapter XII. Of the Heavenly Lights 54 Chapter XIII. Of the Weather 56 Chapter XIV. Of The Winds 58 Chapter XV. Of Fowle 60 Chapter XVI. Of the Earth and Fruits Thereof 63 Chapter XVII. Of Beasts and Cattell 67 Chapter XVIII. Of the Sea 71 Chapter XIX. Of Fish and Fishing 74 Chapter XX. Of Their Nakedness and Clothing 78 Chapter XXI. Of Religion, the Soule &c. 80 Chapter XXII. Of Their Government and Justice 87 Chapter XVIII. Of Marriage 91 Chapter XXIV. Concerning their Coyne 94 Chapter XXV. Of Buying & Selling 98 Chapter XXVI. Of Debts and Trusting 103 Chapter XXVII. Of Their Hunting, &c 195 Chapter XXVIII. Of their Gaming, &c. 198 Chapter XXIX. Of Their Warre, &c 110 Chapter XXX. Of Their Paintings 117 Chapter XXXI. Of their Sicknesse 116 Chapter XXXII. Of Death and Buriall, &c. 120 GRAMMAR TABLE 122 REFERENCES AND SOURCES 126 CREDITS & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 130 About the Authors Foreword ⊗ ⊗ ⊗ ⊗ Introduction to the Narragansett Language: A Study of Roger Williams' A Key into the Language of America, 1643 is a companion volume to Indian Grammar Dictionary for N- Dialect: A Study of A Key into the Language of America by Roger Williams 1643. Together these volumes comprise a modern summary of the Narragansett language. Our goals are threefold: (1) to provide a modern re-translation of the Narragansett language recorded by Roger Williams in 1643 in A Key into the Language of America, (2) to provide a text in dialogue structure which the reader, with concentrated effort, can acquire a fair amount of knowledge, at the elementary level, of an extinct language, (3) to provide teachers with a useful text to teach this language. The reader is assisted in two major ways. First, the Indian Grammar Dictionary provides an index to the present text (based on the 1936 5th edition) as well as a compact summary of grammatical information. Second, the text is supported by almost 1,000 footnotes which guides the reader through the text with special emphasis on understanding the verb structure in reference to a well-structured Grammar Table summarizing the main verb classes in Roger Williams' elementary book. Thus, by diligent study, the reader may gain proficiency in understanding this fascinating language, and gain insight into the First Americans of Rhode Island. The editors have used this work to produce elementary dialogue for a television documentary "Mystic Voices: the Story of the Pequot War" (http://ourworld- top.cs.com/pequotwar/index.htm). Also, we have produced an audiocassette tape of songs Nókas-I Come from Her, sung by Strong Woman, in this dialect and other regional tongues. Introductory Language Lessons have been conducted at the Rhode Island Indian Council with some measure of success. Moondancer thanks Darrell Waldron, Executive Director and Charlie Harold, Board Chairman, and the Staff at the Council for their support. Aquene Moondancer ⊗ Strong Woman Monday, February 26, 2001 Newport, Rhode Island A Key into the Language of America [facsimiles of Title Page & pp. 7, 10; Courtesy, University of Pennsylvania] EENÁNTOWASH SPEAK INDIAN A Brief Pronunciation Guide for Narragansett Language i PRONUNCIATION GUIDE for A Key SPELLING APPROXIMATE SOUND (Roger Williams) (some are uncertain) a • uh in sofa • ou in bought • ah in father ah • ah in father • ou in bought an, aum, aun • nasal sound au • ou in bought • au in caught • ah in father aw • ou in bought • aw in raw • ah in father b • b in big • p in pig c, cc • k in cow, account • kw in queen ca, co, cu • k in call, cold, cut cau • cow • caw ce, ci • s-sound in cede, civil, acid • z- or sh-sound as in sacrifice, ocean ch • ch in chair ck • k in cow • ch in child • kw in queen ckq [before w] • k in cow • kw in queen d, dd • d in din, muddy • t in tin, putty STRESS MARKS ′ ` ^ ii ddt, dt • d in din • t in tin • tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t) e • e in he • e in bed • uh in sofa • silent [no sound at end of word] ê • e in he ea • e in he • ea in yeah • ah in