CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGIENE) - PDF by bmd18385

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									THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS

INTRODUCTION TO RCVS CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS

CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD
HYGIENE)


This introduction and enclosures are intended to be helpful to you in understanding

what will be involved in working towards an RCVS Certificate qualification.



Candidates may gain experience for these Certificates at:

a.      an approved practice for their subject, or
b.      an approved centre

Details of the experience requirements are given in the Specific Guidance Notes (Paper
B2 enclosed).

A list of all documents enclosed is attached to this letter.


RCVS CERTIFICATES

Enrolments for the current RCVS Certificates are no longer available.

Candidates who enrolled by November 2007 will be allowed the full 5 year enrolment
period in which to attempt the examination.


STAGES INVOLVED, CLOSING DATES AND FEES

1.      Final approval of experience. This application should be made by 1 November
        in the year preceding entry to the examination. Final approval grants
        permission to submit an examination entry. Form E2 should be used. There is
        no fee payable at this stage.

2.      CPD Record Cards. Photocopies of CPD Record Cards covering the period of
        experience being offered should accompany Form E2. Copies of the card
        may be downloaded from www.rcvs.org.uk/cpd

3.      Examination entry. An examination entry must be submitted on Form E3 by 1
        March prior to the examination which is held once annually in the Summer.
        There is a fee payable at this stage.

4.      Submitted work. Three Case Books, on the chosen elective subject either
        Orthopaedics OR Soft Tissue, one of which must involve a series of individual
        cases, form Section (a) of the examination should be submitted UNDER
        SEPARATE COVER by 1 March. You will be notified by 1 June whether or not
        you are permitted to proceed to Sections (b) and (c) of the examination.

5.      It is the candidate’s responsibility to ensure that all application Forms and fees,
        and work required to be submitted for the examination reach the RCVS by the
        relevant closing date. No late applications will be accepted. Use of the Post
        Office’s ‘Special Delivery’ service is recommended. The RCVS cannot accept
        responsibility for applications or submitted work lost or delayed in the post
        and proof of posting cannot be accepted as proof of delivery.

6.      Reminders of closing dates are placed in RCVS News – the Newsletter of the
        Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons – which is published regularly throughout
        the year and sent to all members of the College. No other specific reminders are
        sent.

7.      Fees are reviewed annually and are normally increased from 1 January.

        Current fees from 1 January 2009 are:

        Examination Entry Fee:        £750.00

OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS TO NOTE

8.      Those veterinary surgeons who submit an application for final approval of
        experience should allow sufficient time to produce the submitted work which
        forms part of the examination. You are urged to allow adequate time to study
        the syllabus, with the aid of the reading list and in consultation with your
        Adviser.

9.      The joint State Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Public Health Board oversee
        the Certificate and Diploma in Veterinary Public Health (Food Hygiene). The
        Board consists of six veterinary surgeons.

10.     All applications are considered by Board members either at   the annual meeting
        or by correspondence as appropriate. Candidates will         be advised of the
        outcome of their E2 applications, in writing, no later        than mid-January.
        Candidates must NOT contact the Board secretary by           telephone for this
        information.

11.     The information pack for this subject is updated following the annual Board
        meeting, which normally takes place some 4 weeks after the closing date for
        enrolment. Updated information packs are available after 1 April in paper form
        or on the RCVS website: www.rcvs.org.uk/vet_surgeons/education/cert_dip.html


April 2009
        Certificate in Veterinary Public Health (Food Hygiene)

Please view the general documents to obtain copies of:

               The stages of enrolment information.
B.1:           Guidance Notes for candidates on general requirements.
H.             Role of Advisers to Certificate Candidates.


The following papers are enclosed:


B.2:           Specific Guidance Notes for the Certificate. These notes explain what is
               required in terms of experience and in terms of the content of the
               Certificate examinations.

C:             Syllabus and Commentary for the Certificate.


E:             Application Forms E.lA, E.2.

               E.1A - for specific details of practice

               E.2 - for final approval of experience and for permission to submit an
               entry to the examination


F.             List of Advisers – also refer to Lists of Certificate holders in Register of
               Members.




A copy of the most recent Examination Question Paper is enclosed for your
information.




April 2009
                                                                               B.2—2009




THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS


CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGIENE)

SPECIFIC GUIDANCE NOTES FOR CANDIDATES
[These notes must be read in conjunction with the B1 General Guidance Notes to
Candidates]

MEMBERSHIP OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS

1.   It is a requirement of the Veterinary Public Health and State Veterinary Medicine
     Board that ALL Candidates entering for the Certificate are Members of the Royal
     College of Veterinary Surgeons (MRCVS).

