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Essential oils DweckData.xls

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					                              7th July 2009.                                    g/kg     g/kg
                  Anthony C. Dweck FLS, FRSC. FRSPH                             Oral   Dermal
Common name                         Latin name               Part extracted     LD50    LD50 Additional Toxicology                                                      Traditional use and ethnobotany                         Country
                                                                                               Dermal Irritant: suspected moderate
                                                                                               Mucous membrane irritant: severe (contains thymol and
Ajowan                           Trachyspermum ammi          seed              no data no data carvacrol).
                                                                                               PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance
Alantroot                        Inula helenium              root                              ingredient.                                                              see above
Ambrette                         Hibiscus abelmoschuus       seed                >5.00 >5.00
                                                                                               Oral Toxicity(LD50) :
                                                                                               Oral-Rat 11160.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Oral-Mouse 2200.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Dermal Toxicity(LD50) :
                                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Restriction in leave-on formulations to 0.78% and wash-off               In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on
                                                                                               formulations to 3.9%. This is due to phototoxic effects                  skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A
                                                                                               (genotoxicity) associated with the potential presence in the oil of      decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or
                                                                                               UV-reactive furocoumarins. Large oral doses should not to be             itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout.
Angelica                         Angelica archangelica       root              >2.2      >5.00 taken during pregnancy                                                   The tea is a good eye tonic.                           Europe
                                                                                               May be used in cosmetic products, provided that the total                In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on
                                                                                               concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished            skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A
                                                                                               cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm.                                     decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or
                                                                                               3% in fragrance concentrate. 35 ppm in flavour. 15ppm CO2                itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout.
Angelica                         Angelica archangelica       seed                              extract in flavour. The seed oil is not phototoxic.                      The tea is a good eye tonic.                           Europe

                                                                                                                                                                        Anise oil is useful in destroying body lice, head lice
                                                                                                                                                                        and itching insects , where the oil can be used by
                                                                                                                                                                        itself, so is useful for pediculosis, the skin condition
                                                                                                                                                                        caused by lice. It may be used for scabies, where it
                                                                                                                                                                        may be used externally in an ointment base. It used
                                                                                                Oral-Rat 2250.00 mg/kg                                                  either in oil or ointment base as a stimulating liniment
Aniseed                          Pimpinella anisum           seed                 2.17    >5.00 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                              and against vermin.                                      Spain

                                                                                                                                                                        Alpine Rosebay, Sunpati. The stems and leaves are
                                                                                                                                                                        used in Tibetan herbalism. They have a sweet, bitter
                                                                                                                                                                        and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are
                                                                                                                                                                        antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used
                                                                                                                                                                        to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin
                                                                                                                                                                        disorders. In Nepal, the leaves are boiled and the
                                                                                                                                                                        vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. It a sweet
                                                                                                                                                                        herbal, faint balsamic essence and is used in
Anthopogon                       Rhododendron anthopogon     leaf/flower       no data no data No data found                                                            perfumery.                                           Nepal

                                                                                                                                                               Used in fomentations for skin diseases and
                                                                                                                                                               ulcerative sores. The entire plant is often made into a
                                                                                                                                                               decoction and used as a wash for all sorts of
                                                                                                                                                               wounds and skin ulcers. The boiled leaves are used
                                                                                                                                                               as a poultice to allay headaches and nervous
                                                                                                                                                               twitching of the skin and muscles. The dried leaves
                                                                                                                                                               cut into small fragments are used to help induce
                                                                                                                                                               more rapid scarring of unhealed wounds.
                                                                                                                                                               Practitioners also use the leaves in eczema, herpes
                                                                                                                                                               and purulent scabies. Wormwood extract is the main
                                                                                                 Oral LD50: 0.37g/kg                                           ingredient in absinthe, a toxic liquor that induces
                                                                                                 Recommended max 0.5% in fragrance concentrate. Wormwood absinthism, a syndrome characterized by addiction,
                                                                                                 is classified as an unsafe herb by the Food and Drug          GI problems, auditory and visual hallucinations,
                                                                                                 Administration (FDA) because of the neurotoxic potential of   epilepsy, brain damage, and increased risk of
                                                                                                 thujone and its derivatives. The safety of wormwood is poorly psychiatric illness and suicide. Thujone-free
                                                                                                 documented despite its long history as a food additive.       wormwood extract is currently used as a flavoring,
                                                                                                 Convulsions, dermatitis, and renal failure have been          primarily in alcoholic beverages such as vermouth.
Artemisia                        Artemisia vulgaris          leaf/flower          0.37           documented.                                                   Also known as armoise.                                  Nepal

                                                                                                                                                                        It is called tulsi in India and used for ayurvedic
                                                                                                 Oral-Rat 1400.00mg/kg                                                  medicine. Sacred to Krishna and Vishnu. the leaves
                                                                                                 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg                                              are heart shaped and are considered a love symbol
                                                                                                 IFRA restricted components: eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer;                in Italy. The oil clears the head and is uplifting. It is
                                                                                                 methyl eugenol <6.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity             useful in nervous conditions: good for anxiety,
                                                                                                 0.5% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours.                                 depression, hysteria, indecision and nervous debility.
                                                                                                 Toxicity class B acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                 It is good for earache, colds, sinus, migraine,
                                                                                                 irritant), Dermal Irritation class C (?), Dermal sensitisation class   muscular spasm. It is good for sluggish and
Basil, French                    Ocimum basilicum            flowering plant      1.40 >5.00     D (4%), Contraindicated in the warning list for pregnancy              congested skin and is an insect repellant.                Nepal
Basil, Sweet                     Ocimum basilicum            flowering plant      1.40 >5.00     see above                                                              see above                                                 South Africa
Basil, Tropical                  Ocimum basilicum            flowering plant      1.40 >5.00     see above                                                              see above                                                 Madagascar

                                                                                             LD50: 1.80g/kg                                                             Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains, bruises,
                                                                                             In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe              etc., and was sometimes dropped into the ears to
                                                                                             with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight. Some                relieve pain. Use with care and never more than
                                                                                             fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil             1.25%. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well.
                                                                                             (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer                   Mildly narcotic, said to be good for promoting hair
Bay, Sweet                       Laurus nobilis              leaf               >5.00 >5.00 sensitization issues                                                        growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff.
                                                                                             Oral-Rat 11520.00 mg/kg
                                                                                             Bergamot essential oil has GRAS status.
                                                                                             Irritation/Sensitisation - Nil at 30% (Human). 3/200 patients with         It is used for oily skin, acne, seborrhea of the scalp,
                                                                                             dermatitis affected.                                                       herpes, psoriais, ulcers and wounds. Bergamot is an
                                                                                             When the level of furocoumarins is decreased to below                      antidepressant and gentle relaxant and has a
Bergamot                         Citrus aurantium bergamia   peel              >10.00 >20.00 0.0075% phototoxicity is avoided.                                          refreshing, uplifting quality.                          Italy

                                                                                                 Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                                                 irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
Bergamot (bergaptene free)       Citrus aurantium bergamia   fruit               11.52           (30%), bergapten-free is safe and does not cause phototoxicity.
Birch, Sweet                     Betula lenta                wood                                LD50: 1.70g/kg
                                                                         As a food flavouring additive the material has been assessed to
                                                                         be generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The rodent LD50 for          It is anti inflammatory, anticatarrhal, expectorant,
                                                                         black pepper essential oil is greater than 5 g/kg. The material is   supportive to the digestive glands, and traditionally
                                                                         neither phototoxic nor sensitizing, and is considered non-toxic.     used for rheumatoid arthritis. Considered an
Black Pepper           Piper nigrum             seeds     >5.00          500 mg/24 hr caused a toxic reaction to/ rabbit skin.                aphrodisiac and sexual stimulant.                            Indonesia


                                                                         Oral LD50: 0.13 g/kg
Boldo                  Peumus boldus            leaf       0.30          Not recommended for topical use


                                                                                                                                              The leaves possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory
                                                                                                                                              and anodyne (pain relief) properties and used for
                                                                                                                                              burns, colds, influenza and dyspepsia. Cajeput oil is
                                                                                                                                              produced from the leaves by steam distillation. The
                                                                                                                                              oil is a common household medicine, especially in
                                                                                                                                              South-East Asia, used internally for the treatment of
                                                                                                                                              coughs and colds, against stomach cramps, colic
                                                                                                                                              and asthma. It is used externally for the relief of
                                                                                                                                              neuralgia and rheumatism, often in the form of
                                                                        Acute Oral-Rat LD50: 2480mg/Kg                                        ointments and liniments, and for the relief of
                                                                        Dermal-rabbit LD50: >5000mg/Kg                                        toothache and earache. It is also applied in treating
                                                                        Classified as non-toxic (Oral-Rats LD50 2-5 g/kg) and non-            indolent ulcers. The oil is reputed to have insect-
                                                                        sensitizing, although skin irritation may occur at high               repellent properties. It is a sedative and relaxant and
                                                                        concentrations. It has been approved for food use by the Food         used as a flavouring in cooking and as a fragrance in
Cajuput                Melaleuca cajuputi       leaf       2.48   >5.00 and Drug Administration (FDA).                                        soaps, cosmetics, detergents and perfumes.
                                                                        Oral-Rat 3870mg/kg
                                                                        4% in fragrances.                                                     see Melaleuca cajuputi [Syn: Melaleuca
Cajuput                Melaleuca leucadendron   leaf       3.87   >5.00 15ppm in flavours.                                                    leucadendron ]                                               Vietnam
                                                                        Oral LD50: 0.84g/kg
                                                                        Oral-Rat 777.00 mg/kg
                                                                        Oral-Rat LD50 value 1298.50 mg/kg
                                                                        Intraperitoneal-Rat 221.00 mg/kg
                                                                        intravenous-Mouse 1138.00 mg/kg                                       In Arabia and Iran it is used as an aphrodisiac.In
                                                                        Intraperitoneal-Mouse 177.00 mg/kg                                    Japan the leaves were used as a bathing agent to
                                                                        Intraperitoneal-Guineapig 297.00 mg/kg                                make "Sweet Flag bath water". It is an aquatic
                                                                        Skin-Guineapig >5000.00 mg/kg                                         perennial, which emits a smell rather like that of
                                                                        methyl eugenol <0.60% as it has potential carcinogenic activity,      mandarin oranges. Used for treating rheunatism,
Calamus (Sweet Flag)   Acorus calamus           rhizome   0.777   >5.00 max. 4% in fragrances.                                                fever and lumbago.                                           Nepal


                                                                                                                                              Camphor is well-known for its analgesic and
                                                                                                                                              infection-fighting abilities when used in combination
                                                                        Oral-Rat 3270.00mg/kg                                                 with eucalyptus oil. The U.S. Over-The-Counter
                                                                        Skin-Rabbit 5000.00mg/kg                                              (OTC) Drug Review Ingredient Status Report,
                                                                        IPR-Mice 3000mg/Kg                                                    (December 1991) listed camphor as a Category I
                                                                        IFRA specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides                       ingredient for fever blisters and as a counter-irritant
                                                                        restricted components:                                                in the External Analgaesics Monograph. Camphor is
                                                                        citronellol <0.90 % Sensitizer                                        also listed as an antitussive ingredient in the cough
                                                                        methyl eugenol <0.30 % has potential carcinogenic activity            and cold monograph. A nasal product indicated for
                                                                        White camphor oil is said to be less toxic than the yellow and        the relief of nasal irritations and nasal congestion
                                                                        brown varieties which contain large amounts of safrole.               due to colds consists entirely of a blend of essential
                                                                        Japanese camphor contains ketones.                                    oils cajeput, eucalyptus and peppermint. Methyl
                                                                        In Great Britain the recommended exposure limits of synthetic         salicylate, or oil of wintergreen, is listed as a counter-
Camphor (White)        Cinnamomum camphora      leaf      >5.00   >5.00 camphor are 2 ppm (long-term) and 3 ppm (short-term).                 irritantin the external analgaesic monograph.

                                                                        Oral-Rat 3730.00mg/kg
                                                                        Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                        Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal
                                                                        Irritation class B more likely C-D, Dermal sensitisation class D
                                                                        (10% for leaf). Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                        Poisoning has occurred from administration of camphorated oil
                                                                        (camphor liniment) to children in mistake for castor oil.
                                                                        Symptoms included nausea, vomiting, colic, headache,
                                                                        dizziness, a feeling of warmth, delirium, muscle twitching,
                                                                        epileptiform convulsions, depression of the central nervous
                                                                        system, and coma. Breathing was difficult and the breath had a
Camphor (Yellow)       Cinnamomum camphora      bark       3.73   >5.00 characteristic odour; anuria may occur.                          see above

                                                                                                                                              Good for nervous exhaustion and mental fatigue.
                                                                                                                                              Used as a flavouring, and also for their carminative
                                                                        Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg                                                and stimulating properties. Properties are antiseptic
                                                                        Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                            and stimulative. Used for its aphrodisiac effect, also
                                                                        Citral <0.60 % Sensitizer                                             has an uplifting effect, helping to clear the mind of
                                                                        Geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer                                           noise and confusion. Makes an excellent bath oil,
Cardamom               Ellettaria cardamomum    seed       5.00   >5.00 12% in the fragrance.                                                 light, refreshing and stimulating.                     Guatamala
                                                                                                                                              Larger or Greater Cardamom or Nepal Cardamom.
                                                                                                                                              Medicinally, the seeds are credited with stimulant
                                                                                                                                              and astringent properties. It is used in
                                                                                                                                              gastrointestinal and genito-urinary complaints. It is
                                                                                                                                              correctly described by the Arabian physicians under
Cardamom large         Amomum subulatum         seed      22.00 no data Acure Oral-Mice 22,070 mg/kg                                          the name Hil-Bawa.                                     Nepal
                                                                        Oral-Rat 2800.00 mg/kg
                                                                        Skin-Rabbit 320.00 mg/kg
                                                                        IFRA Sensitization
                                                                        The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and concentration of
                                                                        Cinnamic aldehyde in the finished cosmetic product should not
                                                                        exceed 0.1%.
                                                                        benzyl benzoate <2.50 % Sensitizer                                    It yields Cassie oil for barbers shops, was one of the
                                                                        cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer                                   holy annointing oils mentioned in Exodus as being
                                                                        cinnamaldehyde <90.00 % Sensitizer                                    used by Moses on sacred occasions. The dried bark
                                                                        eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer                                            is used. Cassia is chiefly used to scent potpourri
                                                                        methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity            and to flavour chocolate; but in China it is given as
                                                                        1% in fragrances                                                      an antiseptic and as a digestive tonic, and it flavours
Cassia                 Cinnamomum cassia        bark       2.80    0.32 25ppm in flavours                                                     other medicines.                                        Indonesia
                                                                               Oral-Rat 3.40 ml/kg
                                                                               Skin-Rabbit 0.69 ml/kg
                                                                               IFRA Sensitization
                                                                               benzyl benzoate <2.40 % Sensitizer
                                                                               cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                               cinnamaldehyde <60.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                               eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                               methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity
                                                                               5% in the fragrance concentrate.                                       Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes
                                                                               25ppm flavours.                                                        in two forms, cinnamon bark, which is steam distilled
                                                                               FEMA GRAS; FDA GRAS                                                    from the inner bark of the tree, and cinnamon leaf,
                                                                               Toxicology: LD50 (oral, rat) 2800 mg/kg; poison by skin contact;       steam distilled from the leaves and twigs. Cinnamon
                                                                               mod. toxic by ingestion, IP routes; human skin irritant;               leaf essential oil has many uses in modern practice,
                                                                               suspected weak carcinogen.                                             and in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a
                                                                               Repeated dose toxicity: LD50 Oral-Rat: 2650 mg/Kg                      specific for flatulent cholic and dyspepsia with
Cassia                    Cinnamomum cassia          leaf         3.40    0.69 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit: 5000 mg/Kg? (seems high - ACD)                     nausea.                                               China
                                                                               No health hazards or side effects have been associated with
                                                                               proper administration of catnip in designated dosages. Catnip
                                                                               was once listed in the FDA's “Herbs of Undefined Safety” listing
                                                                               in the mid 1970s. The intraperitoneal LD50 1300 mg/kg (oil).
                                                                               Catnip is contraindicated during pregnancy because of uterine
                                                                               stimulant activities. Catnip may lead to excessive menstrual
                                                                               bleeding and may be contraindicated in certain gynaecological
                                                                               conditions (as a herbal tea). Toxicity test was further performed
                                                                               to provide a broad spectrum on safety of using catnip oil as a
                                                                               biting insect repellent. The acute oral LD50 of catnip oil was         The tops and leaves are medicinal; they have a
                                                                               3160 mg/kg and 2710 mg/kg body weight (BW) in female and               strong, characteristic odour and a peculiar, bitterish
                                                                               male rats. The acute dermal LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg BW. The              taste. It is very much liked by cats. Its sedative
                                                                               acute inhalation LD50 was observed > 10,000 mg/L. The                  action on the nerves adds to its generally relaxing
                                                                               primary skin irritation test on New Zealand white rabbits showed       properties. Tea made from the leaves and flowers of
                                                                               that catnip oil is a moderate irritant. Catnip oil was classified as   this herbaceous perennial has traditionally been
                                                                               practically non-irritating to the eye. Compared to other EPA           sipped to relieve coughs. The leaves and shoots can
                                                                               approved insect repellents, catnip oil is considered relatively        be used as ingredients in sauces and soups. The oil
                                                                               safe to use although it may cause skin irritation as there was         extracted from catnip plants is used in natural
Catnip                    Nepeta cataria             plant        3.16 >5.00 observed redness of the applied skin area after the treatment.           mosquito repellents.                                      France
                                                                                                                                                      Good for stress related disorders. Said to soothe
                                                                                                                                                      acne, eczema, arthritis and rheumatism. One of the
                                                                                                                                                      most ancient oils traditionally used as a fixative in the
                                                                                                                                                      perfume industry. Soothing woody aroma - helpful
                                                                                                                                                      for oily skin and itchy scalp. Add to a fragrance jar in
                                                                                                                                                      a wardrobe to repel moths. A very calming oil for
                                                                                                                                                      respiratory problems. The oil is widely used for
                                                                                 Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg                                               insect repellent activities and Turkish carpet shops
                                                                                 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg                                            are walled with cedarwood boards to deter the
Cedarwood (Atlas Cedar)   Cedrus atlantica           wood      >5.00    >5.00    8% in fragrances                                                     moths.                                                    France
                                                                                                                                                      It has a fine fruity fragrance, with roman chamomile-
                                                                                                                                                      like notes. It has been suggested that the oil can be
                                                                                                                                                      used as an alternative to roman chamomile, and
                                                                                                                                                      experts have suggested it could add a whole new
                                                                                                                                                      dimension to the flavour and fragrance industry. The
                                                                                                                                                      leaves are used in baths for its relaxing and
                                                                                                                                                      invigorating scent. Used in pillows, the scent
                                                                                                                                                      encourages pleasant dreams. Anti-inflammatory and
Chamomile, Cape           Eriocephalus punctulatus   flower    no data no data 3% in fragrances                                                       soothing.                                                 South Africa