father ee • ee in beet ei • e in he • uh in sofa emes [word ending] • ee-mees ese [word ending] • ees eu • eu in feud g [before w] • k in cow • kw in queen • guttural sound like German ach g, gg, gk [word middle after a vowel] • k in cow • kw in queen • guttural sound like German ach g, gk [word ending] • k in cow • kw in queen • guttural sound like German ach i • uh in sofa • e in he • i in hit ie • e in he ih • uh in sofa îi • ee [?] • ee-uh [?] • ee-ih [?] STRESS MARKS ′ ` ^ iii k, kk • k in cow • kw in queen • guttural sound like German ach k [before consonant] • kuh in cut m, mm • m in mud, hammer n [before consonant] • nuh in nut n, nn [middle, end of word] • n in tan, tanning o • uh in sofa • ah in father • oo in food o [after w] • ah in father • ou in bought • au in caught oo, ô • oo in food oa [after w] • ah in father • ou in bought oh • uh in sofa • oh in go [?] om, on • nasal sound p, pp • b in big, bigger • p in pig, happy q [word beginning & before vowel] • kw in queen q [before w] • k in cow • kw in queen • guttural sound like German ach s [word beginning & after consonant] • s in sip, racks s, ss [after vowel ] • s in sip [one s sound] sc • sk in skill sh [word beginning, word ending & before • sh in she, push vowel] sh [before consonant] • s in sip shk • sk in skill shq • sk in skill sk • sk in skill STRESS MARKS ′ ` ^ iv skc • sk in skill • guttural sound like German ach sp • sp in spell sq • skw in squid • guttural sound like German ach t • d in din • t in tin • tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t) tt • t in tin, putty • d in din, muddy • tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t) tch • tch in itch te [word beginning ] • tee-you [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t)) tea, ttea [after a vowel] • tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t) teau, teu, tteu [word middle or end] • tee-ah [fast tempo] (a complex sound between ch & t) u • uh in sofa • ah (short version). • some think that at the beginning of some words, a u was a “whistling sound” (see w) w, ww • w in won (one w heard) [perhaps a “whistling sound” in some words beginning with w] y • y in yes z • s in sip STRESS MARKS ′ ` ^ v Title Page <>A Key into the Language of America, 1643 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. To the Reader1 1 NOTE: to understand the unique grammar of the Narragansett Algonquian language in A Key, the student should obtain the companion volume, Indian Grammar Dictionary for N-Dialect: A Study of A Key into the Language of America, Moondancer ∋ Strong Woman, Newport, RI: Aquidneck Indian Council, © 2000. There the reader will find much grammatical information on word formation. This dictionary also serves as a page index and will assist the reader in locating words, roots, stems, and grammatical information. In this manner, the reader can do his or her own analysis of the grammatical structure of the language. Many of the original English translations given by Roger Williams in A Key have been modified to make interpretation easier or to correct translation errors in light of modern understanding of the Narragansett language. We tend to write a simple literal "grammatical translation" which we believe simplifies the presentation and understanding of the grammar for the beginning student. The information in parentheses ( ) gives literal translation or expansion on translation. Information enclosed in quotation marks (" ") means usually a literal translation such as —a red fox ("red animal"). The information in brackets [ ] is the editors’ editorial comments to interpret further R. Williams' translation or to provide additional explanation. In footnotes we use bold for grammatical information and italic for Algonquian. PRONUNCIATION NOTE: Occasionally we suggest pronunciations, which are based on the following simple conventions: we write "ah" for a in father; "uh" for a in sofa; "oo" for oo in food; "e" for e in bed; "i" or "íh" for i in hit; "kw" for qu in queen. We also tend to suggest a "g" sound for a letter spelled "k"; a "d" sound for spelled "t", a "b" sound for a word spelled "p". These changes tend to make reconstructed spoken Narragansett more intelligible to Indians who still have a related "living" language such as our friends of the Tobique Band of the Maliseets in N.B., Canada. 