AIM/INTRODUCTION

2. The aim of the Certificate in Veterinary Public Health is to improve understanding in
   the field of food hygiene in order that the veterinary surgeon can provide a better
   service to the public and animals under his or her care.


Approved Practice Route*:
3. Candidates following the approved practice route will not be permitted to enter for
   the examination until they have been Members of the College or held an approved
   veterinary qualification for at least three years. Candidates are required to offer
   experience in the subject over the equivalent of two years full time across the
   species but under a maximum of five years.


4. The Board has discretion to increase the requirements for experience for any
   candidate above the minimum specified if it is considered to benefit the candidate.

5. Experience accepted for the Certificate will count towards the experience required
   for the Diploma, at the discretion of the Board.

6. The experience offered to meet the requirement of the Byelaws must have been
   gained within the five years immediately before enrolment, or after enrolment. No
   period of experience can be offered to meet the requirements of more than one
   Certificate or Diploma, other than the exception described in paragraph 7 above.


7. For the purposes of this Certificate the definition of “approved practice” will include
   licensed full throughput abattoirs, or a group of low throughput abattoirs (provided
   that the workload makes up 50% of the average working week). The plants must be
   under the supervision of the Meat Hygiene Service or in the case of meat plants
   located in Northern Ireland, under the oversight of the Veterinary Service of the
   Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. In the case of Official Veterinary
   Surgeons in management roles, the headquarters or regional offices of the MHS,
   Food Standards Agency (FSA) or those in the Veterinary Public Health Branch posts
   in the headquarters or regional offices of the Veterinary Service of the Department of
   Agriculture and Rural Development will be considered as “approved practice”.

FINAL APPROVAL OF EXPERIENCE

8. Together with a completed form E2 and completed CPD record cards covering the
   period of experience, candidates applying for Final Approval of Experience will also
   need to submit a 6 month diary of their experience in veterinary public health.

9. The diary should cover 26 working weeks, with an average of 2.5 days per week
   spent on public health work. Entries relating to any branch of practice where there is
   an element of public health are admissible, particularly where the candidate draws
   on his/her own perception of an episode with public health significance. Therefore,
   occasional entries reporting on a diagnosis of a zoonosis in small animal practice, or
   reading a paper in the latest veterinary journal describing welfare of sheep in
   transport are just as valid as experiences in a slaughterhouse. This provided that the
   candidate adds their own original thoughts to what has been read or observed, and
   relates matters to their own experiences. The majority of entries should, however, be
   related to work concerning the slaughtering industry. Brief descriptions of plants
   visited should also be included.

10. Candidates should note that the diary log will not be assessed by examiners as part
    of the formal examination, but will be used to confirm that they have amassed
    adequate experience in the field concerned to make them suitable candidates for the
    examination.

THE EXAMINATION

11. The examination consists of three Sections:

      (a)   Submitted work—3 case reports, K
      (b)   TWO x 2 hour written papers, and
      (c)   a clinical, oral, and practical examination



SUBMITTED WORK FOR EXAMINATION

Number and Format of Case Reports

12. Candidates are required to submit three case reports, in duplicate in the year of
    examination. Candidates are also asked to submit an electronic version of their
    submitted work. The electronic version should be Microsoft Office 2000 or XP
    compatible and should be submitted on a CD

13. The three case reports should reflect a broad interest across the range of the syllabus.

14. Candidates should seek advice from their Advisers on the choice and preparation of
    case reports. The RCVS Library and Information Service now holds some examples
    of case reports for a variety of subjects which can be consulted by candidates,
    although at the current time, there are no examples specific to Veterinary Public
    Health.
15. Each case report should be concise, and should follow a consistent format using
    clear headings. Candidates are expected to reflect critically on the cases they have
    handled. Each report should contain an introduction, presentation of the problem,
    description of how the problem was addressed, a summary of outcome and a critical
    evaluation of the candidate’s handling of the case.