                                                                                                                                                      Scientific Name(s): Matricaria recutita L., Family:
                                                                                                                                                      Asteraceae (daisy). Synonyms: Chamomilla recutita ,
                                                                               Oral-Rat 10000.00 mg/kg                                                Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria suavoelens . It
                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                             is antispasmodic, antiseptic/wound healing,
                                                                               0.6% in fragrances, 6ppm in flavours.                                  sedative, anti-inflammatory, tonic, soothing for
                                                                               The toxicity of bisabolol                                              conjunctivitis/sore eyes. Has been used for helping
                                                                               Acute LD 50: 15 ml/kg in rats and mice.                                skin conditions such as dermatitis, boils, acne,
                                                                               4-week subacute toxicity study, Oral-Rats: 1-2 ml/kg to rats did       rashes, and eczema as well as for hair care, burns,
                                                                               not cause toxicity.                                                    cuts, toothaches, teething pains, inflamed joints,
                                                                               No teratogenic or developmental abnormalities were noted in            menopausal problems, insomnia, migraine
Chamomile, German         Matricaria chamomilla      flower     >5.00    >5.00 rats and rabbits after chronic administration of bisabolol 1 ml/kg.    headaches and stress related complaints.             Nepal, South Africa

                                                                                                                                                      Roman Chamomile flower [Syn. Chamaemelum
                                                                                                                                                      nobile ] has certain uses similar to those of
                                                                                                                                                      Matricaria flower (German Chamomile), although
                                                                                                                                                      some of its constituents are markedly different and it
                                                                               Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                 is mush less investigated pharmacologically and
                                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D     clinically. Anti-inflammatory and sedative effects of
Chamomile, Roman          Anthemis nobilis           flowers    >5.00    >5.00 (4%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy                            volatile oil have been demonstrated in rats.
                                                                                                                                                      May help with insomnia, muscle tension, cuts,
                                                                                                                                                      scrapes and bruises. It is useful against infestions
                                                                                                                                                      and is used extensively in Europe for skin disorders.
                                                                                                                                                      Soothing and calming, especially on nervously          South Africa,
Chamomile, Roman          Chamaemelum nobile         flower     >5.00    >5.00 see Anthemis nobilis                                                   excited children.                                      England

                                                                               Vitex agnus-castus berry oil is sometimes used for „hormonal
                                                                               balancing‟ by aromatherapists: especially in post- and peri-           Chaste berry has historically been used to treat
                                                                               menopausal women. There is evidence that diterpenes in the oil         hangovers, flatulence, fevers, and constipation. It
                                                                               cause circulating female hormone levels to change, sometimes           was also recognized to bring on menstruation and to
                                                                               dramatically. The oil should therefore only be used under              relieve uterine cramps. American Eclectic physicians
                                                                               medical monitoring & supervision.                                      of the nineteenth century recommended chaste berry
                                                                               Commission E reports no counter indications or interactions for        not only as an emmenagogue but also to stimulate
                                                                               the fruit. Adverse effects: skin reactions.                            lactation. Today, chaste berry is used primarily for
                                                                               The Commission E approved the use of chaste tree fruit for             conditions of the female reproductive system that
                                                                               irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual complaints,        may stem from latent hyperprolactinemia or corpus
                                                                               and mastodynia. Note: If tension, swelling of the breasts, and         luteum insufficiency (luteal phase defect). The herb
                                                                               disturbances of menstruation occur, a physician should be              has been studied for use in cases of insufficient
Chaste Tree               Vitex agnus-castus         berry     no data no data consulted.                                                             lactation.
                                                                      Oral-Rat 2800.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Skin-Rabbit 320.00 mg/kg
                                                                      IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization
                                                                      IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is
                                                                      Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the
                                                                      finished product.
                                                                      IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <2.50 %
                                                                      Sensitizer; cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer;
                                                                      cinnamaldehyde <90.00 % Sensitizer; eugenol <4.00 %
                                                                      Sensitizer; methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic
                                                                      activity.
                                                                      1% in fragrances, 25ppm in flavours.
                                                                      LC50 = 0.479 mg/mL.
                                                                      The Commission E has `approved the internal use of cinnamon
                                                                      for loss of appetite and dyspeptic complaints such as mild
                                                                      spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and flatulence.
                                                                      And, unless otherwise prescribed, 2- 4 g per day of ground bark
                                                                      is deemed acceptable' (Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und           Cinnamon is a cooking spice that has many
                                                                      Medizinprodukte, 1998). However, cinnamon is a AHPA-BSH              medicinal therapeutic properties which include
                                                                      Class 2 herb and should not be used for long term use, should        anticancer effects, however, its inherent allergic and
                                                                      not exceed an intake of 2-4 g per day and not be taken during        irritant properties can lead to contact stomatitis in
Cinnamon                 Cinnamomum cassia        bark   2.80    0.32 pregnancy (McGuffin, 1997).                                          sensitive individuals.


                                                                                                                                           Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes
                                                                                                                                           in two forms, cinnamon bark, which is steam distilled
                                                                      Oral-Rat 2650.00mg/kg                                                from the inner bark of the tree, and cinnamon leaf,
                                                                      Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg                                            steam distilled from the leaves and twigs: there is
                                                                      IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization                                  also a cinnamon cassia, but this is from a slightly
                                                                      IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is         different subspecies and is discusssed under
                                                                      Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the           „Cassia‟. Cinnamon bark oil is mostly used for
                                                                      finished product.                                                    fragrance and flavouring, and is not to be used in
                                                                      IFRA restricted components: (E)-cinnamaldehyde <89.00 %              aromatherapy, as it may be harmful on the skin.
                                                                      Sensitizer; (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <8.90 % Sensitizer; eugenol         However, cinnamon leaf essential oil has many uses
                                                                      <1.20 % Sensitizer;                                                  in modern practice, and is current in the British
                                                                      8% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours.                                 Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific for flatulent
                                                                      FEMA GRAS; FDA GRAS                                                  cholic and dyspepsia with nausea. The refreshing
                                                                      Toxicology: LD50 (oral, rat) 2800 mg/kg; poison by skin contact;     and cooling quality of the bark is due to the presence
                                                                      mod. toxic by ingestion, IP routes; human skin irritant;             of methyl amyl ketone. Cinnamon oil has antifungal,
Cinnamon                 Cinnamomum zeylanicum    bark   2.65   >5.00 suspected weak carcinogen.                                           antiviral, bacteriacidal and larvicidal properties.    Nepal, Sri Lanka
                                                                      Oral-Rat 2650.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Skin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg
                                                                      IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization
                                                                      IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is
                                                                      Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the
                                                                      finished product.
                                                                      IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <0.90 %
                                                                      Sensitizer; cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer;
                                                                      cinnamaldehyde <3.00 % Sensitizer; eugenol <89.00 %
                                                                      Sensitizer
Cinnamon                 Cinnamomum zeylanicum    leaf   3.40    0.69 6% in fragrances, 520ppm in flavours.                                see above                                                Sri Lanka

                                                                      Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane assumed C-D
                                                                      (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation
                                                                      class D (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                      Oral-Rat 7200.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Intraperitoneal-Rat 713.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Oral-Mouse 4600.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Skin-Rabbit 4700.00 mg/kg
                                                                      IFRA max levels
                                                                      citronellol <8.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                      farnesol <0.20 % Sensitizer
                                                                      geraniol <28.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                      methyl eugenol <2.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity
                                                                      Recommended max usage levels:
                                                                      5% in fragrances
Citronella               Cymbopogon nardus               7.20    4.70 25ppm in flavours.

                                                                      Oral-Rat 7200.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Intraperitoneal-Rat 713.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Oral-Mouse 4600.00 mg/kg
                                                                      Skin-Rabbit 4700.00 mg/kg
                                                                      IFRA restrictions
                                                                      citronellol <14.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                      eugenol <3.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                      farnesol <0.60 % Sensitizer
                                                                      geraniol <26.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                      methyl eugenol <0.20 % has potential carcinogenic activity
                                                                      recommendation levels max:
                                                                      3% in fragrances
                                                                      30ppm in flavours.
                                                                      Ingestion may be fatal in some cases. A dose of 1 to 4 mL/kg
                                                                      given by stomach tube in rabbits caused paralysis, coma, and         Citronella oil has been used as a flavouring for foods
                                                                      death. At least 1 case of death has been reported in a child who     and beverages. In traditional medicine, the oil has
                                                                      ingested an unknown quantity of citronella oil. A review of 5        been used as an aromatic tea, as a vermifuge,
                                                                      cases of childhood citronella oil poisoning suggests that dilution   diuretic and antispasmodic. Perhaps the most widely
                                                                      of the oil following ingestion may be sufficient to treat most       recognised use for the oil is as an insect repellant. It
                                                                      cases of ingestion and that emesis may be induced with a             is sometimes incorporated into perfumes and soaps.
                                                                      relatively low risk of major pulmonary complications. If             Citronella candles have been promoted as an
                                                                      spontaneous vomiting has occurred, observation for respiratory       effective way to repel mosquitoes. Sometimes
Citronella (Java type)   Cymbopogon winterianus   herb   7.20    4.70 symptoms is required.                                                referred to as Andropogon nardus.                        Nepal
                                                                                                                                                            Anti spasmodic oil, good for menstrual difficulty,
                                                                                                                                                            high blood pressure, muscle cramps, respiratory
                                                                                                                                                            problems, emotional and physical tensions. The
                                                                                   Oral-Rat 5600.00 mg/kg                                                   seeds become mucilaginous in water and may be
                                                                                   IFRA restrictions                                                        used to extract foreign bodies from the eye. The
                                                                                   geraniol <0.60 % Sensitizer                                              essential oil, which is known as sage clary or
                                                                                   (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer                             Muscatel oil is obtained by steam distillation. An
                                                                                   10% in fragrances                                                        ointment made with clary leaves will help draw out
Clary Sage              Salvia sclarea         flowering tops/foliage   5.60 >2.00 100ppm in flavours.                                                      inflammation and bring boils and spots to a head.       France
                                                                                   Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                                   irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
                                                                                   (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                                   Dermal-Dog 2000-5000mg/kg
                                                                                   Oral-Rat 5000-5600mg/kg
Clary Sage              Salvia sclarea         leaves                   2.60 >5.00 IPR-Mouse 520550mg/kg                                                    see Salvia sclarea
                                                                                   Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane B (may be
                                                                                   irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal Irritation class A-B
                                                                                   (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal
                                                                                   sensitisation in some isolated cases. Not in the warning list for
                                                                                   pregnancy, however, clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE
Clove                   Eugenia caryophyllus   bud                      4.20       LIST                                                                     see above

                                                                                      Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods, beverages, and
                                                                                      toothpastes. The level of clove used in foods does not exceed
                                                                                      0.24% and the oil is not used in amounts greater than 0.06%.          Bacteriacidal and insecticidal. Oil of cloves is used
                                                                                      Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of the oil, but this   as a disinfectant and dental analgesic, and in alcohol
                                                                                      type of poisoning is rare and poorly documented.                      as a stimulant. Applied externally it can produce local
                                                                                      Oral-Rat (eugenol) 2,680 mg/kg; toxicity of the compound              anaesthesia. Externally used on sores and infected
                                                                                      increases almost 200-fold when administered intratracheally           areas and also used as a mosquito and moth
Clove                   Syzygium aromaticum    bud                      2.65          (LD 50 11 mg/kg).                                                     repellant.                                              Indonesia

                                                                                     Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods, beverages, and          Essential oils are obtained from the buds, stems,
                                                                                     toothpastes. Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of         and leaves. Clove buds yield approximately 15% to
                                                                                     the oil, but this rarely occurs.                                       20% of a volatile oil that is responsible for the
                                                                                     Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane B (may be                 characteristic smell and flavor. The stems yield
                                                                                     irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal Irritation class A-B   about 5% of the oil, and the leaves yield about 2%.
                                                                                     (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal                Clove has been used for its antiseptic and analgesic
                                                                                     sensitisation in some isolated cases. Not in the warning list for      effects and has been studied for use in platelet
                                                                                     pregnancy, however, clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE               aggregation inhibition, antithrombotic activity, and
Clove                   Syzygium aromaticum    flowers                  3.20   >5.00 LIST                                                                   chemoprotective and antipyretic effects.
                                                                                     LD50: 1.37g/kg
Clove                   Syzygium aromaticum    leaves                   1.40    1.20 Containdicated in pregnancy
Clove                   Syzygium aromaticum    stem                     2.03         Containdicated in pregnancy                                            see above                                               Indonesia
                                                                                     Oral-Rat 4130.00 mg/kg
                                                                                     Oral-Mouse 3520.00 mg/kg
                                                                                     Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                                     irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
                                                                                     (6%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                                     IFRA restricted geraniol <4.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                                     10% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours.
                                                                                     As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed
                                                                                     under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic            The oil is said to have anti-inflammatory and sedative
                                                                                     Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA               properties. Coriander has been used as a flavoring
                                                                                     Flavour and Extract manufacturer‟s Association (FEMA), to be           and medicine since ancient times. Seeds have been
                                                                                     generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions           found in the tombs of Pharohs, and the Roman
                                                                                     of use.                                                                legions carried coriander as they progressed through
                                                                                     Inhalation-Mouse LC50 3000 mg/m3                                       Europe, using it to flavor their bread. Externally it has
Coriander               Coriandrum sativum     seed                     4.13    0.50 Dermal-Rabbit Rabbit 500 mg/24H                                        been used as a lotion to treat rheumatic pains.           Ukraine


                                                                                                                                                        Cornmint oil, field mint oil, Japanese mint oil, marsh
                                                                                                                                                        mint oil. Internal use of mint oil for flatulence,
                                                                                                                                                        functional gastrointestinal and gallbladder disorders,
                                                                                                                                                        catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract, and external
                                                                                                                                                        use for myalgia and neuralgic ailments. Mint oil is
                                                                                                                                                        official in the Indian Pharmacopoeia as a
                                                                                                                                                        carminative. It is official in the Chinese
                                                                                                                                                        pharmacopeia as an aromatic, flavoring agent, and
                                                                                                                                                        carminative, for application to the skin or mucous
                                                                                                                                                        membrane, and to relieve pain or discomfort. In
                                                                                                                                                        Germany, it is taken internally as a carminative or
                                                                                      Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 1240 mg/kg [Rat].                     cholagogue, inhaled as a secretolytic, and applied
                                                                                      Acute dermal toxicity (LD50): >5000 mg/kg [Rabbit].               externally for its cooling property. Menthol, derived
                                                                                      Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal from mint oil, is widely used as an antipruritic
                                                                                      Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the component of OTC preparations to treat burns and
                                                                                      warning list for pregnancy                                        sunburn, poison ivy rash, athlete's foot, and as a
Cornmint / Peppermint   Mentha arvensis        fresh leaves             1.24 >5.00    8% in fragrances                                                  counterirritant in external analgesic preparations .   Nepal
                                                                                                                                    Cumin is an aromatic, astringent herb that benefits
                                                                                                                                    the digestive system and acts as a stimulant to the
                                                                                                                                    sexual organs. Orally, cumin is used as an
                                                                                                                                    antiflatulent, stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic,
                                                                                                                                    aphrodisiac, for stimulating menstrual flow, treating
                                                                                                                                    diarrhea, colic, and flatulence also for chest
                                                                 Oral-Rat 2.50 ml/kg                                                conditions and coughs, as a pain killer and to treat
                                                                 Skin-Rabbit 3.56 ml/kg                                             rotten teeth. The seed is antispasmodic, carminative,
                                                                 For applications on areas of skin exposed to sun, excluding        galactogogue, stimulant and stomachic. In India it is
                                                                 wash-off products, limit cumin oil to 0.4% in the finished         also used in the treatment of insomnia, colds and
                                                                 cosmetic product. Based on the photo-toxicity of cumin oil, the fevers and to improve milk production in nursing
                                                                 observed no-effect level of 25% on the skin of the hairless        mothers. The herb has been used externally as a
                                                                 mouse and on the no-effect level of 5% in tests with humans.       poultice to relieve stitch and pains in the side. The
                                                                 leave on: 0.4% Restriction.                                        essential oil obtained from the seed is antibacterial
                                                                 wash off: 2% Recommendation.                                       and larvicidal. In spices, foods, and beverages,
                                                                 no skin contact: 5% Recommendation.                                cumin is used as a flavoring component. Cumin oil is
                                                                 5% in fragrances                                                   used as a fragrance component in cosmetics
Cumin         Cuminum cyminum          fruit      2.50      3.56 3900ppm in flavours.                                               (maximum use level 0.4% in perfumes).                   Egypt
                                                                                                                                    Funeral Cypress, Italian Cypress, Mediterranean
                                                                                                                                    Cypress, Mediterranean Cyprus. It is used for
                                                                                                                                    circulatory conditions where its effects as a venous
                                                                                                                                    tonic make it helpful for varicose veins,
                                                                                                                                    haemorrhoids, bruising and thread veins. It helps
                                                                 Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Dermal irritation class D. decongest the circulatory and lymphatic systems
                                                                 Dermal sensitisation class D (5%). Not in the warning list for     and may help with oedema, cellulite and water
                                                                 pregnancy                                                          retention. . It has been found useful for muscular
                                                                 2% in fragrances, not in flavours.                                 stiffness, arthritis, rheumatism, cramps and post-
                                                                 Acute oral LD50: >5g/kg. Found to be non-phototoxic, non-          sports treatment. It is also used externally as a foot
                                                                 sensitising and non-irritant. Monoterpene content: Can be          deodorant. It is anti infectious, antibacterial and     France, Italy, Spain
Cypress       Cupressus sempervirens   leaf      >5.00    >5.00 irritant to skin and mucus membranes in high concentrations.        antimicrobial.                                          and Morocco
                                                                 Oral-Rat 4040.00 mg/kg
                                                                 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                 2% in fragrances
                                                                 25ppm in flavours.
                                                                 As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed
                                                                 under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic
                                                                 Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA
                                                                 Flavour and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be
                                                                 generally recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions
                                                                 of use.
                                                                 Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLO - Lowest Lethal Dose/Conc
                                                                 Mouse-Oral LDLo 3 gm/kg                                            Dill is a sedative herb and a good remedy for
                                                                 Oral-Rat LD50 4040 mg/kg                                           sleeplessness, acting as a mild tranquilliser.
                                                                 Subcutaneous-Mouse LD50 1350 mg/kg                                 Flatulent pain in infants. Chewing dill seeds will help
                                                                 Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg                                          to sweeten thre breath. Carminative and local
                                                                 Irritation - Skin standard Draize test Skin-Rabbit 500 mg/24H;     anodyne. the essential oil in the seed relieves
Dill Weed     Anethum graveolens       seed       4.00   >5.00 Reaction: Moderate                                                   intestinal spasms and griping, helping to settle colic. France, America
                                                                 Oral-Rat 4040.00 mg/kg
                                                                 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                 IFRA restriction eugenol <0.30 % Sensitizer
                                                                 4% in fragrances
                                                                 Dill is said to contain the alleged 'psychotroph' myristicine.
                                                                 There are also reports that dill can cause photosensitivity and or
Dill Weed     Anethum graveolens       herb       4.00   >5.00 dermatitis in some people.                                           see above                                               Reunion
                                                                 PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance
Elecampane    Inula helenium           root                      ingredient.                                                        see above