67 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. • Nnínnuock 2 • People of our Tribe 5 To the — • Ninnimissinnûwock3 • Indian People not of our tribe6 Reader • Eniskeetompaûwog4 • Indians in general Nanhigganêuck7 Narragansetts To the — Reader Massachusêuck Massachusett Indians To the — Reader Cawasumsêuck Cawsumsett Neck Indians8 To the — Reader Cowwesêuck Cowweset Indians To the — Reader Quintikóock9 Indians of the long river (Connecticut) To the — Reader Qunnipiêuck Quinnipiac Indians To the — Reader 2 Original text reads Nínnuock . The ending -ock (or -ag or -uck with a connective "glide" pronounced as "y" or "w") makes words plural (more than one) for the type of noun referred to as "animate" (creatures that are alive and move) plus others we can't understand the rule for at this time. The ending -ash is the plural for "inanimate nouns". See footnote, Ch. IV, pp. 25-26 for more information on Algonquian gender (animate/inanimate) 3 Missin = "other nnin (captive people, inferior men)". Double consonants in the middle of a word (like nn in Nnínnuock, or hh, gg, ss, in other words, etc.) are pronounced like one letter—just as we do in English; for example the word "supper" is said with one "p" sound. Also, note that in Narragansett, the stress or emphasis in a word falls where we see any of the three stress marks used by Roger Williams— • á • à • â (and so on for the other vowels—e, i o, u) So, for Nnínnuock, we might say "Nuh-NIN-nuh-wahck" with the "i" as in "hit" (the stress is on the second syllable NIN because that’s where we see the stress mark). Often the cluster uock seems to insert a "w" for speech ("wahck") (called a "glide"). 4 Skeétomp ("SKEE-dahb") ="a man", a common Algonquian word used among surviving languages like Maliseet. Some believe the word, Eniskeetompaûwog, means "original surface-dwelling people" (Iron Thunderhorse, 2000). Wosketomp is a similar word suggesting a "young warrior) (woskehteau = "harms or destroys" with perhaps root -wask- = "young." The key root is -omp = "free, unbound". 5 “Those like us”; "We are all alike". [nnin = "people, human beings of our tribe"; see Ch. V] 6 “Those not like us”. 7 Original text has ~ over the e (as do a number of other words). We use the circumflex ^ throughout the book. The plural ending -êuck ("ee-yuhck") is translated (incorrectly) "the people of". The endings "-ock, -og" for simple pluralizaton have the same meaning as -êuck. So, Nanhigganêuck ("Nah-hih-gah-NEE-yuhck") has been translated, "The People Of The Small Point Of Land". Massachusêuck is translated "People of the Great Hills". Cawasumsêuck means "People of the Sharp Rock". Cowwesêuck means "People Of the Small Pine Place". Qunnipiêuck = "People of the long-water place" (quinni-auke-pe) or "People of the place where the route changes". Pequtóog is translated usually "Destroyers". Muhhekanêuck means either "The Wolf People" or, in Prince & Speck, 1903, "People of the tide river". This analysis of a word into its elementary units of root/stems is guided by the principal of polysynthesis (see the editor's book, Understanding Algonquian Indian Words (New England)). English-language words can be understood in a similar manner; e.g., the words <telescope, telephone, television, telegraph, telegram, telepathy, telemetry> all have in common the Greek root tele (far off, at a distance) which goes into these words. The other roots (-scope, -phone &c) all have their individual meanings which when combined with other roots give us new words such as <microscope, periscope, Dictaphone, microphone, & c). Our manner of teaching Algonquian is quite similar to the word-analysis we just presented for English-language words. 