16. A table should be included for each case showing the following:

      •     Name of Plant and licence number
      •     Type of Plant (red/white/farmed game/wild game, slaughter and/or cutting,
            cold store, other meat plants)
      •     Species and sources (e.g. local farms (farm assured/organic), auction markets
            or dealers/buying groups
      •     Usual means of delivery (i.e. large/small batches 1–3 cattle, 1–10 pigs, 1–
            20 sheep batches) or average daily number of consignments
      •     Weekly average throughput of each species (cutting plants and cold stores,
            tonnage)
      •     Dates and hours of attendance
      •     Admission of special categories, e.g. schedule 18/19
      •     Customer base e.g., local butchers, farmers markets, farm shops, own shop,
            supermarkets, wholesale markets, and export (specify countries).

Alternatively, where candidates are not working as OVSs but, for example, are involved
in advisory work or delivery of training it is expected that their visits to plants (while
fewer than plant-based OVSs) will be as troubleshooters or auditors. As such, candidates
would normally have responsibility for numerous locations and the plant profiles
provided with case reports may be shortened to include plant name, number, and type
only.

17. Candidates are encouraged to make full use of photographs/charts etc in their case
    reports. All photographic illustrations (black/white/colour) should be included if
    appropriate in the form of prints. Colour transparencies should not be used.

18. A suitable index sheet should also be included at the front of the binder.

19. The candidate’s name should appear on a separate title page, which is not bound in,
    so that it can be easily removed for the purposes of the examination.

20. Candidates are required to complete a Declaration covering their case reports
    confirming the total word count. A Declaration form is sent out to eligible
    candidates, normally in January before the 1 March exam entry deadline. This
    should be submitted with the case reports on a separate sheet that should not be
    bound in, so that it can be easily removed before the cases are sent to examiners for
    marking.

Word Count

21. Case reports should average 1,500 words each (excluding appendices, tables, or
    references) with an overall total word count NOT TO EXCEED 4,500 WORDS. It is
    acknowledged that the length of reports may vary.

22. This word limit must be observed and candidates who exceed the word count will
    have their work returned unmarked, and will be unable to proceed to the remaining
    sections of the examination for the year in question. Candidates should state the
    word count on the front page of each report.
Grading Scheme

23. The submitted work will be graded “Good Pass”, “Pass”, or “Fail”.

24. Certificate work that achieves a “Good Pass” may be held in the RCVS Library and
    used as an example for future candidates.

WRITTEN EXAMINATION

Format

25. There will be two written papers, each of 2 hours in length. Paper 1 will comprise
    15 short answer questions, from which the candidate must answer 10. Paper 2 will
    be essay-based, and candidates will be allowed some choice of questions.

      Marks Scheme:
      Paper I—will be marked out of 50 marks
      Paper II—will be marked out of 50 marks
      Total Mark for this Section (b) = 100 marks


CLINICAL, ORAL, AND PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

Format

26. This part of the examination will take approximately 75 minutes for each candidate.

27. The oral examination may start with a discussion aimed at clarifying any points from
    the written examination or submitted work which the examiners wish to explore
    further, in order to ascertain the breadth and depth of the candidate’s knowledge
    and understanding. The candidate will be given every opportunity to correct factual
    errors made in the submitted work or the written exam.

28. There will then follow a period of open questioning from each of the examiners. The
    questions will be designed to explore the candidate’s practical problem solving skills
    and will be based upon common situations that a candidate may be expected to
    deal with in the course of his/her duties. Practical props such as microbiological
    reports, thermographs, and audit reports may be used.

29. The candidate will then be taken for a walk through part of a processing plant and
    asked to describe and comment.

30. The final part of the examination will consist of an examination of carcases and
    viscera in order to ascertain the candidate’s knowledge of the inspection process,
    basic pathology, and ability to come to rational decision/dispositions. The candidate
    will be expected to speak knowledgeably on and identify carcases’ species, sex,
    and, grade etc.

Marks Scheme
31. Candidates will be given an overall mark for the clinical/oral/practical out of 100.

TOTAL Mark for this Section (c) = 100 marks

READING LIST

32. There is no set reading list for the Certificate in Veterinary Public Health (Food
    Hygiene). Candidates are expected to access the relevant literature for themselves
    and should make use of the RCVS Library and Information Service, the Meat
    Hygiene Service, the Veterinary Public Health Association, the American
    Association of Food Hygiene Veterinarians and Europeans sources such as the
    European College of Veterinary Public Health.

ADVISERS

33. Candidates should consult the RCVS Register of Members for a suitably willing and
    qualified individual (someone holding a Certificate/ Diploma or equivalent) who is
    familiar with the RCVS Certificate or Diploma examination system and clinically
    active. An Adviser should be found before enrolment.