                                                               Oral-Rat of cineole (Eucalyptol) 2480mg/kg
                                                               It is a mild skin irritant. Chronic effects have not been reported
                                                               Recommended adult oral dose is 0.05 mL to 0.2mL
                                                               Has been used as a topical rubefacient at 0.5% to 3%.
                                                               Oral-Rat 2480.00 mg/kg
                                                               Skin-Rabbit 2480.00 mg/kg
                                                               10% in fragrances                                                    Characteristic aromatic camphoraceous odour and a
                                                               Cases of eucalyptus oil poisoning have been sometimes                pungent camphoraceous cooling taste. Eucalyptus
                                                               reported. In cases of babies and young children. Eucalyptus oil      oil taken by mouth for catarrh and used as an
                                                               should not be applied on face, especially on the nose.               inhalation often in combination with other volatile
                                                               Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-               substances. Eucalyptus oil has also been applied as
                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D   a rubefacient. Has local antiseptic, expectorant,   Nepal, Portugal,
Eucalyptus    Eucalyptus globulus      leaf       2.48    2.48 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy                         deodorant and refreshing effects.                   Spain
                                                               Oral-Rat 2480mg/Kg
                                                               Dermal-Rabbit >2000mg/Kg (Essentially non-toxic)
                                                               Subcutaneous-Mouse 50mg/Kg                                           Anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiviral, anticatarrhal,
                                                               LDLo Intramuscular-Guinea Pig 2250mg/Kg                              expectorant, anti-inflammatory. E. radiata with its
                                                               LDLo Subcutaneous-Dog 1500mg/Kg                                      richness in alcohols is more suitable for infectious
                                                               Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-               conditions, either viral or bacterial. Though it works
                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D   on the respiratory system, prefered use for higher
Eucalyptus    Eucalyptus radiata       leaf       2.48 >2.00 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy                           infections than E. globulus.                                Australia

                                                                                                                                    Anticatarrhal, expectorant, excellent liquefaction of
                                                               Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-               the secretions, digestive stimulant (internally), anti-
                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D   infectious, antiviral, antibacterial, parasiticide,
                                                               (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Very mildly irritant   antirheumatic, analgesic, antineuralgic, febrifuge,
Eucalyptus    Eucalyptus smithii       leaf    no data no data according to some sources.                                           stimulant and calming, balancing.                           South Africa
                                                               Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
Eucaplyptus   Eucalyptus citriodora    leaf       2.48    2.48 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
Fennel        Foeniculum vulgare       seed       3.00    5.00                                                                                                                                  Spain
                                                                       Oral-Rat 1.038mL/kg
                                                                       Fennel may cause photodermatitis, contact dermatitis, and
                                                                       cross reactions. The oil may induce reactions such as
                                                                       hallucinations and seizures. Poison hemlock may be mistaken         Fennel has been used as a flavoring, a scent, an
                                                                       for fennel.                                                         insect repellent, as well as an herbal remedy for
                                                                       No pathological toxicity was seen in the organs of dead animals,    poisoning and gastric conditions. It has also been
                                                                       indicating that death may be caused by the effects of metabolite    used as a stimulant to promote lactation and
                                                                       imbalance or a nervous system toxicity. The value of LD 50 was      menstruation. However, there is a lack of clinical
                                                                       1,326 mg/kg. Fennel oil was found to be genotoxic in the B.         evidence to support the use of fennel for any
                                                                       subtilis DNA-repair test. Estragole, present in the volatile oil,   indication. The two forms of fennel are very similar     Southern Europe,
Fennel, Bitter   Foeniculum vulgare vulgare   seed        3.80   >5.00 has been shown to cause tumours in animals.                         and not always distinguished.                            North Africa

                                                                       LD50 of fennel oil was about 4 ml/kg in animal studies.             Antispasmodic, antiseptic and stimulating to the
                                                                       Oral-Rat 1.038mL/kg                                                 cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Topically
                                                                       Oral-Rat 3120.00mg/kg                                               fennel is good for conjunctivitis, and blepharitis (as
                                                                       Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                          eyewash). Useful as an oil when rubbed onto
                                                                       5% in fragrances                                                    affected parts to relieve rheumatic pains. The
                                                                       100ppm in flavours                                                  essential oil is used in tinctures as a gargle and
                                                                       Acute Oral rat LD50: >2g/kg. Weak estrogenic activity noted.        eyewash and in carminative preparations. Shown to
                                                                       The LD50 in animal studies have been observed at ranges from        be anti-inflammatory in rats and mice studies. The
                                                                       3.12 g/kg to 4.5 mL/kg. The Oral-Rat LD50 (anethole) 2.09           two forms of fennel are very similar and not always
Fennel, Sweet    Foeniculum vulgare dulce     seed        4.50   >5.00 g/kg                                                                distinguished.                                           France/Corsica


                                                                       Oral-Rat 10200 mg/Kg                                                The resin is a very effective antiseptic and healing
                                                                       Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg                                               agent. It is used as a healing and analgesic
                                                                       IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides                   protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and
                                                                       5% in fragrances.                                                   sores. It is also used to treat sore nipples and is
                                                                       IFRA recommends for example that oils from the Pinaceae e.g.        excellent for a sore throat. The buds, resin, and/or
                                                                       Fir needle oil Canada Abies balsamea should have a peroxide         sap are used in folk remedies for treating corns, and
                                                                       value of less than 10 millimoles of peroxide per litre.             warts. The resin is also antiscorbutic, diaphoretic,
                                                                       SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea          diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is used internally in
                                                                       family, including Pinus and Abies genera, should only be used       propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea,
                                                                       when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable       though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid
                                                                       level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of           of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for
                                                                       production. Such products should have a peroxide value of less      gonorrhoea. A tea made from the leaves is
                                                                       than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. Based on the published       antiscorbutic. It is used in the treatment of coughs,
                                                                       literature mentioning sensitising properties when containing        colds and fevers. Widely used medicinally by various
                                                                       peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology 11,1053(1973);              North American Indian tribes as an antiseptic
                                                                       16,843(1978); 16,853(1978).                                         healing agent applied externally to wounds, sores,
                                                                       The oleoresin (Canada balsam) is reported to produce                bites etc., it was used as an inhalant to treat
                                                                       dermatitis when applied as perfume. The foliage has also            headaches and was also taken internally to treat
Fir, Canada      Abies balsamea               needle    >10.00 >5.00 induced contact dermatitis.                                           colds, sore throats and various other complaints.       America
Fir, Grand       Abies grandis                needle   no data no data                                                                     see below                                               France

                                                                                                                                      Fir has traditionally been used to help reduce
                                                                                                                                      symptoms of arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis,
                                                                                                                                      coughs, sinusitis, colds, flu and fevers. It has been
                                                                                                                                      found to be a useful antiseptic, anticatarrhal,
                                                                                                                                      antiarthritic and stimulating. The buds are antibiotic,
                                                                                                                                      antiseptic and balsamic. The bark is antiseptic and
                                                                                                                                      astringent. The leaves are expectorant and a
                                                                                                                                      bronchial sedative. The resin is antiseptic, balsamic,
                                                                       Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg                                        diuretic, eupeptic, expectorant, vasoconstrictor and
                                                                       Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                     vulnerary. Both the leaves and the resin are common
                                                                       IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides              ingredients in remedies for colds and coughs, either
                                                                       5% in fragrances.                                              taken internally or used as an inhalant. The leaves
                                                                       SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea     and/or the resin are used in folk medicine to treat
                                                                       family, including Pinus and Abies genera, should only be used bronchitis, cystitis, leucorrhoea, ulcers and flatulent
                                                                       when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable  colic. The resin is also used externally in bath
                                                                       level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of      extracts, rubbing oils etc for treating rheumatic pains
                                                                       production. Such products should have a peroxide value of less and neuralgia. Oil of Turpentine, which is obtained
                                                                       than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. Based on the published  from the trunk of the tree, is occasionally used
                                                                       literature mentioning sensitising properties when containing   instead of the leaves or the resin. The oil is also
                                                                       peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology 11,1053(1973);         rubefacient and can be applied externally in the
Fir, Silver      Abies alba                   leaf      >5.00    >5.00 16,843(1978); 16,853(1978).                                    treatment of neuralgia.                                 France


                                                                                                                                           Fresh, woody, balsamic, slightly spicy and fruity
                                                                                                                                           fragrance. Externally, it served in the treatment of
                                                                                                                                           stiffness, blood vessels, joints, and various wounds.
                                                                                                                                           It is also used in inflammatory conditions, pain in the
                                                                                                                                           legs, infections, stomach problems, pressure in the
                                                                                                                                           ear, and to stimulate birth. The oil was used as an
                                                                                                                                           ingredient in embalming liquids and in
                                                                                                                                           mummification. It is also used to treat various
                                                                                                                                           diseases of the eyes, toothaches, etc. The smoke
                                                                                                                                           was considered helpful for women‟s problems, to
                                                                                                                                           eliminate odours in the home, clothing, or body. It
                                                                                                                                           was known as a multi-purpose disinfectant. Mixed
Frankincense     Boswellia carterii           resin     >5.00    >5.00 8% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours                                 with pomegranate juice it found use as an astringent. Dhofar, Somalia

                                                                                                                                            Boswellia sacra is a tree in the Burseraceae family.
                                                                                                                                            It is the primary tree in the genus Boswellia from
                                                                                                                                            which frankincense, a resinous dried sap, is derived.
                                                                                                                                            Some literature identifies B. sacra as growing in
                                                                                                                                            Oman and Yemen, and B. carterii as growing in
                                                                       Toxicity class not given for acute oral, Dermal Irritation class not Somalia. The latest scientific opinion is that these
                                                                       given but assumed C/D, Dermal sensitisation class D (8% as           are both the same species and should correctly be     Oman, Yemen,
                                                                       absolute). Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant) Rated safe             called B. sacra. The trees start producing resin      from Southern
Frankincense     Boswellia sacra              resin     >2.00    >2.00 during pregnancy.                                                    when they are about 8 to 10 years old                 Saudi Arabia.
                                                                                           Applying B. serrata to the skin may cause contact dermatitis,
                                                                                           allergic contact dermatitis, or phytodermatitis. Boswellia spp.
                                                                                           used in adhesive plasters and perfumes has caused dermatitis
                                                                                           in sensitive
                                                                                           people. Boswellia gum applied to intact or abraded rabbit skin
                                                                                           for 24 hrs. under
                                                                                           occlusion was found to be moderately irritating. Closed patch        Indian frankincense is a gum resin from Boswellia
                                                                                           tests with 8% Boswellia                                              serrata of Burseraceae used in Ayurveda and
                                                                                           were found to be non-irritant to human skin. The fragrance raw       Western medicine for the antinflammatory effects of
                                                                                           material Boswellia                                                   boswellic acids. B. serrata is listed in the USDA
                                                                                           absolute, which was prepared by ethanol extraction of Boswellia      Database/Plants Profile as Indian frankincense,
                                                                                           gum, then followed by                                                which was not considered true frankincense by
                                                                                           evaporation of the ethanol, was found to be non-irritant, non-       traditional standards. It produces a soft, odorous
                                                                                           sensitizing, and nonphototoxic                                       resin that hardens in a year. As a result, it is used as Western India
Frankincense, Indian     Boswellia serrata               resin              >2.00    >2.00 in various tests on mice, pigs, and human subjects.                  incense solely by the natives.                           (Rajhastan)
                                                                                           Swallowing 7-26g has been reorted to cause poisoning and
                                                                                           death in humans
Geranium Rose Concrete   Pelargonium graveolens          flowering plant      0.40         Oral-Rat 400mg/kg                                                                                                            Egypt

                                                                                           IFRA restricted
                                                                                           citral <1.50 % Sensitizer
                                                                                           citronellol <28.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                                           geraniol <21.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                                           10% in fragrances, 210ppm in flavours.
                                                                                           Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                                           irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
                                                                                           (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                                           RIFM- Monograph: Acute Toxicity: Oral LD50: 5 g/kg in rats.          It was used by the ancients as a remedy for wounds
                                                                                           Dermal LD50: 2.5 g/kg in rabbits. Irritation: Tested without         and tumours.It makes a very refreshing and relaxing
                                                                                           irritation at 10%. Sensitisation: Tested without sensitisation at    bath oil with a delightful light rose perfume and a
                                                                                           10%. Phototoxicity: No phototoxic reactions observed.                fresh green note. Said to balance sebum levels. Also
                                                                                           Sensitising component detected in the Essential Oil: Citronellol:    good for sluggish, congested and oily skins and is a
Geranium, Bourbon        Pelargonium graveolens          flowering plant    >5.00    >5.00 40%: Geraniol 18%: Linalool: 10%: Citral 1.5%                        good skin cleanser.                                  S.Africa/Malawi
                                                                                           Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                                           Oral-Mouse 3450.00mg/kg
                                                                                           Intraperitoneal-Mouse 1230.00mg/kg
                                                                                           Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                                           Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal       Externally it is a rubefacient and used for rheumatic
                                                                                           sensitisation (may cause dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals    pains and stimulant of peripheral circulation in bad
                                                                                           or individuals with dermatitis), Not in the warning list for         circulation, e.g. chillblains and cramps. It is
                                                                                           pregnancy.                                                           diaphoretic (promotes sweating). Ginger baths
                                                                                           As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed        decrease muscle soreness and muscle stiffness.
                                                                                           under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic          Used also in morning sickness and travel sickness.
                                                                                           Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA             Ginger has been used for centuries as a cooking
                                                                                           Flavour and Extract manufacturer‟s Association (FEMA), to be         spice and medicinally demonstrates a diverse range
                                                                                           generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions         of applications having biological properties such as
                                                                                           of use.                                                              the ability to modulate platelet aggregation, serve as
                                                                                           Acute toxicity TDLO/TCLO - Lowest Published Toxic                    an analgesic, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic,
                                                                                           Dose/Conc                                                            antimicrobial, antiparasitic activity and antioxidant,
                                                                                           Oral-Rat TDLo 200mg/kg                                               also commonly used for nausea. Ginger and its
                                                                                           Toxic Effects: lung, thorax, or respiration - other changes          constituents induce apoptosis in human cancer cell
                                                                                           biochemical - effect on inflammation or mediation of                 lines and display anticancer properties against
                                                                                           inflammation                                                         spontaneous tumors in animal models. In humans,
                                                                                           Oral-Mouse TDLo 50mg/kg                                              the administration of ginger up to 6 g/day is relatively
                                                                                           Toxic Effects: behavioral - analgesia                                safe, yielding few side effects with the exception of a
                                                                                           LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill                                few subjects who experience nausea and
                                                                                           Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg; Intraperitoneal-Mouse LD50                   drowsiness. The Commission E approved the
                                                                                           1230mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50 3450 mg/kg                                internal use of ginger for dyspepsia and prevention
                                                                                           Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg                                          of motion sickness. Powdered rhizome, 0.25 -1.0 g,
                                                                                           Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test                               three times daily. AHPA-BSH recommends not
                                                                                           Rabbit-Skin 500 mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate                           exceeding the recommended 2-4 g/day, also warning
Ginger                   Zingiber officinale             root               >5.00    >5.00 LC50 = 0.477mg/mL                                                    against long term use or using during pregnancy.         India