8 Probably Pokanoket/ Wampanoag of Sowams who occupied lands from Sowansett River to Pawtucket River within Cawsumsett Neck in Bristol & Warren, RI 9 The recent book by Iron Thunderhorse is a good reference for Indian place names in southwestern New England. 67 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. Cawtántowwit & Cautántouwit The Great Spirit or The Place of the Great To the — Spirit (in the Southwest) Reader Pequtóog10 Pequot Indians To the — Reader Mosk & Paukúnnawaw A bear11 To the — Reader Sowaniu Towards southwest12 To the — Reader Muhhekanêuck13 Mohegans To the — Reader Qunnibtícut14 Connecticut River15 To the Reader Wequash A man who was a Péqut captain [a Christian To the — Indian and friend of Roger Williams] Reader Wétucks A man who wrought great miracles among To the — Native peoples [perhaps a legendary figure. Reader His name may mean "cousin" or "kinsman"; see Ch. V, Pg. 29] 10 These are ancestors of the Modern Pequots, including groups known as Mashantucket, Paucatuck, Eastern Pequot Indians, inter alia, in and around Ledyard, Conneticut. 11 See Ch. XII, p. 80. 12 Where we come from and where the souls of people go when they cross over; a very sacred place from where our primary foods of beans, squash, and corn come. See chapter on Religion for ideas on two souls of people. 13 Adopted and modified from an editorial footnote in A Key into the Language of America. Providence, RI: Narragansett Club, 1866 Edition, J. R. Trumbull, Editor. The Trumbull edition has many useful comments from historical sources. We are indebted to Dr. Trumbull for some historical editorial remarks used in the present book. 14 Ordinarily no "b" is written (Qunnitícut °—° "Kwih-nih-DIH-kuht"). 15 "On the long tidal river", home of the Pequots, Mohegans and other tribal groupings. 68 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. Chapter I. Of Salutation What cheare Nétop16? Greeting used by English to Indians I 2 Nétop Friend, my friend I 2 Netompaûog Friends, my friends I 2 Neèn, keèn, ewò17 I, you, he (she) I 2 Keèn ka neen You and I I 2 18 As cowequássin or Good morrow (a greeting) I 2 As cowequassunnúmmis19 As kuttaaquompsìn ? How do you do ? ["still your time?"] I 2 20 As npaumpmaûntam I am very well I 2 21 Taubot paumpmaútaman I am glad you are well ["thanks that you are I 2 well"] Cowaúnckamish22 My service to you ["I serve you"] I 2 23 Sachim Sachem, Indian village leader, “Prince” I 2 [Indian “chief”] • Cowaúnckamish &24 • I pray your favor ["I greet you"] I 2 • Cuckquénamish25 • I pray your favor ["I salute you"] 16 Nétop ("NEE-dahb") = "my friend"; kétop = "your friend"; wétop = "his friend". Root is -(t)op-;recall earlier footnote on -omp-. The reader may know that later, in Colonial times, the word netop became the racially derogatory, degrading, insulting "n word" by which Indians were routinely addressed by Whites. Nowadays, of course, such practices are considered unlawful in this day and age when it is legal to be Indian; see the book by Joey L. Dillard (1972). Black English: Its History in the United States. NY: Random House. Today, among native peoples nétop is used in its original meaning, "my friend," "friend". 17 When a comma is used, the English translation is given in the same order (Neèn = "I," keèn = "you," ewò = "he, she."); ewò is often used for "him". 18 The English word or means that either expression given is used in this situation. Notice that verbs relating to "your" or "we" (inclusive form) begin with either a c or k, but we use only the k form in the Grammar Table. 19 The ending -mis may be the question form; perhaps meaning "Is your light (spirit) still shining?" It may also indicate the Passive Voice (see the Ind. Gram. Dict.). In Pequot (co)wequassin, translated "good morning," seems to mean "may you live happily" (from week = "sweet"). So, As cowequássin may mean "may you continue to live happily ('sweetly')" 20 We have separated As from the verb paumpmaûntam (and word above) to highlight the grammar. See Ch. II, pg. 10, "Have you eaten yet?" & Ch. III, pg. 18, "Are you asleep yet?" and also Ch. XI, pg. 72. Also see Aspeyau (Ch. VI, pg. 34). As may be related to the word asq ("yet, not yet, still, before that"). Thus, As npaumpmaûntam may mean, "I live yet," "I am still on my journey," "Still I journey". 