34. Alternatively, candidates should consult the list of contact names found in the
    information pack with a view to then being recommended an Adviser.

35. Candidates are strongly advised to keep in touch with their Advisers throughout their
    preparations for the examination. Candidates who seek guidance from Advisers
    benefit significantly in their preparation for and performance in the examination. It is
    the responsibility of the candidate to take the initiative in this regard.

36. Candidates should ensure that they copy the current information documents
    contained within this information pack for their respective Advisers, in particular,
    they should ensure that their Adviser receives a copy of the requirements on the
    submitted work (B2) and the Guidance Notes to Advisers.




ATTENDANCE AT SHORT COURSES

37. The Board recommends that candidates attend short courses and seek information
    from the Meat Hygiene Service, the Veterinary Public Health Association and
    European sources such as the European College of Veterinary Public Health. The
    Board wishes to emphasise to candidates the benefits gained in attending
    appropriate courses and any other events that are relevant to the certificate and
    would be advantageous to the candidate’s studies.
MEMBERSHIP OF VETERINARY ASSOCIATIONS/SOCIETIES

38. It is a requirement of the Board that candidates enrolling for the Certificate in
    Veterinary Public Health (Food Hygiene) are members of the Veterinary Public
    Health Association. Candidates are also encouraged to take up membership of the
    American Association of Food Hygiene Veterinarians and to make use of the reading
    lists they provide.

ABBREVIATION FOR QUALIFICATION

39. Successful candidates are permitted to use the abbreviation “CertVPH(FH)” after
    their names, in the RCVS Register of Members, and on practice plate and stationery
    etc.




Document originated: October 2003
Revised: Dec 2003/Mar 2004/March 2007




                                                                                     C
ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS

CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGIENE) SYLLABUS
INTRODUCTION

    •   This certificate is designed for those veterinary surgeons interested in working
        in aspects of food hygiene.
   •      It incorporates and expands the previous RCVS certificate in Veterinary Public
          Health.


   •      The new syllabus and new certificate recognises the fact that veterinary public
          health is more than meat inspection.

   •      The written examination will be in the form of two papers, each of 2hrs
          duration.
           Paper 1, which will focus on Veterinary Public Health
           Paper 2a, which will concentrate on Food Hygiene


   •      Candidates successfully completing the examination will receive a certificate
          in Veterinary Public Health (Food Hygiene) [CertVPH(FH)].

PAPER 1
ELEMENT: OVERVIEW


   •      What is Public Health?
   •      What is animal health and welfare?
   •      The role of Government
   •      The role of the private sector.
   •      What sectors of the veterinary profession are involved?
   •      Overview of Veterinary Public Health Legislation (e.g. HSE, Pet shops, Riding
          establishments etc.)

ELEMENT: AGRICULTURE AND THE FOOD INDUSTRY.


   •      The principles of modern systems of animal husbandry for the major meat-
          producing livestock species
   •      The principles of modern systems of animal husbandry for dairy livestock
   •      On-farm factors affecting fate and spread of food borne pathogens
   •      Farming, farm wastes and the protection of the environment
   •      Farm biosecurity
   •      The importance of agriculture to the national economy.
   •      Quality assurance- and HACCP-based systems as applied at farm level and food
          processing.
   •      Collection, management and analysis of data at farms and its use in animal and
          public health.
   •      Herd/Flock health schemes.
   •      The role of Government in the protection of public and animal health.
   •      The role of agencies such as the MHS, FSA, VLA, VMD, and PHLS in veterinary
          public health.




Element: Basics of animal population medicine
    •   Diagnosis, treatment and control of selected infectious diseases of farm
        animals
    •   Epidemiology of zoonotic infections not causing disease in animals.
    •   The role of farms in integrated food safety assurance and public health.
    •   Zoonoses in, and/or via, companion animals
    •   An appreciation of the principles of disease control and current legislation
        concerning general infectious disease control
    •   Notifiable diseases and zoonoses
    •   Principles of veterinary epidemiology
    •   Principles of risk assessment
    •   Principles of cleaning and disinfection on farms.
    •   Record keeping, licensing, and movement controls
    •   A comparison of the efficacy of private and public disease control measures.