                                                                                           IFRA specification: <20 mmoles/L of peroxides                        Very close relative of the delightful Palmarosa oil, but
                                                                                           contains IFRA restricted components:                                 with a hint of ginger and a different chemotype
                                                                                           geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer                                          known as Gingergrass. Said to be anti-inflammatory
Gingergrass              Cymbopogon martinii var.sofia   plant             no data no data 2% in fragrances, not flavours.                                      and to have insect repellant properties.                 Nepal

                                                                                           Oral-Rat >5.00gm/kg                                                  grapefruit oil is a good astringent when used as a
                                                                                           Skin-Rabbit >5.00gm/kg                                               facial toner. It has a cooling, refreshing and
                                                                                           IFRA restricted components:                                          stimulating effect on lifeless skin and jaded senses.
                                                                                           citral <0.30 % Sensitizer                                            When inhaled, grapefruit is an anti-depressant and
                                                                                           farnesol <0.10 % Sensitizer                                          helps relieve anxiety. It can be effective in treating
                                                                                           geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer                                          symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome and
                                                                                           leave on products: 4% Restriction.                                   menopause. It is also a good addition to air freshner
                                                                                           grapefruit oil CO2 extract up to 6% in fragrances.                   preparations and proves to be especially effective
Grapefruit               Citrus grandis                  peel               >5.00    >5.00 Dermal Irritation Class C                                            against kitchen smells and odours.                     Argentina
                                                                                           Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill
                                                                                           Oral-Rat LD50 4400mg/kg
                                                                                           Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg
                                                                                           Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test
                                                                                           Skin-Rabbit: 500mg/24h; Reaction: Mild
                                                                                           0.8% in fragrances
                                                                                           As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed        The plant is known as Everlasting or Immortelle and
                                                                                           under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic          has a fresh, earthy almost herbaceous aromas. It is
                                                                                           Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA             said to be good for stretch marks and particularly
                                                                                           Flavour and Extract manufacturer‟s Association (FEMA), to be         useful in cases of damaged and problematic skin
                                                                                           generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions         conditions. Said to reduce skin redness, skin bruises
Helychrysum              Helichrysum angustifolium       flowering plant      4.40   >5.00 of use.                                                              and good for acneic skins.                            France/Corsica
                                                                                                                                                The essential oil has been used as an anthelmintic,
                                                                                                                                                antirheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic,
                                                                                                                                                carminative, diaphoretic, sedative and tonic. It has
                                                                                                                                                been used externally in liniments for treating joint
                                                                                                                                                and muscle pains, balms for chilblains, chapped
                                                                                                                                                lips, cold sores and skin diseases. It is often used as
                                                                                                                                                an inhalant for bronchial congestion. Some caution
                                                                               Camphor in large doses is toxic. Toxicity symptoms include       is advised, excessive use causes vomiting,
                                                                               headache, nausea, excitement, confusion                          palpitations, convulsions and death. It is possible
                                                                               and delirium. Camphor also affects the central nervous system that the oil can be absorbed through the skin,
                                                                               and is toxic to humans. Toxicity                                 causing systemic poisoning. The essential oil is
Ho Oil        Cinnamomum camphora         leaf                 3.80    >5.00   symptoms in adults have been noted after use of as little as 2g. used in aromatherapy.                                   China
Horseradish   Amoracia rusticana          root                                 Dermal Irritation Group A: Severely irritant
                                                                                                                                                The essential oil is spicy, fresh, warm and woody.
                                                                               Oral-Mouse 1400.00mg/kg                                          The scent uplifts the mood,
                                                                               Skin-Rabbit 5000.00mg/kg                                         provides direction and suggests purity and clarity of
                                                                               IFRA restricted components:                                      spirit. It has the ability to inspire, increase
                                                                               methyl eugenol <1.00% has potential carcinogenic activity        concentration and focus on difficult tasks. Hyssop is
                                                                               4% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours.                             believed to bring quick relief to the pain and bruising
Hyssop        Hyssopus officinalis        flowering plant      1.40     5.00   Chronic toxicity, fits. Not recommended for topical use          of a black eye.                                         Spain
Immortelle    Helichrysum angustifolium   flowering plant      4.40    >5.00   see above                                                        see above
                                                                                                                                                This is a powerful respiratory oil and mostly used for
                                                                                                                                                clearing congestion and easing breathing. It is said
                                                                                                                                                to be good for chest infections. The common name
                                                                                                                                                stinkweed or stinkwort is not particulalry pleasant!
                                                                                                                                                Some aromatherapists use it for backache and
Inula         Inula graveolens            flowering plant   no data no data                                                                     muscle cramps.                                          Corsica
                                                                               PROHIBITED – Should not be used as a fragrance
Inula         Inula helenium              root                                 ingredient.

                                                                               Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill
                                                                               Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg
                                                                               IFRA restricted components
                                                                               benzyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer                                    The Hindus string the flowers together as neck
                                                                               benzyl benzoate <1.20 % Sensitizer                                   garlands for honoured guests. The flowers of one of
                                                                               eugenol <2.00 % Sensitizer                                           the double varieties are held sacred to Vishnu and
                                                                               geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer                                          are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious
                                                                               2% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours.                                 ceremonies. An oil made by boiling the leaves of this
                                                                               As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed        eastern Jasmine is used to annoint the head for
                                                                               under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic          complaints of the eye, and an oil obtained from the
                                                                               Act, section 201(s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavor       roots is used medicinally to arrest the secretion of
                                                                               and Extract manufacturers‟ Association (FEMA), to be generally       milk. This prized essence is calming, relaxing; it also
Jasmine       Jasminum grandiflorum       flowers           >5.00     >5.00    recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use.           raises the libido and is used to overcome frigidity.    India, Italy

                                                                                                                                                    Also known as Indian Nard [Syn. Nardostachys
                                                                                                                                                    jatamansi ]. Cooling, and used to reduce fevers.
                                                                                                                                                    Soothing for the skin, excellent for skin irritations and
                                                                                                                                                    allergies. Said to be good for wounds that do not
                                                                                                                                                    heal. Helps to promote restful sleep, reduces tress
                                                                                                                                                    and aids relaxation. Can assist in reducing
                                                                                                                                                    inflammation. It is a member of the Valerian family.
                                                                                                                                                    An essential oil is obtained from the root and young
                                                                                                                                                    stems. It is harvested before the leaves unfurl. It is
                                                                                                                                                    used in perfumery and as a hair tonic where it is said
                                                                                                                                                    to make the hair grow faster and also to turn it black.
                                                                                                                                                    The dried leaves are used as an incense. Essential
                                                                               IPR-Mouse LD50 (jatamansone) 350mg/kg, cf 900 mg/kg for              oil is hypotensive in dogs, dosages for hypotensive
                                                                               the whole essential oil                                              humans, less than lab animal dosage. Preliminary
                                                                               A weak activity hypotensive was demonstrated on rats and             clinical trials of jatamansone exhibited reduced
                                                                               mice.                                                                aggressiveness, restlessness, stubbornness, as well
Jatamansi     Nardostachys grandiflora    rhizome              4.60            Rats and mice oral LD50 >3160mg/kg                                   as less insomnia.                                         Nepal
                                                                               Oral-Rat >3160 mg/kg
                                                                               Intraperitoneal-Rat: 353mg/kg
                                                                               Intraperitoneal-Mouse: >1gm/kg
                                                                               IPR-Mouse 900 mg/kg
                                                                               Jatamansi oil contains a ketone, jatamansone which is the same
                                                                               as valeranone (in valerian). Jatamansone semicarbazone, a
                                                                               sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antioestrogenic
                                                                               activity. When given alone it is also manifested by its oestrogen-
                                                                               antagonising action on the uterus of mice at an oral dose of 50
                                                                               mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.
                                                                               Jatamansone Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 80.3 mg/kg                     see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn:
Jatamansi     Nardostachys jatamansi      root                 4.60            IPR-Mouse (jatamansone ) 350 mg/kg                                 Nardostachys jatamansi ]

                                                                             Oral-Rat 6280.00 mg/kg
                                                                             IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides
                                                                             8% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours.
                                                                             IPR-Mouse LD50: 100mg/kg Juniperus communis var saxatilis
                                                                             IPR-Mouse LD50: 3 g/kg
                                                                             An acute Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 g/kg
                                                                             Oral gavage of common juniper needles (J. communis) caused
                                                                             abortion in late term pregnancies similar to pine needle induced
                                                                             abortion. In a study of multiple juniper species extracts used in
                                                                             fragrance and biological additives in cosmetic formulations,
                                                                             there was little toxicity of the oil or tar in animals. Irritant effects
                                                                             on skin were not found with the oils; however, there was some
                                                                             evidence of sensitization to the tar. A juniper (Juniperus sp.) oil-
                                                                             based phytomedicine was tested for nephrotoxicity in
                                                                             Sprague–Dawley rats by oral administration of varying doses
                                                                             and all were found to be non-toxic. No studies could be found
                                                                             on the skin irritation or possible hypersensitizing effects of
                                                                             western juniper oil.
                                                                             Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                             irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D
Juniper       Juniperus communis          needle/wood          6.28    >5.00 (8%). Rated safe during pregnancy.                                       as above                                               France
                                                                                                                                                           Juniperus tetragona is probably the correct name for
                                                                                                                                                           this species. The oil has anti-fungal and antibacterial
Juniper              Juniperus mexicana       needle/wood              >5.00  >5.00 20% in fragrances                                                      activity.                                               Texas
                                                                                    Oral-Rat 6280.00 mg/kg
                                                                                    Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg                                                  Stimulates circulation. Good for acne and eczema.
                                                                                    IFRA other specification : < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides                Said to be good for anxiety and stress. Some
                                                                                    8% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours                                   references say good for hangovers. Cleansing.
                                                                                    Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                 Juniper when applied externally is a good penetrator
                                                                                    irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D     of the skin and is useful in cases of rheumatism,
Juniper              Juniperus communis       berry                     8.00 >5.00 (8%). Rated safe during pregnancy.                                      sciatica and dermatitis.                             Spain, Nepal

                                                                                                                                                           Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains, bruises,
                                                                                     In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe         etc., and was sometimes dropped into the ears to
                                                                                     with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight. Some           relieve pain. Use with care and never more than
                                                                                     fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil        1.25%. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well.
                                                                                     (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer              Mildly narcotic, said to be good for promoting hair
Laurel               Laurus nobilis           dried leafs/branchlets   >5.00   >5.00 sensitization issues                                                  growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff.                  Europe
                                                                                     Oral-Rat >5.00gm/kg
                                                                                     Skin-Rabbit >5.00gm/kg
                                                                                     Oral-Rat 5,001mg/kg                                                   It is a lavender oil derived from a hybrid plant that
                                                                                     Dermal-Rabbit 5,001mg/kg                                              combines the properties of Aspic and true Lavender.
                                                                                     IFRA restricted components:                                           It is said to be more effective than any of the other
                                                                                     geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer                                           lavender types in reducing skin redness. Good for
                                                                                     1-octen-3-yl acetate <0.80 % Sensitizer                               muscle aches and sprains and said to improve skin
Lavandin, abrialis   Lavandula hybrida        flowering plant          >5.00   >5.00 15% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours.                                 circulation.                                          France
                                                                                                                                                           This is a hybrid between Lavandula officinalis and
                                                                                                                                                           L. latifolia and has a more herbaceous smell (some
                                                                                                                                                           would say harsher) than some lavenders. It has the
                                                                                                                                                           same skin calming and sedative properties of all
Lavandin, grosso     Lavandula hybrida        flowering plant          >5.00   >5.00                                                                       lavenders.                                            France

                                                                                                                                                           This is another hybrid and in this case the lavender
                                                                                                                                                           is more camphoraceous with an exciting woodiness.
                                                                                                                                                           It is more rounded and smoother than some
                                                                                                                                                           lavandins. This soft oil has the same calming and
Lavandin, sumian     Lavandula hybrida        flowering plant          >5.00   >5.00                                                                       sedative properties possessed by all lavender oils.  France
Lavandin, super      Lavandula hybrida        flowering plant          >5.00   >5.00                                                                       see above                                            France
                                                                                     Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-
                                                                                     irritant), Dermal sensitisation class D (16%). Not in the warning
Lavandin, super      Lavandula hybrida                                 >5.00   >5.00 list for pregnancy
                                                                                     Oral-Rat 4250.00mg/kg
                                                                                     Intraperitoneal-Rat 540.00mg/kg
                                                                                     Intraperitoneal-Mouse 640.00mg/kg
                                                                                     Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                     Skin-Guinea pig >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                     IFRA specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides
                                                                                     IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                     farnesol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer                                  A few drops in a foot bath will banish fatigue.
                                                                                     geraniol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer                                  Applied to the body it will act as a strong stimulant
                                                                                     1-octen-1-yl acetate <0.20 % Sensitizer                               and may relieve various neuralgic pains, sprains and
                                                                                     16% in fragrances, 220ppm in flavours.                                rheumatism, while in France it is used to treat painful
                                                                                     Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                bruises. Sedative to restless children and sleepless
                                                                                     irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D    adults, a few drops on the pillow will bring sleep
Lavender             Lavandula angustifolia   flowering plant          >5.00   >5.00 (16%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy                          more easily.                                            Bulgaria, France
                                                                                     Oral-Rat 3800.00 mg/kg
                                                                                     IFRA restricted components:                                           It yields a higher quantity of oil than the L.
                                                                                     eugenol <0.10 % Sensitizer                                            angustifolia, but the quality of the oil is perhaps
                                                                                     geraniol <0.60 % Sensitizer                                           inferior in odour. The oil is still sedative and has all
Lavender, Spike      Lavandula latifolia      flowering plant           4.00    2.00 0.2% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours.                                the properties associiated with lavenders.                 Spain
                                                                                     Oral-Rat >5.0g/Kg (oral) rat;
                                                                                     Dermal-Rabbit >5g/Kg                                                  Refreshing, revitalising and stimulating. This oil is
                                                                                     Irritation/Sensitation-nil at 10% (human) and nil as 100%.            used wherever a fresh, awakeing and invigourating
                                                                                     1/2000 dermatitis patients were sensitive to lemon oil.               property is needed in foam baths, shower gels or
                                                                                     Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal        massage oils. Lemon oil is stimulating, calming,
                                                                                     sensitisation class D (10%). Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                carminative, astringent, detoxifying, antiseptic,
                                                                                     irritant), Rated safe during pregnancy. Not in the warning list for   disinfectant, sleep inducing, and has antifungal
Lemon                Citrus medica limonum    peel                     >5.00   >5.00 pregnancy                                                             properties.                                                Italy

                                                                                       IFRA critical effect: Sensitization
                                                                                       IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                       citral <40.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                                       geraniol <3.50 % Sensitizer
                                                                                       (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer
                                                                                       methyl N-methyl anthranilate <0.20% concerns phototoxicity
Lemon                Citrus medica limonum    leaf                                     8% in fragrances, 35ppm in flavours.
                                                                                       PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance
                                                                                       ingredient.
                                                                                       IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization
                                                                                       IFRA restricted components:                                         Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with
                                                                                       citral <52.00 % Sensitizer                                          caution. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into
                                                                                       geraniol <5.50 % Sensitizer                                         a tea) has been used as a carminative and general
                                                                                       60ppm in flavours                                                   relaxant, and the dried leaves are used in herbal
Lemon Balm           Melissa officinalis      leaf                                     Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives                      pillows to induce relaxing sleep.
                                                                                                                                                The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong
                                                                                                                                                anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. It
                                                                                                                                                has a fine, rounded lemon scent with a somewhat
                                                                                                                                                spicey undertone. Its antibacterial qualities are more
                                                                                                                                                powerful than tea tree oil. The antimicrobial and
                                                                                                                                                toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil,
                                                                                                                                                lemon myrtle, (Backhousia citriodora) were
                                                                                                                                                investigated. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to
                                                                                                                                                possess significant antimicrobial activity against the
                                                                                                                                                organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
                                                                                                                                                Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans,
                                                                                                                                                methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus
                                                                           Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2.25 g/kg                                     niger, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium
Lemon Myrtle     Backhousia citriodora     leaves            2.43     2.25 Oral-Rat 2425.00 mg/kg                                               acnes comparable to its major component-citral.           Australia

                                                                           LD50 [Oral]: 1.9ml/kg.
                                                                           LD50 [Dermal]: 200mg/kg.                                             Has antiseptic, antimicrobial, carminative and
                                                                           Oral-Rats 4880mg/kg                                                  sedative properties, it is used in aromatic blends to
                                                                           Dermal-Rabbit 2850mg/kg                                              combat coughs and colds. It is also successfully
                                                                           Human open patch test skin irritation/sensitisation evaluation       used as a powerful insect repellent. Used for years
                                                                           @10% (in vitro dermal and ocular irritection studies): minimal       by the Maori's the oil has qualities similiar to Tea
                                                                           irritant in the ocular simulation test system. Non-irritant is the   Tree Oil. Calms and reduces stress and tension,
                                                                           dermal simulation system. At 5% was a non-primary irritant and       helps relieve aches and pains, relaxes tight muscles.
Lemon Tea Tree   Leptospermum petersonii   leaves/twigs      4.88     2.85 a non-primary sensitiser to human skin in the test used.             Healing to the skin.                                  South Africa