21 This is a Subjunctive verb (Type I) of the form ***aman. (Study the Grammar Table to understand why). Hagenau uses "Mood" in his morphological classification whereas we use the synonymous "mode" to refer to the basic four verb classes—Infinitive, Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive—with or without specified subject-object relation. 22 Type C Objective-Indicative verb (I-you (sg.)). 23 In historic times, Europeans recorded the word "Sagamore". They thought a Sagamore was lesser in rank than a Sachem, but in fact they may have simply misunderstood the language. The Algonquian word sagimau means "He is the Sachem". It is this word the Europeans may have heard and mistakenly misinterpreted. 24 The ampersand & means the words are said both ways with the same meanings (according to R. Williams). We use &c to mean "etc." 69 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. 26 Cowaúnkamuck He salutes you I 2 As paumpmaûntam How is the Sachim ? I 2 Sachim ? As paumpmáuntam How is your wife ? I 3 commíttammus27 ? As paumpmaûntamwock How are your children ? I 3 cummuckiaûg28 ? Konkeeteâug They are well I 3 Taubotne29 paumpmauthéttit I am glad they are well I 3 30 31 Túnna Cowaûm ? or Whence come you ? [singular] Tuckôteshana ? I 3 Yò nowaûm I came that way ["There I came"] I 3 Náwwatuck nôteshem32 I came from afar I 3 Mattaâsu nóteshem I came from hard by (near here) I 3 33 Wêtu House, wigwam I 3 Wetuômuck34 nóteshem I came from the house (wigwam) I 3 Acâwmuck notéshem I came over the water I 3 25 These two verbs show the Objective-Indicative Mode (study the Grammar Table to understand why—get in the habit of consulting the Grammar Table to see the pattern whenever verbs are discussed in the footnotes or main body of the text). 26 Objective-Indicative Mode (of form k'***uck, He-you (sg.)). In many places "he" could be read "he or she". If we fail to add "she" or "her" the reader should assume we meant to include it. 27 Not the question form, commíttammus is the whole word for "your wife. 28 Example of a possessive noun declined (my boy, your boy, his, her boy, our boy, &c) with the structure: possessive pronoun + noun + plural. Mucki is "child" (usually a boy) and -aug is plural for animate nouns. The prefix cum- makes it "your " children. Thus, in morphological form, k' + mucki + aug. "My children" starts with an n to give, nummuckiaûg (n' + mucki + aug). "His, her children, their children" drops the prefix—muckiaûg ( mucki + aug). Many relations are given in the editor's book, A Massachusett Language Book, Vol. 1, Aquidneck Indian Council. 29 In Pequot, pronounced TAH-buht-nee; literally, "thanks for that" (nee="that"). 30 It seems that "how, what, where" is given as <ta, taa, tac tou, tuc, tuck>; and "whence, whither, where" is given as <tunna, tunnock>. 31 "You" is ambiguous in this line just as it is in English. Is it singular or plural? We translate "you" as singular because we know from the verb-rules of grammar that Cowaûm is Type I verb (You, singular) as shown in the Grammar Table. In general, to distinguish "you (singular)" from "you (plural)", the reader should consult the Grammar Table. 32 Nôteshem seems to be a present-tense verb, which is used here as a past-tense verb. (In other dialects some verbs are used as the same for present and past tense.) More often Williams uses mesh to make past tense verbs from present-tense ones (see Ch. I, pg. 8; "I came by boat"). Although the past tense has its own verbs in other dialects, Williams seems to have not used them very much (see footnote, Ch. VI, p. 35). This may be unique to Narragansett or the depth of Williams’ knowledge of the language, or his decision to present only the bare rudiments of the grammar for the beginning English learner, who was not going to try very hard to master this very complex language. Rest assured, Algonquian grammar is far, far, far more involved than this example in A Key. (See Pentland article which is on Internet). 