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					                      STOP Newsletter
    FALL 2003

                What is the Pennsylvania Coalition
                          Against Rape?
T     he Pennsylvania Coalition
      Against Rape (PCAR) is an
organization working at the state
                                        network of 52 rape crisis centers.
                                        The centers also work to create
                                        public awareness and prevention
and national levels to prevent          education within their communities.                  Inside this issue:
sexual violence. Established in                                                                Alcohol &      2
                                        In addition to providing technical
1975, PCAR continues to use its                                                             Domestic Violence
                                        assistance in a variety of areas, the
voice to challenge public attitudes,    role of PCAR is to oversee the rape
raise public awareness, and effect                                                           Drug-Facilitated   3
                                        crisis centers' contracts, monitor
critical changes in public policy,                                                            Sexual Assault
                                        relevant legislation and public policy
protocols, and responses to sexual      issues, provide library resources and               The STOP Grant’s 4
violence.                               educational trainings, and create                        History
To provide quality services to          public awareness campaigns.
victims/survivors of sexual violence    For more information about PCAR,
and their significant others, PCAR
                                        visit us on the web at
works in concert with its statewide

                        What is the Pennsylvania Coalition
                          Against Domestic Violence?
T     he Pennsylvania Coalition
      Against Domestic Violence
is a private non-profit
                                       funding for programs to respond
                                       to the need for services and
                                       safety for domestic violence
                                                                                assistance in filing PFA petitions,
                                                                                court accompaniment, children's
                                                                                programs, and referrals to other
corporation, established in 1976       victims.                                 community resources.
and is the first statewide              PCADV’s statewide network of             If you have a question about
domestic violence coalition in the     programs offers safety to victims        domestic violence services, please
country.                               of domestic violence. These              call PCADV @ 800-932-4632, or
 PCADV has been named a                programs serve more than                 TTY 800-553-2508. If you are in
partner in the Battered Women’s        100,000 victims of domestic              danger, call 911. There are
Justice Project, and is the first      violence each year—more than             domestic violence programs in
federally funded National              one million since 1976—through           each county; for a county listing,
Resource Center on Domestic            intervention services that are           please call us or see our website at
Violence. PCADV works on               provided free of charge and    
behalf of victims of domestic          include 24 hour hotlines, crisis
violence developing legislation        centers, individual and group
and policies, and pursuing             counseling/support, shelter,

                           Produced by the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape with funds
                            from the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency.
      STOP Newsletter
      Page 2

                                Alcohol & Domestic Violence

E     very police officer knows that a drunk can be
      dangerous. Every survivor of domestic
violence knows that a battering partner who drinks
                                                       strategies. Gondolf describes the conflict in the
                                                       following way, “In alcohol treatment, recovery is
                                                       central: The focus is primarily on one’s self and
can be even more dangerous than usual. These two       one’s abstinence. Wife assault programs
truths promote a myth that alcohol consumption         accentuate the impact of one’s behavior on one’s
causes domestic violence.                              wife and children.” Another conflict is that
                                                       alcohol treatment providers believe that alcohol is
Several challenges arise when excessive alcohol use
                                                       a disease, and can be treated as such, as opposed
and domestic violence are both apparent. The first
                                                       to domestic violence programs, which emphasize,
challenge is that some “excuse the domestic abuse”
                                                       “violence is a choice.” While both issues must be
because they believe the batterer has less control
                                                       addressed, questions remain regarding treatment
over the abusive acts he commits
                                                                       methods and prioritization.
while drunk. The batterer blames his
behavior on the alcohol rather than                                    Every county attempting a
                                                                       community response to domestic
his own deliberate use of violence
as a means of controlling his               Despite         the        violence should assess alcohol
partner. This is a common notion           impairment caused           treatment programs to determine
that men who batter are intoxicated                                    how they address domestic
and are therefore, “out of control         alcohol
                                            by               and       violence issues. Does the program
when they batter.” Research does                                       address the safety of the battered
not support this belief. Despite the     drugs        , domestic       partner? Does the treatment
impairment caused by alcohol and
drugs, domestic violence remains a
                                                   violence            program refrain from labeling the
                                                                       survivor as co-dependant when
matter of choice.                         remains a matter of          she engages in strategic, safety-
This myth results in batterers                 choice    .
                                                                       seeking behavior? If the answer to
                                                                       these questions is "yes," then drug
receiving treatment that does not
                                                                       and alcohol treatment may be
adequately address intimate partner
                                                                       appropriate. If the answer is "no,"
violence. The batterer’s treatment takes precedence
                                                       confidential survivor safety-planning is the
over the survivor’s safety. Advocates for battered
                                                       appropriate response.
women express concern about alcohol treatment for
batterers. “They fear these perspectives may shift     When we, as a community, resolve to end
the responsibility for woman abuse from the abuser     domestic violence, we must identify the issues
to another factor, such as feelings about his family   that minimize and allow abuse to continue. This
of origin, problem solving skills, or                  includes drunkenness as an excuse for domestic
psychopathology. These factors could then be           violence. Because the goal of every community is
targeted for prevention or treatment, ignoring key     to promote the safety of the survivor and her
issues of gender and power.” More importantly,         children we must never accept the “substance
these therapeutic interventions may distract from      abuse excuse.”
focusing on survivor safety.
Many survivors accept drug and alcohol
interventions because they hope alcohol treatment
will stop violence. However, few programs exist
that appropriately address both issues. The two
fields have conflicting philosophies about treatment
                                                                                       FALL 2003
                                                                                             Page 3