                                                                          IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization                                  The essential oil is used in aromatherapy in the
                                                                          IFRA restricted components:                                           treatment of nervous and digestive problems and
                                                                          citral <19.00 % Sensitizer                                            also for acne, boils and cysts. The essential oil
                                                                          geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer                                           obtained from the leaves (yield 0.5%) is extensively
                                                                          (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer                                   used in perfumery. There is evidence that the use of
                                                                          2% in fragrances                                                      this oil can sensitise the skin to sunlight and has
                                                                          Oral-Rat LD50: 5000mg/Kg                                              been largely replaced by the lemongrass,
                                                                          Dermal-Rabbit LD50: 5000mg/Kg                                         Cymbopogon spp. The dried leaves retain their
                                                                          The essential oil from the plant might sensitise the skin to          fragrance well and are used in pot-pourri. The plant
                                                                          sunlight (phototoxicity)                                              is an insect repellant and repels midges, flies and
                                                                          Aloysia triphylla ( CAS No. 8024-12-2) is synonymous with             other insects. The essential oil is an effective
Lemon Verbena    Aloysia triphylla         fresh herb        5.00    5.00 Lippia citriodora ( CAS No. 8024-12-2) so is banned                   insecticide at 1 - 2%.                               Corsica, Turkey
                                                                          IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization
                                                                          IFRA restricted components:
                                                                          citral <88.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                          citronellol <0.20 % Sensitizer
                                                                          geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer
                                                                          3% in fragrances
                                                                          Lemongrass is considered to be of low toxicity. Constituent beta-     With its lemony aroma, it is an excellent general skin
                                                                          myrcene was found to interfere with cytochrome P450 liver             tonic and antiseptic. It is also believed to soothe
                                                                          enzymes, suggesting possible toxicities. Toxic alveolitis has         fevers, and to help relieve migraine. Said to
                                                                          been associated with inhalation of the oil. Lemongrass is GRAS        normalise overactive oil glands and so good for acne
Lemongrass       Cymbopogon citratus       cut herb       no data no data in the United States.                                                 and open pores. Makes a good skin tonic.               S.Africa/Malawi
                                                                          Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                          IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization
                                                                          IFRA restricted components                                            It is known as cochin lemongrass or British Indian
                                                                          citral <90.00 % Sensitizer                                            lemongrass and has similar properties to the above.
                                                                          citronellol <1.00 % Sensitizer                                        The aroma definitely stimulates the brain and
                                                                          eugenol <0.30 % Sensitizer                                            facilitates the logical thinking process. It is useful
                                                                          geraniol <3.50 % Sensitizer                                           where clear thinking and powers of concentration are
Lemongrass       Cymbopogon flexuosus      cut herb         >5.00 >5.00 10% in fragrances, 290ppm in flavours.                                  required and will refresh a weary traveler.            Nepal

                                                                                                                                                Geranium grass, Lemon grass, Camel grass, Fever
                                                                          Acute oral LD50 >5g/kg. Lemongrass oils have been found non-          grass, West Indian lemon grass [1]) is a herbal plant
                                                                          irritant, non-sensitising & non-phototoxic.                           of southern Asia and northern Africa, with fragrant
                                                                          0.7% in fragrances, not for use in flavours. Lemongrass is not        foliage. The volatile oil obtained by steam distillation
                                                                          approved by the German Commission E, but does have                    of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Guatamalan / light
                                                                          generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status in the United              type - also known as C.citratus) as opposed to
Lemongrass       Cymbopogon schoenanthus   cut herb        >5.00          States.                                                               Cymbopogon flexuosus (Indian / Cochin type)              West Indies
                                                                          Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg                                             Acts like lemon and the other citrus oils, beautiful
                                                                          IFRA fragrance material specification: Total concentration of         tangy, fresh stimulating aroma. Warning: Do not use
                                                                          furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product         lime on the skin in direct sunlight, however if the
                                                                          should not exceed 1ppm.                                               essential oil of lime is distilled rather that expressed,
                                                                          IFRA restricted components:                                           then it does not have a phototoxic effect. oil. The
                                                                          citral <0.10 % Sensitizer                                             aroma enhances and enlivens the mood and
                                                                          geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer                                           energizes and can help relieve fatigue and stimulate        USA (Peru,
Lime             Citrus aurantifolia       peel            >5.00    >5.00 15% in fragrances, 3100ppm in flavours.                               mental activity and memory.                                 Mexico)
                                                                                                                                                Similar to Lippia citriodora , check the legal status.
Lippia           Lippia rehmanni           leaves         no data no data                                                                       Specific data not available.                                South Africa
                                                                                                                                                a sweet citrus, fruity essential oil with the typical
                                                                                                                                                oriental orange smell. Used in aromatherapy for
                                                                          Oral-Rat >5.00 gm/kg                                                  acneic skin types. Tangerine (Citrus reticulata ) is a
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg                                               citrus fruit that is well known for being sweet and
                                                                          IFRA restricted components                                            easy to peel. Tangerine contains vitamin C, folate,
                                                                          citral <1.20 % Sensitizer                                             and beta-carotene. Several laboratory studies have
                                                                          citronellol <3.50 % Sensitizer                                        shown that tangerine may have antioxidant
                                                                          geraniol <0.80 % Sensitizer                                           properties. Tangerine peel has also shown
                                                                          5% in fragrances                                                      antineoplastic activity in vitro . However, there is
                                                                          Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal        currently insufficient available evidence in humans to
                                                                          sensitisation class D. Expressed tangerine is not phototoxic,         support the use of tangerine for any medical
Mandarin         Citrus reticulata         peel            >5.00    >5.00 Not in the warning list for pregnancy.                                indication.                                                 Italy
                                                                                IFRA critical Effect: Phototoxicity
                                                                                IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                citral <0.10 % Sensitizer
                                                                                citronellol <0.10 % Sensitizer
                                                                                geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer
                                                                                (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer
                                                                                methyl N-methyl anthranilate <60.00 %
                                                                                Phototoxicity limits in the finished product
                                                                                leave on products 0.165% Restriction.
                                                                                wash off products 2%
                                                                                no skin contact 4%
Mandarin, Petitgrain   Citrus reticulata        leaf              >5.00   >5.00 4% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours.                                                                                         China
                                                                                Oral-Rat 1125mg/kg
                                                                                Skin irritation (rabbit, contact duration 4h) 100% oil: classified   Manuka oil is antibacterial, antifungal, used in cases
                                                                                R38 - irrititating to the skin.                                      of acne and believed to be anti-inflammatory. It is
                                                                                Skin sensitisation by topical application and by intradermal         used in skin and hair care preparations. It is used for
                                                                                injection (guinea pig): no evidence of skin sensitisation.           the prevention of body and foot odour, foot care and
Manuka                 Leptospermum scoparium   leaves/twigs       1.13         Mutagenicity (Ames test): no evidence of mutagenicity                also oral hygiene products.                             New Zealand

                                                                                Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                                Oral-Rat 2240.00mg/kg
                                                                                Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                                LD50 Oral-Rats: 2240mg/kg
                                                                                LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >5g/kg
                                                                                IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                citronellol <3.20 % Sensitizer
                                                                                (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.50 % Sensitizer                                  a slightly sweet, but definitely herbaceous, woody
                                                                                6% in fragrances, 12ppm in flavours                                  and campherous if not slightly medicinal odour. It is
                                                                                LD50 oral-rat: between 2-5g/Kg. Opdyke found Marjoram oil            used for aching muscles, sprains, crampls,
                                                                                sweet to be non-irritating and non-sensitising to human skin, but    rheumatism and other conditions where its relaxing
Marjoram, Sweet        Origanum majorana        flowering plant   >5.00   >5.00 the oil is not believed to have been tested for phototoxicity.       effects are needed.                                     Spain

                                                                                Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                10% in fragrances.
                                                                                Acute toxicity : The oral LD50 in rats exceeded 5g|kg based on
                                                                                3|10 deaths at that dose, and the dermal LD50 in rabbits
                                                                                exceeded 5g|kg based on 0|3 deaths (Palanker and Lewis,
                                                                                1979). Skin Irritation : As part of a dermal LD50 study, 5g|kg of
                                                                                the undiluted material produced no irritation on rabbits after an
                                                                                occluded application for 24 hr (Palanker and Lewis, 1979) . A        The resin that oozes when the tree is tapped, is
                                                                                48-hr patch test with 8% in petrolatum on the backs of 61            known as mastic and smells like turpentine. It is
                                                                                volunteers no irritation (Epstein, 1979) . The Council of Europe     widely employed in dentistry as a cement for filling
                                                                                (1981) included mastic in the list of plants and parts thereof,      decayed teeth, and is also used in varnishes. In the
Mastic tree            Pistacia lentiscus       leaf/branch       >5.00   >5.00 which are acceptable for use in foods.                               East it is used as a breath sweetener.                  Corsica
                                                                                PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance
                                                                                ingredient.
                                                                                IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization
                                                                                IFRA restricted components:                                          Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with
                                                                                citral <52.00 % Sensitizer                                           caution. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into
                                                                                geraniol <5.50 % Sensitizer                                          a tea) has been used as a carminative and general
                                                                                60ppm in flavours                                                    relaxant, and the dried leaves are used in herbal
Melissa, True          Melissa officinalis      leaf                            Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives                       pillows to induce relaxing sleep.                    South Africa, Spain

                                                                                                                                                  Sinapsis is a stimulating external application, the
                                                                                                                                                  rubefacient action causing mild irritation to the skin,
                                                                                                                                                  stimulating the circulation to that area and relieving
                                                                                                                                                  muscular and skeletal pain, sciatica, neuralgia and
                                                                                 Oral LD50: 0.34g/kg                                              various internal inflammations. Mustard oil can be
                                                                                 Caution: large amounts or prolonged use internally or externally mixed with rectified alcohol (1:40 oil to alcohol) and
                                                                                 can cause serious irritation and inflammation. Undiluted         used as a lotion for gouty pains, lumbago and
                                                                                 mustard oil must never be used and it should never be used on rheumatism. Mustard oils are absorbed through the
                                                                                 sensitive areas.                                                 skin and eliminated via the lung, so that the
Mustard                Sinapsis alba            seed                             Dermal irritation Group A: Severely irritant                     antibacterial action can take effect there.

                                                                                                                                                     Myrrh has been used as a medicine and for
                                                                                                                                                     ceremonial and religious purposes. In traditional
                                                                                                                                                     medicinal myrrh is used for embalming, leprosy,
                                                                                                                                                     bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, mouth
                                                                                                                                                     ulcers, inflammation, viral hepatitis, female
                                                                                                                                                     disorders, wounds, coughs, tumour etc. It is also
                                                                                                                                                     used to some extent in Ayurveda and Unani
                                                                                                                                                     medicine although more preference is given to the
                                                                                                                                                     related resin known as guggulu obtained from
                                                                                                                                                     Commiphora mukul Engl. The Commission E
                                                                                                                                                     approved myrrh for topical treatment of mild
                                                                                 Oral-Rats LD50: 1650mg/kg                                           inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa.
                                                                                 Toxicity class B acute oral for Myrrh (LD50 = 1.65), Mucous         The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia indicates myrrh
                                                                                 Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class D (8%),        tincture as a mouthwash for gingivitis and ulcers.
                                                                                 Dermal sensitisation class D (8%). Mrrrh is in the list contra-     Myrrh is also an important drug in Chinese
                                                                                 indicated during pregnancy.                                         Traditional Medicine. It is used in East Africa as a
Myrrh                  Commiphora myrrha        resin              1.70          8% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours.                                decoction of myrrh resin to treat stomach ache.         Somalia
                                                                                                                                                  The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong
                                                                                                                                                  anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. It
                                                                                                                                                  has a fine, rounded lemon scent with a somewhat
                                                                                                                                                  spicey undertone. Its antibacterial qualities are more
                                                                                                                                                  powerful than tea tree oil. The antimicrobial and
                                                                                                                                                  toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil,
                                                                                                                                                  lemon myrtle, (Backhousia citriodora) were
                                                                                                                                                  investigated. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to
                                                                                                                                                  possess significant antimicrobial activity against the
                                                                                                                                                  organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
                                                                                                                                                  Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans,
                                                                                                                                                  methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus
                                                                            Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2.25 g/kg                                      niger, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium
Myrtle, Lemon   Backhousia citriodora     flowering twig      2.43     2.25 Oral-Rat 2425.00 mg/kg                                                acnes comparable to its major component-citral.           Australia

                                                                            Oral-Rats LD50: 14ml/kg
                                                                            Oral-Rabbit LD50: 24ml/kg
                                                                            Neem oil is non-mutagenic in the Ames mutagenicity test.
                                                                            Acute oral toxicity in rats fed technical grade azadirachtin
                                                                            ranged from greater than 3,540 mg/kg to greater than 5,000            The medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant
                                                                            mg/kg, the highest dose tested when administered undiluted to         extract has been known for generations. The earliest
                                                                            albino rats.                                                          use of a plant being used as human medication is
                                                                            A primary eye irritation study in rabbits exposed to technical        found on an Egyptian papyrus dated about 1550 BC.
                                                                            azadirachtin was rated mild to moderately irritating after            (The Ebers Papyrus - ACD). Almost every part of
                                                                            instillation of 0.1 gm of the undiluted material. At one hour post-   the neem tree is used in traditional medicine in India,
                                                                            instillation, the maximum eye irritation score was 15.3/110; by       SriLanka, Burma, Indochina, Java and Thailand. The
                                                                            24, 48, and 72 hours the scores were 6.2/110, 0.3/110, and            stem, root bark, and young fruits are used as a tonic
                                                                            0/110, respectively. It was given a toxicity category of III.         and astringent and the bark has been used to treat
                                                                            The LD50 (12% azadirachtin a major active constituent from            malaria and cutaneous diseases. The tender leaves
                                                                            neem) >5000mg/kg in rats                                              have been used in the treatment of worm infections,
                                                                            Acute Oral-Rat >5 g/kg                                                ulcers, cardiovascular diseases and for their
                                                                            Acute Dermal-Rat >2g/kg                                               pesticidal and insect-repellant actions. It is used to
                                                                            Acute Inhalation-Rat LC50 >0.72 mg/L                                  reduce dental caries and inflammation of the mouth
                                                                            Skin Irritation - Rabbit > No Irritation                              when used as an ingredient in dental preparations.
                                                                            Skin Sensitization-Guinea Pig- Sensitization                          Naturally occurring oil (from seeds of Azadirachta
Neem            Azadirachta indica        leaves             14.00    >2.00 Eye Irritation-Rabbit-Positive                                        indica) with pronounced antimicrobial properties.       India
                                                                            LD50 oral: >2000mg/kg. Not irritating to human skin (Kligman
                                                                            A 1966) : J Invest Derm 47, 395
                                                                            Oral-Rats (nerol) 4.5g/kg                                             The essential oil extracted from the fragrant flower of
                                                                            Dermal-Rabbit (nerol) >5g/kg                                          the bitter sour, or Seville orange tree, also known as
                                                                            IM-Mouse (nerol) 3g/kg                                                Citrus bigaradia . The therapeutic properties are
                                                                            No irritation or sensitisation by 4% (nerol) in petrolatum on         effective in treating the nervous system. For
                                                                            human volunteers.                                                     insomnia the oil has an almost hypnotic effect and a
                                                                            Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                few drops into a warm bath prior to bedtime will help
                                                                            irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D    give a good night's sleep. The Queen of all essential
Neroli          Citrus aurantium dulcis   flower              5.70     5.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy                           oils.                                                   Morocco
                                                                            Ethanol extract LD50 147.5mg/kg
                                                                            Considered non-irritant, non-sensitising
Niaouli         Melaleuca quinquenervia   leaf                2.00     5.00 Oral-Mice LD50 316mg/kg (grandinin major component)
                                                                                                                                                  This oil has a sweet, fresh fragrance with a hint of
                                                                                                                                                  tea tree. It is strongly antiseptic and so useful for
                                                                                                                                                  treating acne, boils and other skin irritations. It is
                                                                                                                                                  used as a chest rub and also has analgesic
Niaouli         Melaleuca viridiflora     leaf             no data no data 4% in fragrances                                                       properties..                                             Madagascar
                                                                           Oral-Rat 2620.00mg/kg
                                                                           Skin-Rabbit >10000.00mg/kg
                                                                           IPR-Mouse LD50 1010.5mg/kg
                                                                           IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization
                                                                           IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0.60 % Sensitizer
                                                                           isoeugenol <1.00 % Sensitizer, geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer,
                                                                           methyl eugenol <1.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity
                                                                           2% in fragrances, 640ppm in flavours.
                                                                           As a food flavouring additive, to be generally recognised as safe
                                                                           (GRAS).
                                                                           Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLo - Lowest Published Lethal
                                                                           Dose/Conc
                                                                           IPR-Cat LDLO: 10 ml/kg
                                                                           LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill
                                                                           Oral-Rat LD50: 2620 mg/kg toxic effects: Behavioral -
                                                                           somnolence (general depressed activity)
                                                                           Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >10 gm/kg
                                                                           Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test
                                                                           Skin-Rabbit: 500 mg/24H; Reaction: moderate
                                                                           Reproductive effects
                                                                           Oral-Mouse TDLo: 2400 mg/kg; duration: male 40 day prior to
                                                                           mating. Toxic effects: effects on fertility - Male fertility index     The inhaled aroma is stimulating and effective in
                                                                           (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to             fighting mental fatigue. High concentrations of this
                                                                           fertile non-pregnant females)                                          potent oil, however, can produce sedative effects.
                                                                           TDLo Oral: 4 gm/kg; duration: male 40 day prior to mating.             Warning: Nutmeg oil is toxic if used in large
                                                                           Toxic effects: effects on newborn - germ cell effects (in              quantities, and can be stupefying. Use with caution
Nutmeg          Myristica fragrans        fruit               2.60 >10.00 offspring).                                                             on the skin.                                          Sri Lanka
                                                                                                                                                  Opopanax is used as a fixative and fragrance for
                                                                                                                                                  high class perfumery. Aromatherapy uses have been
                                                                                                                                                  suggested to be similar to myrrh oil (to which it is
                                                                           Phototoxic.                                                            related). Opopanax is often adulterated. Myrrh is
                                                                           IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization                                    commonly used in Chinese medicine for
                                                                           leave on products: 0.6% Restriction.                                   rheumatism, arthritis and circulatory problems. It is
                                                                           wash off products: 0.6% Restriction.                                   employed in perfumery. Not to be confused with
                                                                           no skin contact products: 8% Restriction.                              Cassie (Acacia farnesiana) which is also called
Opopanax        Commiphora erythraea      gum              no data no data 8% in fragrances, not for use in flavours.                             Opopanax.
                                                                         Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                         Skin-Rabbit >10000.00 mg/kg
                                                                         IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation
                                                                         IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic
                                                                         products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-
                                                                         like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed
                                                                         1ppm.
                                                                         IFRA restricted components:citral <0.10 % Sensitizer; citronellol
                                                                         trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer;
                                                                         limits in the finished product
                                                                         leave on products: 1.25% Restriction.
                                                                         wash off products: 6.00% Recommendation.
                                                                         no skin contact products: 10.00% Recommendation.
                                                                         10% in fragrances, 1000ppm in flavours.
                                                                         Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg
                                                                         Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg                                       A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh
                                                                         Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1.4% of a blend      peel of the bitter orange. Dried peel is official in the
                                                                         For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine,               British Pharmacopoeia as a bitter tonic. It may have
                                                                         excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which          applications as a topical antifungal agent; oil of bitter
                                                                         are washed off the skin, bitter orange oil expressed should not      orange was effective in curing patients with
                                                                         be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds         treatment-resistant fungal skin diseases. In vitro
                                                                         1.4%. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at       tests show that limonene from citrus peels may have
                                                                         20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic                relevant anticancer, antitumor, and cell-differentiation
Orange, Bitter   Citrus aurantium amara    peel             5.00   >5.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils).   promoting activities.                                     Egypt
                                                                         LD 50 Oral-rat: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974) I2
                                                                         (3), 733.
                                                                         LD 50 Oral-rabbit: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974)
                                                                         I2(3), 733.
                                                                         Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-               The volatile oil obtained by expression from the ripe
                                                                         irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D   peel of the fruit Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Fam.
Orange, Sweet    Citrus aurantium dulcis   peel             5.70    5.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy                          Rutaceae) / Citrus dulcis .