33 Some believe wetu is a verb ("he is at home," "he houses"). The words Natick weekuwout or weekuwomut ("in their house") are the basis for the word "wigwam". In 1907, Prince said the last speakers of the Cape Cod Wampanoag Mashpee dialect remembered the old word wigiwam for Indian wigwam. 34 The endings -uck, -ick, -it all mean "at, from, of" (location words) when attached to nouns (See Ch. I, pg. 3: "I came from the village"). The ending -uck is also used with Objective-Indicative verbs; see above ("He salutes you") and Ch. I, pg. 8 ("He loves you"). 70 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. 35 Otàn A village I 3 Otânick notéshem I came from the village I 3 Acawmenóakit Land on the other side (of the bay, river, I 4 lake, ocean, etc.) Tunnock kuttòme36 ? Whither go you ?37 I 4 Wékick nittóme I go to his, her wetu I 4 Nékick nittóme I go to my wetu I 4 Kékick nittóme I go to your wetu I 4 Tuckowêkin ? Where dwell you ? I 4 38 Tuckuttîin ? Where keep (live) you ? I 4 Mat nowetuómeno39 I have no wetu [not—I have none, a wetu] I 4 Tou wuttîin ? Where lives he ? I 4 40 Awânick ûchick ? Who are these (people)? I 4 Awaùn ewò ?41 Who is that ? I 4 Túnna úmwock ? or Whence come they ? I 4 Tunna wutshaûock42 ? Yo43 nowêkin I dwell here I 4 Yo ntîin I live here I 4 44 Eîu ? or Nnîu ? Is it so ? I 5 45 Nùx Yes I 5 35 "ah-DAHN". Keihtotan = "a great, large village" (in Natick dialect, northeast of Narragansett Country); the root keih-, keiht- = "great" (cf. "Great Spirit"). "Villages" is otànnash; "small village" is otanèmes; otanemèsash = "small villages" (the accents are conjectural). 36 Read this as one word, Tunnockuttòme. Say last part as either "kuh-DOOM" or "kuh-DAHM". 37 See page 70. 38 Perhaps said "tuh-kuh-TEE-in" or "tuh-kuh-TEEN" 39 The original text reads Matnowetuómeno. We separated mat to highlight the grammar. Mat means "no", "not". Also, matta means the same, but seems to be used to further indicate displeasure, unhappiness, annoyance, unpleasantness. See Ch. VI, pg. 38 ("I knew nothing"). The word machage (or mateàg & other spellings) means "never," "not, "nothing," & "not at all." Wetuo is common for wetu combined with other elements; e.g., wetuomanit="The wetu Spirit". Note that the prefix no- & suffix -meno signify "none of". See Ind. Gram. Dict.. And see p. 10, "Have you no water?" We have taken liberty to make these changes throughout the text to emphasize understanding the grammar. An audio-tape will someday accompany this book to teach reconstructed pronunciation. 40 Plural for "who". Ûchick seems to mean "these men" (yeug in Natick). The next line gives the singular form for "who". 41 The pronoun ewò ("he, she") usually said after the verb or noun. The pronouns neèn ("I") and keèn ("you") usually said before the verb or noun. See Ch. I, pg. 7, Keén nétop = "Is it you friend?" Sometimes the pronouns are added just for emphasis or clarification. 42 The verb esh (come, go) is embedded here. The word breaks down to: W' + (t)esh + auock. The t is inserted because the stem esh begins with a vowel. (see Appendix, Ind. Gram. Dict., "accommodating t"). This verb is Type III Indicative. Maybe the word is mispelled (e left out). 43 Yo means "here, there, hence, thence". It is spelled in different ways throughout the book. In the closely related Natick dialect (Wampanoag) it seems to be said "you". 44 Appears close to Pequot, "yes" = nawih (Prince & Speck, 1904); cf. p. 57 ("It is true"). 71 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. 