Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Perikanan Ekor Kuning ( Caesio Cuning ) by bmd18385

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									Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Perikanan Ekor Kuning (Caesio Cuning) di
Perairan Kepulauan Seribu




Mahasiswa: Meuthia Aula Jabbar
             Tesis (2008), Program Studi Magister Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Hayati dan
             Lingkungan Hidup Tropika SITH, email: meuthia_aula@yahoo.com



Pembimbing: Dr. Tati Suryati S. Subahar1 dan Dr. I Gede Sedana Merta2

      1
       SITH-ITB, email: tati@sith.itb.ac.id

      2
       Balai Riset Perikanan Laut (BRPL)-Jakarta

Gelar: Magister Sains (M.Si), Wisuda Oktober 2008




Abstrak

Penelitian mengenai perikanan ekor kuning (Caesio cuning) di perairan
Kepulauan Seribu bertujuan untuk memberikan suatu usulan model pengelolaan
yang sesuai bagi sumberdaya ikan (SDI) tersebut. Ikan sampel diambil dari
Tempat Pendaratan Ikan (TPI) Pulau Pramuka sedangkan pengamatan kondisi
stok ikan karang dan kondisi fisik perairan dilakukan di atas kapal. Informasi
kedalaman perairan, ukuran ikan dan sebaran kepadatan ikan diperoleh melalui
metode analisis deskriptif dari data hidroakustik. Struktur populasi dilakukan
dengan analisa distribusi frekuensi panjang ikan. Pola pertumbuhan ikan
digambarkan melalui hubungan panjang berat. Potensi reproduksi diperoleh
melalui pengkajian jenis kelamin dan informasi tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG).
Metode analisis deskriptif digunakan untuk menjelaskan teknik eksploitasi.
Gambaran umum kondisi lingkungan dilakukan melalui pengamatan kondisi fisik
perairan di 20 stasiun yang mewakili perairan Kepulauan Seribu (meliputi suhu
air laut, arus, salinitas, kecerahan, pH, dan turbiditas menggunakan metode visual
dan elektromagnetik; Analisis oksigen terlarut (DO) menggunakan titrasi
iodometri metode Winkler dan jenis substrat dasar perairan dianalisis secara
deskriptif dari hasil sampling grab. Data catch dan effort selama 7 tahun terakhir
digunakan untuk menghitung laju tangkap (CPUE) ikan ekor kuning. Analisis
profil perikanan secara keseluruhan melalui integrasi aspek-aspek yang diamati
tersebut sedangkan usulan model pengelolaan melalui analisis SWOT hasil
analisis status perikanan didukung landasan pengelolaan dan bentuk pengelolaan
yang sudah ada di perairan Kepulauan Seribu. Integrasi antara kondisi stok ikan
karang, kondisi biologi ikan ekor kuning, teknik eksploitasi, dan kondisi fisik
perairan serta nilai ekonomi perikanan ekor kuning menunjukkan bahwa
kelompok ikan ukuran kecil pada ukuran 7,0-28,9 cm lebih banyak tertangkap
oleh jaring muroami dengan mata jaring sebesar 0,5 inci (setara 1,25 cm).
Umumnya ikan-ikan itu dalam kondisi belum matang gonad. Perairan dalam
kategori tercemar sedang dengan arah arus mayoritas ke selatan. Penambahan
effort tidak diikuti dengan peningkatan jumlah catch. Laju tangkap (CPUE)
semakin mengecil ikut mempengaruhi harga ikan yang berdampak pada
rendahnya pendapatan nelayan. Dengan melakukan analisis SWOT, maka usulan
model pengelolaan yang penulis anggap sesuai bagi perikanan ekor kuning adalah
dengan menerapkan strategi: penegakan hukum dengan pengawasan yang
memadai terhadap teknik penangkapan dan kasus-kasus pencemaran pesisir
(Teluk Jakarta); perencanaan secara serius kemungkinan budidaya ikan ekor
kuning; pengembangan teknik eksploitasi perikanan melalui sosialisasi jenis alat
tangkap lain yang lebih selektif dan pengoperasiannya ramah lingkungan (tidak
menyebabkan degradasi habitat); peningkatan pengetahuan dan skill masyarakat
nelayan melalui pelatihan secara cuma-cuma yang akan membuka cakrawala
mereka dan membuka peluang usaha baru yang berbasis pada potensi lokal
perairan Kep. Seribu.




Kata Kunci: ekor kuning (Caesio cuning), muroami, CPUE, degradasi habitat,
            pengelolaan
Management of Redbelly Yellowtail Fusilier (Caesio cuning) Fishery in
Seribu Islands




Student: Meuthia Aula Jabbar
           Thesis (2008), Master’s program in Bio Management, School of Life Sciences and
            Technology-ITB, email: meuthia_aula@yahoo.com


Advisors: Dr. Tati Suryati S. Subahar1 and Dr. I Gede Sedana Merta2

       1
        School of Life Sciences and Technology ITB, email: tati@sith.itb.ac.id

       2
        Research Institute Marine Fisheries-Jakarta




Degree: Magister Sains (M.Si), Conferred October 2008




ABSTRACT


The aim of the research was to provide management model for Redbelly
yellowtail fusilier (Caesio cuning) fishery in Seribu Islands. Fish samples were
taken from Fish Auction Station (TPI) of Pulau Pramuka, observation on reef fish
stock condition as well as physical condition of the surrounding waters was
carried out directly in sampling sites (on board). Data regarding water depth, fish
size, and stock density were analised by using descriptive approach from
hidroacoustic record. Population structure was determined by using length
frequency distribution analysis. Length weight relationship model was utilised in
describing pattern of growth. Reproduction potential was estimated through
sexual observation and gonad maturity of the fish. Further, descriptive analysis
was used in the explanation of exploitation technique. By employing both visual
and electromagnetic method, 20 sampling stations representing the research area
in Seribu Islands were observed in order to provide information on water
temperature, current, salinity, transparency, pH, and turbidity; Winkler iodometri
titration method was applied in analysing dissolved oxygen (DO); grab sampling
was performed to study the type of the bottom substrate of the habitat. Catch and
effort data within the last seven years were utilised to calculate catch per unit
effort (CPUE) of the studied fish. Basically, Redbelly yellowtail fusilier fisheries
status/profile was developed through the integration of the above aspects.
However, management recommendation was proposed based on SWOT analysis
with the support of the existing management framework that has long been
applied in Seribu Islands. In fact, those integrations involving stock condition,
biological factors, exploitation technique and waters physical condition as well as
economic value of the Redbelly yellowtail fusilier fishery indicated that small
fishes (7.0 – 28.9 cm) were mostly captured by muroami with mesh size of 0.5
inch (1.25 cm). Overall, it has been observed that those fish were immature. In
terms of waters pollution, area predominated by downsouth current was likely to
be polluted (mid level category). It is interesting that the increase in fishing effort
was not followed by the increase in fishing catch. Thus, reduced CPUE negatively
affected fish prices, resulting in lower income of the fisherfolks. SWOT analysis
suggested that the most appropriate management model for the studied area could
be achieved through a number of strategies: Law enforcement, specifically
focusing on exploitation (fishing capture) and coastal pollution monitoring;
Assessment of mariculture viability for Redbelly yellowtail fusilier; Development
of environmentally friendly fishing techniques to avoid habitat degradation
through extension program; Knowledge and skill improvement of the fisherfolks
community through training and education by which local-based alternative
businesses can be developed in Seribu Islands.


Key words:     Redbelly yellowtail fusilier, muroami, CPUE, habitat degradation,
               management

								
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