                                                                         Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                         Skin-Rabbit >10000.00 mg/kg
                                                                         IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation
                                                                         IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic
                                                                         products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-
                                                                         like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed
                                                                         1ppm.
                                                                         IFRA restricted components:citral <0.10 % Sensitizer; citronellol
                                                                         trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer;
                                                                         limits in the finished product
                                                                         leave on products: 1.25% Restriction.
                                                                         wash off products: 6.00% Recommendation.
                                                                         no skin contact products: 10.00% Recommendation.
                                                                         10% in fragrances, 1000ppm in flavours.
                                                                         Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg
                                                                         Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg
                                                                         Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1.4% of a blend
                                                                         For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine,
                                                                         excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which          See Citrus aurantium dulcis [Syn. Citrus sinensis ].
                                                                         are washed off the skin, bitter orange oil expressed should not      The essential oil of orange is warm, radiant, sweet,
                                                                         be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds         uplifting and best described as alive. It is uplifting to
                                                                         1.4%. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at       the mood, while promoting relaxation and being
                                                                         20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic                calming. It is also calming and brightening to dull
Orange, Sweet    Citrus sinensis           peel             5.00   >5.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils).   complexions.                                              Italy
                                                                         Oral-Rat LD50: 1850mg/kg Toxic effects: behavioral -
                                                                         somnolence (general depressed activity)
                                                                         Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >320 mg/kg                                       A warming oil, it assists improvement of circulation,
                                                                         Skin - Standard Draize Test                                          digestion, mental clarity and alertness. It is used to
                                                                         Mouse Skin; Dose: 100%; Reaction: Severe.                            relieves muscle aches and pains and is said to
                                                                         IFRA restricted components:                                          assist in increasing physical endurance and energy.
                                                                         geraniol <0.90 % Sensitizer                                          It may assist in reducing cellulite. In China it is used
                                                                         4% in fragrances                                                     additionally to treat itchy skin conditions. Origanum
                                                                         As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed        oil was investigated for its antifungal properties.
                                                                         under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic          Origanum oil at 0.25mg/ml was found to completely
                                                                         Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA             inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. In addition,
                                                                         Flavour and Extract manufacturers‟ Association (FEMA), to be         both the germination and the mycelial growth of C.
                                                                         generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions         albicans were found to be inhibited by Origanum oil
Oregano, Green   Origanum vulgare          flowering top    1.85    0.32 of use (FEMA 2828).                                                  in a dose-dependent manner.                              France

                                                                         Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                         Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                         IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization
                                                                         contains IFRA restricted components
                                                                         citral <0.40 % Sensitizer
                                                                         farnesol <2.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                         geraniol <94.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                         8% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours
                                                                         Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane assumed C-D
                                                                         (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation
                                                                         class D (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy
                                                                         As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed
                                                                         under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic
                                                                         Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA             This oil is floral, fresh and sweet with the
                                                                         Flavour and Extract manufacturer‟s Association (FEMA), to be         characteristic smell of geranium oil, but with a rose-
                                                                         generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions         overtone - hence the alternative name rose
                                                                         of use.                                                              geranium. It helps with skin problems such as
                                                                         Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill                 candida, rashes, scaly and flaky skin. It is
                                                                         Oral-Rat LD50 >5gm/kg                                                antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral. It
                                                                         Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg                                           is also used as an insect repellent and a carminative.
                                                                         Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test                               It has been used on cuts, as an insect repellant and
Palmarosa        Cymbopogon martini        cut herb        >5.00   >5.00 Rabbit Skin 500mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate                            to relieve headaches.                                      Nepal, Madagascar
                                                                                Oral-Mouse: 1.52g/kg
                                                                                Oral-Rat: 3.96g/kg
                                                                                Parsley herb and leaf oils and some chemotypes of the seed oil
                                                                                Petroselinum crispum contain dill apiole to 20% which is
                                                                                severely hepatoxic and high dose levels have (endangering the
                                                                                subject) been used to procure an abortion.
                                                                                2% in fragrances
                                                                                Commission E reports contraindications: pregnancy and
                                                                                nephrosis; adverse effects: allergic reactions of skin/mucosae
                                                                                (rare) and phototoxicity. The essential oil and its constituent
                                                                                apiole are toxic. Hepatotoxic.
Parsley                Petroselinum crispum     herb/leaf                       The pure oil is toxic and should not be used.
                                                                                                                                                     Strongly and a characteristic oriental and musty
                                                                                                                                                     odour. It helps reduce skin oiliness, soothes skin
                                                                                                                                                     problems and burns, reduces inflammation and is
                                                                               Oral-Rat >5.00 gm/kg                                                  mildly antiseptic. It is a nerve sedative and anti-
                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg                                               depressant. is very beneficial for the skin and may
                                                                               Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal        help prevent wrinkles or chapped skin. It is also said
                                                                               sensitisation class D (10%). Rated safe during pregnancy, Not         to regenerate tissue and helps relieve itching from
Patchouli              Pogostemon cablin        plant            >5.00   >5.00 in the warning list for pregnancy                                     hives and other pruritic conditions.                       Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                     It is a reputed abortifacient, antiseptic, blood purifier,
                                                                                                                                                     carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, digestive,
                                                                                                                                                     emmenagogue, expectorant, insect repellant, natural
                                                                                                                                                     flea repellant on pets, pectoral, refrigerant,
                                                                                                                                                     spasmolytic, stimulant, sudorific, uterine stimulant,
Pennyroyal, European   Mentha pulegium          aerial parts      0.40         Oral LD50: 0.40g/mg                                                   uterine vasodilator.
                                                                               Oral-Rat LD50: 1240mg/kg
                                                                               Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5000mg/kg
Peppermint             Mentha arvensis          fresh leaves      1.24   >5.00 8% in fragrances                                                      see above                                                Nepal

                                                                                Oral-Rat LD50: 2.43mg/kg
                                                                                Acute oral LD50: 4.4g/kg
                                                                                Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal
                                                                                Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the
                                                                                warning list for pregnancy
                                                                                A short-term oral toxicity study on male and female rats for 28
                                                                                days demonstrated that peppermint oil causes brain lesions at
                                                                                doses of 40 and 100mg/kg bw/day which was confined to the
                                                                                white matter especially of the cerebellum. Pulegone at 80 and
                                                                                160mg/kg bw/day caused histopathological changes in liver and
                                                                                in the white matter of the cerebellum. No signs of
                                                                                encephalopathy was observed in rats given menthol. The
                                                                                toxicity of menthol was studied on four different in vitro systems   Typical minty fragrance with mentholic undertones. It
                                                                                covering organ, cellular and subcellular levels. 0.5mM menthol       has a clean, clearing, penetrating odour. Invigorating
                                                                                caused osmotic swelling and leakage of mitochondrial                 - ideal travel companion, calms the stomach. Used
                                                                                membrane on isolated rat liver mitochondria. It was suggested        to bathe tired and sweaty feet. A good insect
                                                                                that menthol causes a deterioration of biological membranes.         repellent. Has a cooling effect on the body.
                                                                                Potentially neurotoxic, moderate mucous membrane irritant.           Stimulating, used for headaches and nausea, very
Peppermint             Mentha piperita          fresh leaves      4.40          Acute oral LD50 (menthol): 3300mg/kg                                 cooling. Breath freshener.                             S.Africa/Malawi
                                                                                Oral-Mouse: 2.77g/kg
                                                                                Oral-Rat: 5.0g/kg
Perilla                Perilla frutescens       leaves/flowers    5.00          mild sensitiser. Use with care during pregnancy.
                                                                                                                                                     Peru balsam is extracted from the cortex of the tree
                                                                                                                                                     Myroxolon balsamum pereiae that grows in Central
                                                                                                                                                     America, e.g. along the coast of El Salvador. Peru
                                                                                                                                                     balsam is used as a fragrance and flavour additive in
                                                                                                                                                     foods. Peru balsam is weakly antiseptic, and
                                                                                                                                                     traditionally has been applied in pharmaceuticals for
                                                                                                                                                     the treatment of wounds, eczema and pruritis
                                                                              LD50 Oral-Rats > 5,000mg/kg                                            (itching). I has been used for the care and relief of
Peru Balsam            Myroxylon pereirae       resin            >5.00 >10.00 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >10,000 mg/kg.                                      haemorrhoids.

                                                                               Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >2000.00mg/kg
                                                                               IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides
                                                                               IFRA restricted components:
                                                                               citral <1.00 % Sensitizer                                             It is made from the twigs and buds of the orange
                                                                               geraniol <2.40 % Sensitizer                                           tree, similar properties and aroma to neroli (see
                                                                               (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer                                   above), but not quite as sophisticated or floral. Bitter
                                                                               15% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours                                  orange is regulated by the Food and Drug
                                                                               Additionally, bitter orange peel, oil, oleoresins, and extracts are   Administration (FDA). Although C. aurantium is
                                                                               Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as a direct additive to           listed in its Poisonous Plants Database, C.
                                                                               food. The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) standard         aurantium orange oil extract, peel, flowers, and leaf
                                                                               for bitter orange peel oil is 1.25% in products applied to areas of   are listed in its food additive database, an inventory
                                                                               the skin that are exposed to the sun.                                 often referred to as "Everything" Added to Food in
                                                                               In volunteers receiving skin applications of bitter orange peel oil   the United States (EAFUS). In frozen concentrated
                                                                               expressed (5 µL/cm2 of 100% oil) under occlusion followed by          orange juice, the volume of bitter orange that may be
                                                                               exposure to visible light or ultraviolet A, all subjects exhibited    added cannot exceed 5%. Petitgrain oil is extracted
                                                                               phototoxic reactions.                                                 from the leaves of the tree but was once extracted
                                                                               Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-                from the green unripe oranges, when they were still
                                                                               irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D    the size of cherries, hence the name Petitgrain or
Petitgrain             Citrus aurantium amara   leaf/twig        >5.00   >2.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy                           'little grains.'                                         Egypt
                                                                               Acute oral LD50: 3.6ml/kg
                                                                               strong irritant of mucous membranes
Pimento                Pimenta dioica           berries/leaves    3.60         hepatotoxic
                                                                                                                                         The European Black Pine Pinus nigra is a variable
                                                                                                                                         species of pine, occurring across southern Europe
                                                                                                                                         from Spain to the Crimea, and also in Asia Minor,
                                                                                                                                         Cyprus, and locally in the Atlas Mountains of
                                                                                                                                         northwest Africa. The turpentine obtained from the
                                                                                                                                         resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic,
                                                                                                                                         rubefacient and vermifuge and is used as a rub and
                                                                                                                                         steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections.
                                                                                                                                         It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and
                                                                                                                                         so is useful for coughs, colds, influenza and
                                                                                                                                         tuberculosis. Externally it is a very beneficial
                                                                           IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides         treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds,
                                                                           5% in fragrances                                              sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of
                                                                           The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and
Pine            Pinus nigra               needle              2.70   >2.00 cause dermatitis in sensitive people.                         inhalers.                                                France

                                                                                                                                             Distilled from the needles. Clearing and deodorising.
                                                                                                                                             It is an excellent air-freshener and
                                                                                                                                             has antiseptic properties that give it good
                                                                                                                                             disinfectant properties. It is stimulating, good for
                                                                                                                                             circulation and useful for colds, flu, and bronchitis
                                                                                                                                             conditions, especially decongestant baths. High
                                                                                                                                             quality oils do not smell as basic as toilet cleaners
Pine, Douglas   Pseudotsuga menziesii     needle           no data no data                                                                   and have a lighter more delicate aroma.               France

                                                                           Oral-Rat LD50: 6880mg/kg
                                                                           Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >3g/kg
                                                                           IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides
                                                                           IFRA restricted components:
                                                                           citronellol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer
                                                                           geraniol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer
                                                                           8% in fragrances (Pine Oil, Estonia) 10% in fragrances (Pine
                                                                           Oil, Scotch)
                                                                           90-day dermal toxicity study in rats. Dermal NOAEL of > 226
                                                                           mg/kg/day (highest dose tested). Systemic Toxicity NOAEL =
                                                                           >226 mg/kg/day. Systemic Toxicity LOAEL = >226 mg/kg/day.
                                                                           NOAEL can be estimated from a 14-day rangefinding study that
Pine, Scotch    Pinus sylvestris          needle              6.88   >3.00 showed a dermal NOAEL of 940 mg/kg/day.                                                                                France


                                                                                                                                             Sometime called Clove Nutmeg and is a member of
                                                                                                                                             the Lauraceae (laurel) family. The smell is slightly
                                                                                                                                             medicinal with a camphoraceous or eucalyptus-like
                                                                                                                                             note with a very slightly sweet back note of
                                                                                                                                             fruitiness. In Madagascar it is known as "the oil that
                                                                                                                                             heals" because of its antiseptic activity and for its
                                                                                                                                             useful properties in respiratory problems. It has anti-
                                                                                                                                             infectious, antiviral and antibacterial properties. It
                                                                                                                                             has shown to help with insomnia and muscle fatigue.
                                                                                                                                             Five leaf essential oils of Ravensara aromatica Sonn.
                                                                                                                                             from Madagascar have been analyzed by GC and
                                                                           The safety of this oil is far from confirmed, as can be seen from GC/MS were found to contain mainly methyl chavicol
                                                                           the analysis figures there is the possibility a number of R.      (79.7%), methyl eugenol (8.5%) and limonene
                                                                           aromatica chemotypes and this makes proper identification         (3.1%). Another study analysed 28 samples of
                                                                           vital. Ravensara oils should not be regarded as safe because      formally identified R.aromatica leaf oils and divided
                                                                           the presence of the carcinogens methyl chavicol and methyl        the leaf oils into 4 types: a <90% methyl chavicol
                                                                           eugenol in the bark and leaf oils totally contradict this         type, a 74-92% methyl eugenol type, a terpinene (25-
                                                                           assumption.                                                       28%) and limonene (15-22%) type, and a sabinene
                                                                           Reported to be carcinogenic, hepatotoxic                          (25-34%), linalool (7-21%) and terpinen-4-ol (6-12%)
                                                                           Rate this oil as unproven and potentially dangerous until type. Ravintsara Oil (Cinnamomum camphora )
Ravensara       Ravensara aromatica       leaf             no data no data further data is available.                                        should not be confused with Ravensara Oil.              Madagascar

                                                                                                                                           Alpine Rosebay, Sunpati. The stems and leaves are
                                                                                                                                           used in Tibetan herbalism. They have a sweet, bitter
                                                                                                                                           and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are
                                                                                                                                           antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used
                                                                                                                                           to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin
                                                                                                                                           disorders. In Nepal, the leaves are boiled and the
                                                                                                                                           vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. It a sweet
                                                                                                                                           herbal, faint balsamic essence and is used in
Rhododendron    Rhododendron anthopogon   leaves/flowers   no data no data No data found                                                   perfumery.                                             Nepal
                                                                                                                                           Rosa damascena is more commonly known as the
                                                                                                                                           Damask rose or simply as "Damask", or sometimes
                                                                                                                                           as the Rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from
                                                                                                                                           Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata . DNA analysis
                                                                                                                                           has shown that a third species, Rosa
                                                                                                                                           fedtschenkoana , is associated with the Damask
                                                                                                                                           rose. The Damask rose is commonly used to flavor
                                                                                                                                           food and to make rose water. Rose extract and rose
                                                                           Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal  oil have a host of beneficial affects on the skin and
                                                                           sensitisation class D (2%). Rated safe during pregnancy,        are great for promoting a youthful complexion with
                                                                           Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). Not in the warning list for good tone, elasticity and an even colored
Rose, Damask    Rosa damascena            flowers             2.98    2.50 pregnancy                                                       complexion.
                                                                                                                                                   The typical fragrance is sweetly herbal and slightly
                                                                                                                                                   medicinal with a hint of camphor. Rosemary is
                                                                                                                                                   forthright and strong, helping to improve mental
                                                                                                                                                   clarity aiding concentration and used to enhance
                                                                                                                                                   meditation. It may be beneficial for problem skin
                                                                                                                                                   conditions and dandruff. It is anti-catarrhal, anti-
                                                                                                                                                   infectious, antispasmodic and is a useful component
                                                                                                                                                   in decongestant baths. It helps overcome mental
                                                                                                                                                   fatigue. The Commission E approved the internal
                                                                                                                                                   use of rosemary leaf for dyspeptic complaints and
                                                                                                                                                   external use as supportive therapy for rheumatic
                                                                                                                                                   diseases and circulatory problems. No reported drug
                                                                                                                                                   interactions, side effects and recommended use is 4-
                                                                                                                                                   6 g of cut leaf for infusions, powder, dry extracts and
                                                                                                                                                   other galenical preparations for internal and external
                                                                                                                                                   use. AHPA-BSH has classified rosemary as a Class
                                                                                                                                                   2b/emmenagogue herb where it can stimulate
                                                                           LC50 = 0.299 mg/mL                                                      uterine contraction and induce miscarriage,
                                                                           Oil of rosemary can have dangerous side effects including               establishing counter-indication of use during           Portugal, South
Rosemary           Rosmarinus officinalis   flowering plant    5.00 >10.00 nausea, vomiting, seizure and pulmonary oedema.                         pregnancy.                                              Africa, Spain