Element: Veterinary epidemiology


    •   Collection of data, data analysis and hypothesis testing
    •   Management of epidemics and the role of modelling
    •   Cost benefit analysis
    •   Specificity and sensitivity
    •   Incidence and Prevalence



Element: Animal welfare and its relation to food quality and safety


    •   An appreciation of welfare codes and the five freedoms
    •   Philosophical aspects of animal welfare including the animal liberation lobby.
    •   Animal welfare problems on farms, markets, in transit and at abattoirs
    •   EU and UK legislation on welfare
    •   Enforcement of animal welfare legislation and role of private and state
        veterinary surgeons, police and voluntary organisations.
    •   Role of Farm Animal Welfare Council

Element: Contaminants of foodstuff of animal origin


    •  Chemical contaminants (pesticides, heavy metals, PCBs/PHBs/dioxins) in foods
       of animal origin
   • Mycotoxins in foods of animal origin
   • Veterinary medicines in foods of animal origin, their surveillance/monitoring
       and controls (Veterinary Medicines Directorate- VMD, MHS, SVS and EU)
   • Integrated food safety assurance as applied to the food chain
   • Defining of maximum residue limits (MRLs) and the consequences of failure
   • Antibiotic resistance
   • Radio-nucleotides
Paper 2a


Element: Legislation as it affects food of animal origin


    •   Food Safety Act 1990
    •   Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
   •   European and international law for food safety
   •   WASK.
   •   Operating in a legislative framework
   •   12 principles of certification and the certification of fresh meat for either
       intra-community trade or to “third” countries.

Element: Food industry operations


   •   Slaughterhouse, cold store and cutting plant construction and design with
       reference to hygienic operation.
   •   Dairy plant construction and design with reference to hygienic operation.
   •   Handling and disposal of unfit meat and other slaughterhouse waste
   •   Vermin and pest control
   •   Water supply and testing
   •   Cleaning and disinfection of equipment and the food-processing environment.
   •   Training of personnel working in all aspects of the production and slaughter of
       animals and the preparation of fresh meat products
   •   Licensing of slaughtermen

Element: Occupational Health and zoonoses


   •   Occupational diseases amongst abattoir workers and their prevention
   •   Physical occupational risks
   •   Companion and wildlife animal zoonoses

Element: Food Hygiene and Process Controls


   •   Influence of pre-slaughter management and handling of animals on the quality
       and safety of meat
   •   Ante-mortem inspection goals and procedures
   •   Methods of stunning and slaughter
   •   Hygiene of dressing of slaughtered animals
   •   Post mortem meat inspection
   •   Principles of microbial risk assessment as applied to foods
   •   Hygiene assessment system and HACCP
   •   Microbiological sampling methods, plans and hygiene performance criteria at
       abattoirs
   •   Basics of meat science, technology and quality assessment
   •   Hygiene of non-meat foods (milk and dairy products, fish, honey)


Element: Food microbiology and human population medicine


   •   Types and general characteristics of micro-organisms associated with fresh
       foods. Basic typing and finger printing of micro-organisms
   •   Laboratory organisation and accreditation
   •   Behaviour of micro-organisms during meat preservation, processing and
       distribution
   •   Microbial food spoilage
   •   Food borne pathogens and epidemiology of food borne diseases
   •   Principles of prevention of food borne diseases
Originated: January 2003




                                                                                    E1A
ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS
Specialisation and Further Education

CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGIENE)

Details of the establishment in which experience is being gained to meet the
requirements in the general and specific guidance notes for the Certificate in Veterinary
Public Health (Food Hygiene):
If more than one practice/establishment please photocopy this form and complete in
respect of each such establishment.

General Information (to be completed by all applicants)

1. Place of employment and address:




2. Date of commencement of employment (and date of leaving if you are no longer
   employed at this address):




3. Numbers of veterinary surgeons usually working in your place of employment:




4. Proportion of establishment time spent on work related to the Certificate syllabus:

                                                                                         %

5. Proportion of your own time spent on work related to the Certificate syllabus:

                                                                                         %

PLEASE RETURN ORIGINAL FORM PLUS SIX CLEAR PHOTOCOPIES

Name (block capitals):______________________________________

Signature:                                                            Date




                                                                                    E1A
ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS
Specialisation and Further Education

CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGIENE)

Details of the establishment in which experience is being gained to meet the
requirements in the general and specific guidance notes for the Certificate in Veterinary
Public Health (Food Hygiene):
If more than one practice/establishment please photocopy this form and complete in
respect of each such establishment.