46 Mat nippomitámmen I have heard nothing I 5 47 Wèsuonck A name I 5 48 Tocketussawêitch ? What is your name ? [How are you called?] I 5 Taantússawese ?49 Do you ask me my name ? I 5 ["How am I called ?"] Ntússawese50 I am called ______ [My name is_____]. I 5 Mat nowesuónckane I have no name I 5 Nowánnehick nowésuonck I have forgot my name I 5 51 Tahéna ? What is his name ? [[How is it called?] I 6 Tahossowêtam ? What is the name of it ? I 6 Tahéttamen ? What do you call this ? I 6 Teáqua ? What is this ? I 6 52 Yò néepoush ! You—stay or stand there! I 6 Máttapsh ! You—sit down ! I 6 Noónshem or Nonânum I cannot or I am unable I 6 Tawhitch kuppeeyaúmen 53? What come you for (why have you come) ? I 6 45 In speech, we hear "Ah-h" or a nasal sound, "ôu"; Mayhew (1722) talks about "nukkies" as "yes". 46 Indicative Mode, "I hear nothing (of this)". 47 Nouns ending in -onk, -onck are "abstract nouns" (indicating a collection or classification, state of being or action or abstract ideas <justice, love, truth, strength, &c>). 48 -itch suffix is confusing, appearing to be Subjunctive verb for nondirect inquiry. For Tocketussawêitch, the verb is underlined (ketussawêitch). When we add the "what" (pronounced tah or taa) to the verb, it sounds in speech like—tocketussawêitch. Williams often blends the verb with other words, we assume, because that’s how it sounded to him. But, to understand the grammar, we must be able to pick out the verb. See the next entry, Taantússawese where we have underlined the verb (ntússawese = "my name is ___"). Taa means "what" as mentioned earlier. The next entry teaches us that ntússawese means "I am called ___ " ("My name is ___"). 49 This verb is considered "unclassifiable" in Ind. Gram. Dict. The Grammar Table does not include its forms. Not enough examples were given by Williams of this verb type to make analysis possible. See Chap. VII. p. 52 for the forms for Indicative Mode. 50 In the verb ntússawese, the final e is probably silent because similar dialects don’t have an e for this type of word. Why Williams wrote words with letters not pronounced, we can only guess at, but in English a number of words have final e not said (drove, home, gone, etc.). So, ntússawese may be said as "nuh-DUH-sah-wees". A silent e also occurs on other words that end in -ese & -emes such as nipèwese ("a little water"). Words like wuttòne (said "wuh-DOON") have silent e. But other words (usually adjectives and other modifiers) do say final e such as wâme ("WAH-mee") & aquie ("ah-KWEE"). We think many (most?) words do not say the final e, except for adjectives, adverbs and one Objective-Indicative verb. This problem of "silent e" is one of the issues challenging us in the recovery of the language. 51 Ta means "what" in this and the next two lines. The verb follows upon ta. Perhaps Passive Voice, Type II ("How is he called"?) 52 We use this format to distinguish the different types of commands. "You—" refers to a single person. "You (plural)—" refers to more than one person. We use the exclamation mark! for commands or imperative pleadings even when the original text omits it (see Grammar Table for the different forms; the form You (sg.) [ending in -sh] is the most common one used by Williams, and thematic throughout the Algonquian languages, Trumbull, 1876). This verb and next show Imperative Mode. 53 The word for "why" is spelled about 6 different ways throughout A Key, according to Aubin (1972). Here it is spelled Tawhitch; on page 8, he spells it Tawhitche (with an extra e; the "e" at the end may be evidence that he does use a silent e at word-end). 72 NARRAGANSETT ENGLISH CHAP. PG. Téaqua kunnaúntamen ? What do you fetch (what are you looking for) I 6 ? Chenock cuppeeyâumis54? When came you (when did you come) ? I 6 Maìsh or Just or I 6 kittummâyi Even now (just now) Kittummâyi nippeéam55 I came just now [I have appeared, become I 6 present, just now] Yò commíttamus ?56 Is this your wife ? I 6 Yo cuppáppoos ? Is this your child (papoose) ? I 6 Yò cummúckquachucks ? Is this your son ? I 6 Yò cuttaûnis ? Is this your daughter ? I 6 57 Wunnêtu It is a fine child [It is becoming, turning into, I 6 a fine, good, beautiful chi
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