                                                                            Oral-Mice LD50: 800mg/kg
                                                                            The oil of sage, can induce hypoglycemia, tachycardia,
                                                                            convulsions, muscle cramps and respiratory disorders. The
                                                                            Commission E has approved the internal use of sage leaf for
                                                                            dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration, and external            It has been used in Europe for skin conditions such
                                                                            use for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and              as eczema, acne,
                                                                            throat with recommended dry leaf intake, 1-3 g, three times daily      dandruff and hair loss. It has been recognized for its
                                                                            or fluid extract 1,1 (g/mL), 1-3 mL, three times daily. Sage is        benefits in relieving mental fatigue. The
                                                                            none the less classified as a AHPA-BSH Class 2b herb, not              aromatherapy benefits are said to be uplifting and
                                                                            advised for long term use or during pregnancy, and not to              relaxing. There are many different sages and each
Sage               Salvia officinalis       flowering plant    2.60   >5.00 exceed the recommended dose of 4-6 g daily.                            have a unique aroma.                                   France
                                                                            IFRA restricted components: geraniol <1.00 % Sensitizer
                                                                            8% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours.
                                                                            There were no significant side effects reported by healthy
                                                                            patients in two clinical trials. In one pilot open-label study
                                                                            involving oral administration of S. lavandulaefolia essential oil to
                                                                            patients with Alzheimer disease, a significant increase in
                                                                            diastolic and systolic blood pressure was observed in two
                                                                            patients with preexisting hypertension. Although sage oil
                                                                            contains thujone, the oil does not have a reputation for toxicity.
                                                                            The oil has been found to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing
                                                                            when applied topically to human skin in diluted concentrations.
                                                                            Spanish sage oil was also nonphototoxic when applied to mice           Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances
Sage, Spanish      Salvia lavandulaefolia   leaves            >5.00   >5.00 and pigs.                                                              memory in healthy young volunteers.

                                                                                                                                                   The chief uses of sandalwood are as a deodorant, in
                                                                                                                                                   skin care, for cutaneous inflammation and as an
                                                                                                                                                   antiseptic. It is claimed to be a skin softener and
                                                                                                                                                   stimulates peripheral blood circulation in the skin. It
                                                                            Oral-Rat 5580.00 mg/kg                                                 protects against skin diseases and allergic
                                                                            Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                             conditions, is haemostatic or styptic and removes
Sandalwood         Santalum album           wood              >5.00   >5.00 10% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours.                                  skin blemishes.
                                                                            Oral-Rat LD50: 5580mg/Kg
                                                                            Dermal-Rabbit: 5g/Kg
Sandalwood         Santalum spicatum        wood               5.58    5.00 Sandalwood oil has GRAS status.                                 see Santalum album
                                                                            LD50: 1.9g/kg
                                                                            Acute Oral toxicity:
                                                                            Oil: LD50 (rats): 1,90 g/kg (1,52 - 2,37 g/kg)
                                                                            Safrole: LD50 (rats) 1,95 g/kg; LD50 (mice) 2,35 g/kg
                                                                            Acute dermal toxicity:
                                                                            Oil: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg
                                                                            Safrole: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg
                                                                            Chronic toxicity
                                                                            Natural oil of Sassafras was fed to animals (species not
                                                                            indicated) in the dry diet at 390 and 1170 ppm for up to 2 yrs.
                                                                            Routine blood and urine examinations
                                                                            were within normal limits.
                                                                            Skin irritation:
                                                                            Oil: (hairless mice and swine; undiluted) within 30 sec. mild
                                                                            erythema and oedema; (rabbit; intact or abraded skin; undiluted
                                                                            ; under occlusion; 24 hrs): moderate irritation; Humans (4%
                                                                            pet.; closed patch test; 48 hrs):no irritation.
                                                                            Sensitization - man:
                                                                            Oil: Maximization test (25 volunteers; 4% pet): no senzitation
                                                                            reactions.
                                                                            Phototoxicity: (977 hairless mice and swine; undiluted): no
Sassafras          Sassafras albidum        root bark          1.95   >5.00 effects. Safrole: no effects


                                                                                                                                                   Savory oil is sometimes used as a local application
                                                                                                                                                   to carious teeth, for relieving toothache; and its
                                                                                                                                                   tincture is a valuable carminative. It is an antiseptic
                                                                             LD50: 1.37g/kg (Summer Savoury)                                       oil with antibacterial and antifungal properties and so
Savory, Mountain   Satureja montana         flowering plant                  Not recommended for topical use                                       would ne useful in problem acneic skin conditions       France
                                                                                               Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill
                                                                                               Oral-Rat LD50: 5gm/kg
                                                                                               Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test
                                                                                               Dermal-Rabbit 500mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate. Dermal Guinea
                                                                                               Pig: Dose: 100%; Reaction: Mild
                                                                                               IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                               (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer, 1-octen-3-yl acetate <0.20
                                                                                               % Sensitizer,
                                                                                               8% in fragrances, 8000ppm in flavours.                              The aroma of spearmint is not as sharp and intense
                                                                                               Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal        or vital as peppermint, as it contains no menthol. It is
                                                                                               Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the   often described as minty with a slightly fruity aroma.
                                                                                               warning list for pregnancy.                                         Used for colic, indigestion, flatulence, intestinal
                                                                                               As a food flavouring additive, it has been assessed to be           cramps, fevers, nausea, anti-depressant, relieves
                                                                                               generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions        mental strain and helps to soothe headaches. The
                                                                                               of use. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food                  chief constituent of spearmint oil (essential oil of
                                                                                               Additives has assessed l-carvone as presenting no safety            Mentha spicata ) is L-carvone (more than 60%).
                                                                                               concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring      Spearmint is used for culinary purposes and in the
                                                                                               agent. The daily per capita intake is estimated at 170 µg/kg        aroma and flavour industry. It has antifungal,
                                                                                               bw/day in the USA and at 46 µg/kg bw/day in Europe.                 antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The essential oil
                                                                                               Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill [L-            in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large
                                                                                               Carvone]                                                            doses. An essential oil is obtained from the whole
                                                                                               Oral-Rat LD50: 1640mg/kg                                            plant, the yield is about 4kg of oil from 1 tonne of
                                                                                               Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 56mg/kg                                     leaves and is used as a food flavouring and in oral
Spearmint                          Mentha spicata             fresh leaves        5.00   >5.00 Oral-Guinea Pig LD50: 766mg/kg                                      hygiene preparations.                                     South Africa
Spearmint                          Mentha viridis             fresh leaves        4.00    5.00 see Mentha spicata [Syn. Mentha viridis ]                           see Mentha spicata [Syn. Mentha viridis ]

                                                                                                                                                                   Cooling, and used to reduce fevers. Soothing for the
                                                                                                                                                                   skin, excellent for skin irritations and allergies. Said
                                                                                                                                                                   to be good for wounds that do not heal. Helps to
                                                                                                                                                                   promote restful sleep, reduces tress and aids
                                                                                                                                                                   relaxation. Can assist in reducing inflammation. It is
Spikenard                          Nardostachys grandiflora   rhizome             4.60           see above                                                         a member of the Valerian family.                         India
                                                                                                                                                                   see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn:
Spikenard                          Nardostachys jatamansi     root                3.16           see above                                                         Nardostachys jatamansi ]


                                                                                                                                                                   It is used as an antiseptic, astringent and
                                                                                                                                                                   expectorant, and the tincture is widely used as a skin
                                                                                                                                                                   protectant and as an antiseptic and styptic on small
                                                                                                                                                                   cuts. It is under the domination of the Sun or Jupiter.
                                                                                                                                                                   It has a sweet, vanilla-like smell. It is a scented gum
                                                                                                                                                                   that has been used in cosmetics for hundreds of
                                                                                                                                                                   years. The ancient civilisations thought it a grand
                                                                                                                                                                   remedy for driving away evil spirits and was often
                                                                                                                                                                   used in fumigations and incense. It is an ingredient
                                                                                                                                                                   in Friar's Balsam. It was often referred to in old
                                                                                                                                                                   herbals as 'gum benzoin', 'balsam' or 'gum
                                                                                                                                                                   benjamin'. 'Virgin Milk' an old fashioned toilet water,
                                                                                                                                                                   included benzoin as well as lavender and ethanol. It
                                                                                                                                                                   was supposed to make the skin 'clear and brilliant'.
Styrax Benzoin (Benzoin) Extract   Styrax benzoin             exudate                                                                                              Nowadays used as a fixative in perfumes.
                                                                                               Oral-Rat 3700.00 mg/kg
                                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                          Externally, it is used to treat haemorrhoids and skin
                                                                                               IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0.20 % Sensitizer;              infections. It is an insect repellant and branches of
                                                                                               geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer                                         are placed in amongst blankets and winter clothing
                                                                                               leave on products: 0.01% Restriction.                               to repel moths and other insects. If the dogs'
                                                                                               wash off products: 1.00% Recommendation.                            baskets and kennels are lined with the plant, the
                                                                                               no skin contact: 2.00% Recommendation.                              fleas will soon leave, and a few leaves rubbed into
Tagetes                            Tagetes minuta             flowering herb       3.7   >5.00 1% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours.                                the pet's coat is a good flea repellant.              South Africa
                                                                                                                                                                   no data - the tangelo is another mandarin, tangerine,
Tangelo                            Citrus tangelo             peel             no data no data                                                                     clementine type orange fruit.                         USA

                                                                                                                                                                   Tangerine oil is extracted from Citrus reticulata (also
                                                                                                                                                                   known as Citrus nobilis, C. madurensis, C. unshiu
                                                                                                                                                                   and C. deliciosa) of the Rutaceae family and is also
                                                                                                                                                                   known as European mandarin, tangerine, naartjie
                                                                                                                                                                   and true mandarin.
                                                                                                                                                                   The odour is the traditional oriental, slightly spicey
                                                                                                                                                                   orange that reminds us of Christmas. The oil is
                                                                                               Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg                                             described as calming, sedating, anti-inflammatory,
                                                                                               Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg                                          and is said to help with anxiety, dizziness, and
Tangerine                          Citrus reticulata          peel              >5.00    >5.00 5% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours                                 nervousness. It has a warming freshness.                USA


                                                                                                                                                                   A weak anthelmintic and mild irritant, tansy can be
                                                                                                                                                                   poisonous even when applied externally; therefore it
                                                                                                                                                                   is little used. American Indians used the plant to
                                                                                                                                                                   cause abortion. It is used as an an ointment for
                                                                                                                                                                   pruritis. In medieval times, the leaves were placed in
                                                                                                                                                                   beds and strewn over floors as their camphor smell
                                                                                                                                                                   kept away flies and fleas. If large amounts of any
                                                                                                                                                                   preparation containing tansy are taken, toxicosis with
                                                                                                                                                                   epileptic convulsions may result. The essence is an
                                                                                                 Oral-Dog LD50: 0.3g/kg                                            insecticide. As this is an emmenagogic plant (one
                                                                                                 Oral-Rat LD50: 1.15 g/kg                                          which restores the menstrual flow) it should on no
Tansy                              Tanecetum vulgare          aerial parts        0.73           Avoid during pregnancy owing to the presence of thujone.          account be taken in any form by pregnant women.
Tarragon (Estragon)                Artemisia dracucnculus     aerial parts                       LD50: 1.9g/kg

                                                                                                                                                                   The smell of tea tree is well known, a combination of
                                                                                                                                                                   medicinal, eucalyptus and woody citrus notes. The
                                                                                                                                                                   oil is antibacterial, used for cold sores, acne skin
                                                                                                                                                                   washes, and decongestant baths when a cold is
Tea Tree                           Melaleuca alternifolia     leaves              1.90    5.00 LD50 1.9-2.6ml/kg.                                                  coming on. Good for spots and other skin infections. South Africa
                                                                                                                                               It has been used amongst other things for psoriasis,
                                                                            Oral LD50: 0.83g/kg                                                rheumatism, and topically for warts. It is useful in
                                                                            The oil is poisonous when ingested in large quantities,            the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatism. Thuja oil
                                                                            producing symptoms such as hypotension and convulsions and         is a very poisonous essential oil and should only be
Thuja           Thuja occidentalis                           0.83           eventually death.                                                  used under strict medical supervision.

                                                                          8 % solution: no irritation or sensitization in human studies
                                                                          Oral-Rat 2840.00mg/kg
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg
                                                                          IFRA restricted components: (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 %
                                                                          Sensitizer
                                                                          2% in fragrances, 30ppm in flavours.
                                                                          Essential Oil Safety Data Manual, Acute Oral Toxicity rates as
                                                                          C (relatively safe), Acute Dermal Toxicity rates as C-D (not
                                                                          hazardous), Abortifacient rating as class B (risk) use only with
                                                                          great caution in pregnancy. Mucous membrane Irritation rated         The essential oil is found to be useful for overcoming
                                                                          as class A (severely irritant), the A rated should be used with      fatigue and physical weakness after illness. It is
                                                                          great caution if applied to any of the orifices of the body, e.g.    antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and is
                                                                          oral administration, inhalation, douches or enemas. Dermal           strongly germicidal. It is used for joint pain,
                                                                          Irritation rated as class B (irritant). Dermal Sensitisation rated   backache and sciatica in a hot bath. Inhaled, thyme
                                                                          as class D (not sensitisers) Red Thyme 8%, wild thyme not            oil uplifts the spirit, relieves depression and is an
Thyme           Thymus vulgaris         flowering plant      2.84   >5.00 tested. Photosensitisation not reported                              excellent decongestant and cold treatment.                 France, Spain
                                                                          Oral-Rat 2840.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                          IFRA restricted components: citronellol <0.20 % Sensitizer;
                                                                          geraniol <0.50 % Sensitizer; (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 %
                                                                          Sensitizer
Thyme, Thymol   Thymus zygis            flowering plant      2.84   >5.00 2% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours.                                see Thymus vulgaris                                      Spain

                                                                                                                                               Turpentine and its related products have a long
                                                                                                                                               history of medicinal use, where they have been
                                                                                                                                               employed as topical counterirritants for the treatment
                                                                                                                                               of rheumatic disorders and muscle pain. A gum
                                                                                                                                               derived from turpentine was used in a traditional
Turpentine      Pinus roxburghii        resin             no data no data                                                                      Chinese medicine to relieve the pain of toothache.     Nepal

                                                                          IP-Mouse (dry extract root): 3300mg/kg
                                                                          Low toxicity: IP-Mouse extract: 360-400mg/kg
                                                                          LD50 for each of the triesters >4.6g/kg. No observable
                                                                          cytotoxicity seems that when there is a more direct contact
                                                                          between valepotriates and tissues.
                                                                          IFRA restricted components:eugenol trace to <0.20 %
                                                                          Sensitizer
                                                                          1% in fragrances
                                                                          Oral-Rats (root oil) LD50: 15g/kg (relatively safe)
                                                                          Valerian root and its constituent valepotriates are apparently
                                                                          nontoxic.
                                                                          Valerian root has approval status by the German Commission E
                                                                          for restlessness and sleeping disorders (e.g. insomnia) based
                                                                          on nervousness. It may be taken internmally, or used in a bath.
                                                                          As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed
                                                                          under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic
                                                                          Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA             Very soothing and relaxing, especially during difficult
                                                                          Flavour and Extract manufacturer‟s Association (FEMA), to be         times. Encourages sleep and restfulness, calms the
                                                                          generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions         nerves during sleep. The oil has a very characteristic
Valerian        Valeriana officinalis                      >5.00          of use.                                                              musty odour.                                            Nepal
                                                                          Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 1580.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Intraperitoneal-Rat 1160.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Rabbit 2600.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Mouse [sex: M] 1000.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Intraperitoneal-Mouse 475.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Guineapig [sex: M,F] 1400.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 1580.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 3978.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 3925.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Gavage-Rat [sex: M] 3830.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Oral-Rat [sex: M,F] 3300.00 mg/kg
                                                                          Oral-Rat 4370.00 mg/kg                                               Vanilla is comforting, calming and soothing. The
                                                                          Skin-Rabbit >5010.00 mg/kg                                           fragrance relaxes and softens anger, frustration and
                                                                          Subcutaneous-Rat 1500.00 mg/kg                                       irritability when used in massage oils. It is also
Vanilla         Vanilla planifolia      pod                  4.37   >5.00 Skin-Rat >2000.00 mg/kg                                              considered to be an aphrodisiac by many.             New Hebrides

                                                                                                                                               The alternative name is Lippia citriodora and this
                                                                                                                                               essential oil should not be used as a fragrance
                                                                                                                                               ingredient according to the latest legislation Council
Verbena         Lippia citriodora       fresh herb                        Prohibited IFRA                                                      Directive 76/768/EEC (CAS No. 8024-12-2)                 France/Spain
                                                                          Oral-Rat LD50: >5 gm/kg
                                                                          Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 gm/kg
                                                                          Irritation Skin - Standard Draixze Test
                                                                          Rabbit Skin: Dose: 500 mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate                    A scented grass with a woody, sultry almost smoky
                                                                          Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-               aroma. Deeply relaxing, the essential oil is sedating
                                                                          irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D   and ideal in massage oil or bath. Traditionally used
Vetiver         Vetiveria zizanioides   root               >5.00    >5.00 (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy.                         in men's toiletries.                                     Madagascar
                                                                                              Methyl Salicylate values
                                                                                              Oral-Mouse 1110mg/kg
                                                                                              Oral-Rat 887mg/kg
                                                                                              Oral-Rat 1250mg/kg
                                                                                              Oral-Guinea-pig 700mg/kg (MLD)
                                                                                              Oral-Guinea-pig 1060mg/kg
                                                                                              S.C-Guinea-pig 1500mg/kg (MLD)
                                                                                              Oral-Rabbit 1300mg/kg
                                                                                              Oral-Rabbit 2800mg/kg
                                                                                              Oral-Dog 2100mg/kg                                                An essential oil (oil of wintergreen' obtained from the
                                                                                              The adult human oral LD50 is estimated at 0.5 g/kg body-          leaves contains methyl salicylate, which is closely
                                                                                              weight. The ester is potentially the most toxic salicylate for    related to aspirin and is anti-inflammatory. The oil is
                                                                                              infants and children, as 4 ml can be fatal                        analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, astringent,
                                                                                              3% in fragrances                                                  carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, stimulant and
Wintergreen             Gaultheria procumbens                                    1.40    2.80 The pure distilled essential oil is toxic in large doses          tonic.