General Information (to be completed by all applicants)

1. Place of employment and address:




2. Date of commencement of employment (and date of leaving if you are no longer
   employed at this address):




3. Numbers of veterinary surgeons usually working in your place of employment:




4. Proportion of establishment time spent on work related to the Certificate syllabus:

                                                                                            %

5. Proportion of your own time spent on work related to the Certificate syllabus:

                                                                                            %

PLEASE RETURN ORIGINAL FORM PLUS SIX CLEAR PHOTOCOPIES

Name (block capitals):______________________________________

Signature:                                                              Date




                                                                                            F
CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (FOOD HYGINE) - ADVISERS

Candidates should refer to the lists of Certificate holders published in Section 3 of the
RCVS Register of Members.

For ‘Role of Advisers’ see – Common Documents.
                 THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS

           CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (Food Hygiene)


                             WEDNESDAY 25 JULY 2007

                                       PAPER I
                                       (2 hours)

Candidates are required to answer ALL TEN of the following questions on this paper.
Allow 12 minutes per question.

Illegible handwriting may result in examiners being unable to award marks for
information which candidates intended to convey.
_____________________________________________________________________________


1.     Describe briefly the current strategy for reducing bacterial contamination of

       meat.




2.     The results of monitoring under the ZAP (Zoonosis Action Plan) Salmonella
       Scheme indicate that one of your pig clients’ herds has a high prevalence of
       Salmonella.

       What are the legal implications?

       Outline the measures you would recommend to reduce prevalence of infection
       on the farm.


3.     Outline the requirements for handling materials in a full-throughput beef abattoir
       not intended to go for human consumption – i.e. by-products and wastes, (but
       excluding "Specified Risk Material").


4.     Describe, using examples, why ante-mortem inspection for both red meat
       animals and poultry is essential as part of a meat hygiene service.


5.     No matter how hygienically meat is produced there is no such thing as zero risk
       of pathogens being present.

       LIST FOUR of the requirements for the growth of bacteria in food that are
       relevant to meat (both red and poultry meat).

       For each indicate ONE food for which that requirement is important.




                                                        P.T.O. FOR QUESTIONS 6 - 10
6.     Briefly describe the steps in a cleaning and disinfection protocol for a large red
       meat slaughterhouse.

       Discuss the methods available to a plant operator to check the efficiency of
       cleaning and disinfection.
7.    What advice would you give to a farmer who is persistently having his finished
      beef cattle either condemned or down-graded at slaughterhouse post-mortem
      inspection because of Taenia saginata cysticercus? Describe briefly how you
      would go about determining the source of the infection?


8.    LIST FIVE of the measures which can be employed to reduce the risk of the
      spread of Brucellosis once it is confirmed on a dairy farm.
      Select the most important of these and explain why.



9.    LIST FOUR controls that can be applied in the poultry industry to reduce the risk
      of foodborne pathogens and indicate the likely level of control possible from
      each of the suggested controls.

      In your answer include any difference in effectiveness of these controls for
      Salmonella and Campylobacter.


10.   How can effectiveness of stunning be assessed in:

      (a) red meat animals?
      and
      (b) poultry?

      Describe briefly your action(s) should you suspect inadequate or inappropriate
      stunning.



                                   ____________




                THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SURGEONS

         CERTIFICATE IN VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH (Food Hygiene)


                              WEDNESDAY 25 JULY 2007
                                         PAPER II
                                         (2 hours)

Candidates are required to answer FOUR out of the following five questions on this
paper.

Allow 30 minutes per question.

Illegible handwriting may result in examiners being unable to award marks for
information which candidates intended to convey.

_____________________________________________________________________________


1.   Food contamination may occur at any stage of the production chain. For the
     category of ready to eat food discuss how contamination may be prevented or
     controlled.



2.   Veterinary Surgeons play an important role in protecting animal health, animal
     welfare, public health and the environment. Discuss the national needs in respect
     of an outbreak of infectious disease in animals that have significant implications for
     public health, including a description of how to ensure readiness and coordination
     of the effort to protect the country against infectious disease.


3.   From a public health perspective discuss the risk of food being a vector of members
     of the Mycobacteria spp. Include in your answer the possible controls and discuss
     their effectiveness.


4.   Describe the measures considered appropriate for reducing the risk, to both animal
     and public health, from Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) of
     animals. Include in your answer the use of TSE testing of cattle and sheep in the
     abattoir.


5.   With the concern about antibiotic resistance there will be implications for the
     availability and use of antibiotics in animals. One of the defences will be from the
     veterinary profession adopting a policy of prudent use of antibiotics. Discuss the
     key issues relating to such a prudent use policy for the veterinary service.

								
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