                                                                                                                                                                It has been described as a fresh, cleansing minty
                                                                                                                                                                aroma, but the smell is better known as the
                                                                                                                                                                characteristic smell of Germolene and the typical
                                                                                                                                                                smell of many embrocations. It is the methyl
                                                                                                                                                                salicylate that gives it the characteristic smell. Used
                                                                                                                                                                for its muscle relaxing and decongestant properties.
                                                                                                                                                                The oil is employed in a rub used externally for
                                                                                                                                                                rheumatic and muscular pains and to flavour dental
                                                                                                                                                                preparations. The leaves yield around 1.25% of an
                                                                                                                                                                essential oil, this is a wintergreen substitute and it is
Wintergreen, Fragrant   Gaultheria fragrantissima   leaves                    no data no data see Gaultheria procumbens                                         used in perfumery, as a hair oil and medicinally.         Nepal
Wormseed                Chenopodium ambrosioides                                              Oral LD50: 0.25g/kg
                                                                                              Oral LD50: 0.96g/kg
Wormwood                Artemisia absinthium        leaves / flowering tops      0.96         Not advised for topical use
                                                                                              Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                              Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg
                                                                                              IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization
                                                                                              IFRA other specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides
                                                                                              IFRA restricted components:
                                                                                              benzyl alcohol <3.50 % Sensitizer                                 Ylang Ylang is extremely effective in calming and
                                                                                              benzyl benzoate <9.00 % Sensitizer                                bringing about a sense of relaxation. It is
                                                                                              benzyl salicylate <3.00 % Sensitizer                              antispasmodic, balances equilibrium, said to help
                                                                                              (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <0.40 % Sensitizer                           with sexual disabilities and frigidity and has been
                                                                                              eugenol <0.50 % Sensitizer                                        used traditionally to balance heart function. Ylang-
                                                                                              isoeugenol <0.50 % Sensitizer                                     ylang in the Malayan language means "flower of
                                                                                              farnesol <3.00 % Sensitizer                                       flowers." The scent is very sensual, sweet and
                                                                                              10% in fragrances, 25ppm in flavours.                             reminiscent of almonds. It is mentally relaxing and
                                                                                              Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal    soothing. It is useful in treating insomnia, anger,
                                                                                              sensitisation class D (10%). Rated safe during pregnancy,         anxiety and low self-esteem. It is said to relax facial
                                                                                              Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Not in the warning list for   muscles, and a massage with ylang-ylang helps to
Ylang Ylang             Cananga odorata             flower                      >5.00 >5.00 pregnancy                                                           ease tension headaches.                                   Indian Ocean
Zedoary                 Curcuma zedoaria            bark                      no data no data 1% in fragrances
                                     SAF and Product Type Consumer Exposure Levels That Drive the IFRA QRA


                               Category Consumer
                                   Exposure
IFRA QRA Category       SAF      1 mg/cm2/day
Category 1              300              11.70000
Category 2              300               9.10000
Category 3              300               2.20000
Category 4              100               2.20000
Category 5              100               4.20000
Category 6              100               1.40000
Category 7              300               4.40000


Category 8              100                  1.00000


Category 9              100                  0.20000

Category 10             100                  0.10000



Category 11             10                   0.00033


              1The Category Consumer Exposure Level (mg/cm2/day) is driven by the product type in that category wit
              exposure level and highest Sensitization Assessment Factor (SAF). In order to identify the product type c
                                            category consumer exposure please refer to the Technical Dossier, Table
     SAF and Product Type Consumer Exposure Levels That Drive the IFRA QRA Category.



                       Product Type That Drives the Category
                             Consumer Exposure Level
                      Lip Products
                      Deodorants/Antiperspirants
                      Hydroalcoholics for Shaved Skin
                      Hydroalcoholics for Unshaved Skin
                      Hand Cream
                      Mouthwash
                      Intimate Wipes


                      Hair Styling Aids


                      Rinse-off Hair Conditioners

                      Hard Surface Cleaners



                      Candles


nsumer Exposure Level (mg/cm2/day) is driven by the product type in that category with the combined highest consumer
d highest Sensitization Assessment Factor (SAF). In order to identify the product type consumer exposure that drives the
             category consumer exposure please refer to the Technical Dossier, Table 9.
 osure Levels That Drive the IFRA QRA Category.




                       Maximum Pragmatic Level
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                       Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived from QRA
                      2%
                      The maximum concentration will not exceed 2% and may be lower
                      if determined by the QRA.
                      5%
                      The maximum concentration will not exceed 5% and may be lower
                      if determined by the QRA.
                       2.5% The maximum concentration will not exceed 2.5% and may
                      be lower if determined by the QRA.
                       These products result in negligible skin contact. The approach for
                      a pragmatic concentration of fragrance ingredient in this category is
                      explained in the notes section and below in the Frequently Asked
                      Questions section


en by the product type in that category with the combined highest consumer
AF). In order to identify the product type consumer exposure that drives the
ease refer to the Technical Dossier, Table 9.
                                                   IFRA Categories For Dermal Sensitization, QRA Approach, Arra

Product Type                                       Maximum Pragmatic Level
                                                   Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 1                                        from QRA




Lip Products of all types (solid and liquid
lipsticks, balms, clear or colored, etc.)




Toys

                                                   Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 2                                        from QRA

Deodorant and Antiperspirant Products of
all types (spray, stick, roll-on, under-arm and
body, etc.)

                                                   Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 3                                        from QRA

Hydroalcoholic Products Applied To
Recently Shaved Skin
Eye Products of all types (eye shadow,
mascara, eyeliner, eye make-up, etc.)
Men‟s Facial                                      Creams, Balms
Tampons

                                                   Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 4                                        from QRA
 Hydroalcoholic Products Applied To
Unshaved Skin
 Hair Styling Aids, Hair Sprays of all types
(pumps, aerosol sprays, etc.)
 Body Creams, Oils, Lotions, Fragrancing
Creams of all types (including baby creams,
lotions, oils)
 Ingredients of Perfume Kits
 Fragrance Compounds for Cosmetic Kits
 Scent Strips for Hydroalcoholic Products,
“scratch and sniff” samples, other paper
products not mentioned elsewhere for which
skin exposure is only incidental (e.g.
spectacle cleaning tissues)



Foot Care Products



Hair Deodorant

                                               Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 5                                    from QRA
                                               derived from QRA
Women‟s Facial Creams/Facial                   Make-up
Hand Cream
Facial Masks



Wipes or Refreshing Tissues for Face,
Neck, Hands, Body

                                               Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 6                                    from QRA




Mouthwash
Toothpaste
                                                Not Necessary Acceptable Exposure Level derived
Category 7                                     from QRA
 Intimate Wipes
 Baby Wipes
 Insect Repellent (intended to be applied to
the skin)

Category 8                                                             2%
 Make-up Removers of all types (not
including face cleansers)
 Hair Styling Aids Non-Spray of all types
(mousse, gels, leave-in conditioners, etc.)
 Nail Care

                                                The maximum concentration will not exceed 2% and
                                                     may be lower if determined by the QRA.


All powders and talcs (including baby
powders and talcs)

Category 9                                                             5%

 Conditioner (Rinse-Off)
 Liquid Soap
 Shampoos of all types (including baby
shampoos)
 Face Cleansers of all types (washes, gels,
scrubs, etc.)
 Shaving Creams of all types (stick, gels,
foams, etc.)

Depilatory

 Body Washes of all types (including baby
washes)5 and Shower Gels of all types
 Bar Soap (Toilet Soap)
 Feminine Hygiene – Pads                         5% The maximum concentration will not exceed 5%
 Feminine Hygiene – Liners                         and may be lower if determined by the QRA.
 Bath Gels, Foams, Mousses, Salts, Oils and
Other Products
 Added To Bathwater
 Other Aerosols (including air fresheners
sprays but not including
deodorant/antiperspirants, hair styling aids
spray)



Category 10                                                            2.5%

Handwash Laundry Detergents of all types
 Fabric Softeners of all types including fabric
softener sheets
 Other Household Cleaning Products (fabric
cleaners, soft surface cleaners, carpet
cleaners,)
 Machine Wash Laundry Detergents (liquids,
powders, tablets, etc.) including laundry
bleaches
 Hand Dishwashing Detergent
 Hard Surface Cleaners of all types
(bathroom and kitchen cleansers, furniture       The maximum concentration will not exceed 2.5% and
polish)                                         may be lower if determined by the QRA.
 Diapers
                                                 It was assumed that the exposure to humans from
                                                shampoos for pets could be expected to be similar to
 Shampoos for Pets                              hand dishwashing liquids.
                                                 This product type has been placed in Category 10
                                                based on the absence of exposure data, but it is
                                                recognized that this product is similar to fabric softener
                                                sheets. Should exposure data become available, this
 Dry Cleaning Kits                              product type may be re-categorized.
                                                 This product type has been placed in Category 10
                                                based on the absence of exposure data, but it is
                                                recognized that this product is similar to hard surface
                                                cleaner. Should exposure data become available, this
 Toilet Seat Wipes                              product type may be re-categorized.

                                                 These products result in negligible skin contact. The
                                                approach for a pragmatic concentration of fragrance
                                                ingredient in this category is explained in the notes
                                                section and below in the Frequently Asked Questions
Category 11                                     section.
 All non-skin contact or incidental skin
contact. Including: Candles Air Fresheners
and Fragrancing of all types (plug-ins, solid
substrate, membrane delivery, electrical, pot
pourri, powders, fragrancing sachets,
incense, liquid refills) Shoe Polishes
Deodorizers/Maskers Not Intended For Skin
Contact (e.g. fabric drying machine
deodorizers, carpet powders) Insecticides
(e.g. mosquito coil, paper, electrical, for
clothing) Toilet Blocks Joss Sticks or
Incense Sticks Machine Dishwash Detergent
and Deodorizers Machine Only Laundry
Detergent (e.g. liquitabs) Plastic articles
(excluding toys3) Fuels Paints Cat litter
Animal Sprays Treated Textiles (e.g. starch
sprays, fabric treated with fragrances after
wash, deodorizers for textiles or fabrics,
tights with moisturizers) Odored Distilled
Water (that can be added to steam irons)
Floor wax
on, QRA Approach, Arranged By Category.

            Comments




            Products that contain sunscreen or sun-block are not listed separately and are
           included in the major product type (e.g. lip creams containing sunscreen are
           included in the lip products category). Due to the possibility of ingestion of
           small amounts of fragrance ingredients, materials present in the fragrance
           compound for use in this category must be approved for use in food, meaning
           that all ingredients should be listed as having "no safety concern", for example
           by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and/or
           as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in accordance with the US Federal
           Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

           This product type has been placed in Category 1 based on the absence of
           exposure data. Should exposure data become available, these product types
           may be re-categorized. Due to the possibility of ingestion of small amounts of
           fragrance ingredients (if oral exposure is foreseeable), materials present in the
           fragrance compound for use in this toy category must be approved for use in
           food, meaning that all ingredients should be listed as having "no safety
           concern", for example by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
           Additives (JECFA) and/or as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in
           accordance with the US Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
 Products that contain sunscreen or sun-block are not listed separately and are
included in the major product type (e.g. lip creams containing sunscreen are
included in the lip products category).



 These product types have been placed in Category 4 based on the absence of
exposure data, but it is recognized that these products have similarities to
hydroalcoholic products applied to unshaved skin. Should exposure data
become available, these product types may be re-categorized.
 This product type has been placed in Category 4 based on the absence of
exposure data, but it is recognized that this product is similar to body creams,
lotions. Should exposure data become available, this product type may be re-
categorized.
 This product type has been placed in Category 4 based on the absence of
exposure data, but it is recognized that this product is similar to hair styling aids
and hair sprays. Should exposure data become available, this product type
may be re-categorized.




 These product types have been placed in Category 5 based on the absence of
exposure data, but it is recognized that these products are generic to males
and females and have similarities with the product types in this category.
Should exposure data become available, these product types may be re-
categorized.




 Toothpaste and Mouthwash Products: With the implementation of the QRA
approach, the IFRA Standards will include oral care products. Mouthwash and
toothpastes are the principal oral care products currently identified in IFRA
Category 6. Exposure limits for these products are established to reduce the
risk of peri-oral skin sensitization and as such, are not related to considerations
of safe levels for ingestion. The safety of flavor/fragrance ingredients present in
products intended to be orally ingested is outside the scope of IFRA‟s risk
assessment process. In the latter cases, salivary dilution and short/‟variable
contact time in the oral cavity would suggest a different risk assessment
approach for ingested flavor/fragrance substances. The aspect of safety
through ingestion is managed by the International Organization of Flavor
Industries (IOFI, see its Code of Practice). Due to the possibility of ingestion of
small amounts of fragrance ingredients, materials present in the fragrance
compound for use in this category must be approved for use in food, meaning
that all ingredients should be listed as having "no safety concern", for example
by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and/or
 These product types have been placed in Category 8 based on the absence of
exposure data, but it is recognized that the exposure would be similar to body
creams, lotions. Although the exposure is expected to be similar to body
creams, lotions, the overall SAF for powders and talcs is, however, lower and
so these products are placed into a different category compared to body
creams, lotions. Should exposure data become available, these product types
may be re-categorized.
                Acceptable levels of eugenol in various product types based on QRA.
                   Using 1% Cananga odorata contains 0.007% eugenol in our example
Product Type                      SAF       Exp.       Eugenol
Deo/Ap Non-Spray                  300       Colipa     0.3%
Solid Ap                          300       CTFA       0.2%
Lip Products                      300       Colipa     0.2%
Eye Shadow                        300       CTFA       0.9%
Men's Facial Cream                300       SCCP       0.9%
Hydroalcoholics, Shaved Skin      300       C&R        0.9%
Tampons                           200       RIFM       1.0%
Hydroalcoholics, Unshaved Skin    100       C&R        2.7%
Hair Spray                        100       CTFA       2.7%
Body Cream/Lotion                 300       Colipa     3.3%
Women's Facial Cream              100       Colipa     2.2%
Women's Facial Liquid Make-up     100       CTFA       1.9%
Hand Cream                        100       Colipa     1.4%
Mouthwash                         100       SCCP       4.3%
Toothpaste                        100       Colipa     4.7%
Baby Wipes                        300       RIFM       0.5%
Intimate Wipes                    300       RIFM       0.4%


Hair Styling Aids               100        SCCP      5.9%
Make-up Remover                 100        SCCP      6.6%

Nail Care                       100        SCCP      6.1%
Feminine Hygiene Pads           100        RIFM      42.1%
Feminine Hygiene Liners         100        RIFM      42.1%


Shampoo                         100        CTFA      34.7%
Liquid Soap                     100        Colipa    30%
Conditioners, Rinse-off         100        CTFA      29.5%


Face Wash                       100        CTFA      39.3%
Shaving Cream                   300        SCCP      28.1%
Aerosol Air Freshener           100        RIFM      100%
Bar Soaps                       100        SCCP      100%
Body Wash/Shower Gel            100        CTFA      100%
Bath Foams, Gels, Mousses       100        SCCP      100%



Handwash Laundry                100        HERA      59.0%
Hand Dishwashing                100        HERA      100%
Hard Surface Cleaner            100        HERA      49.2%
Baby Diapers                    100        RIFM      100%
Candles   10   FMA   100%
s product types based on QRA.
 007% eugenol in our example
             Maximum Pragmatic Level


                                               0.007% eugenol is well within the safety limit




             2% The maximum concentration
              will not exceed 2% and may be
             lower if determined by the QRA.




             5% The maximum concentration
              will not exceed 5% and may be
             lower if determined by the QRA.




            2.5% The maximum concentration
            will not exceed 2.5% and may be
             lower if determined by the QRA.
Due to negligible skin contact,
the concentration of fragrance
ingredient should not exceed the
usual concentration of the
fragrance compound in the
finished product
Potential allergen   Cananga odorata
Benzyl Alcohol                   0.000
Benzyl Salicylate                3.000
Cinnamyl Alcohol                     *
Cinnamal                             *
Citral                               *
Coumarin                             *
Eugenol                          0.700
Geraniol                         1.500
Isoeugenol                           *
Anise Alcohol                        *
Benzyl Benzoate                  5.000
Benzyl Cinnamate                     *
Citronellol                          *
Farnesol                         2.000
Limonene                             *
Linalool                         3.000

				
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