                              Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault
D     rug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a
      sexual assault aided by the use of an
intoxicant to impair a person’s ability to give or
                                                        nausea, lower inhibitions, blackout, eight to
                                                        twelve hours of memory loss, dizziness, muscle
                                                        relaxation, headaches, slow psychomotor skills,
refuse consent. The victim may or may not be            aggression, drowsiness and confusion.
aware that he or she ingested the intoxicant. The        Rohypnol is a member of the Benzodiazepine
victim may also be unconscious during all or part of    family. Other members include Valium, Halcion
the sexual assault, thus the victim may have no         and other forms of sleeping pills and muscle
memory or only remember pieces of the assault.          relaxants. Benzodiazepines are often used as a
Due to rapid excrete of many intoxicants from the       substitute for Rohypnol because they are legal by
body and the fact that many victims may have little     prescription and therefore, easier to obtain.
or no memory of the assault, many DFSAs are
unreported.                                              Rohypnol, commonly called “the date-rape-
                                                        drug,” has received much media attention;
                      Alcohol                           therefore, many people associate it with drug-
 Alcohol is the most common drug used to facilitate     facilitated sexual assault. However, in the
sexual assault but often is overlooked as a drug used   northern states other drugs are more accessible;
in DSFA. Although alcohol, like other drugs, does       therefore, Rohypnol is not used as often to
not cause sexual assault, the desire to commit a        facilitat rape. Rohypnol is not legal in the United
sexual assault may cause alcohol consumption.           States but is legal in over 70 countries, including
Perpetrators also use alcohol to groom their victims.   Mexico.
Grooming techniques that may be used by                                      Ketamine
perpetrators include: targeting younger women who
have little experience with alcohol, ordering highly    Ketamine is typically a clear liquid in a small
alcoholic beverages or shots, spilling a drink just     pharmaceutical bottle. It can be dried into a light,
before it’s empty and then insisting on buying the      white powder.
victim another and not accepting no for an answer.      Ketamine is an anesthetic. Its primary use is in
                       GHB                              veterinary medicine, although sometimes it is
                                                        used as a general anesthetic for children and
 One of the most common drugs used in the               people of poor health.
northern states by perpetrators is gamma hydroxy
butyrate (GHB). GHB is typically a clear liquid          Side effects begin within five to twenty minutes
slightly thicker than water. GHB may be mixed with      and include but are not limited to: dissociation,
other drinks to conceal it. GHB is made illegally in    dreamy feeling, numbness, floating feeling,
“kitchen laboratories”; therefore, the potency may      hallucinations, difficulty moving, memory loss,
vary based on who is producing the substance.           increased heart rate, little tactile sense, vomiting
                                                        and unconsciousness.
Side effects begin within a half hour and include but
are not limited to: nausea, seizures, vomiting, coma,   Ecstasy
tremors, no gag reflex, dissociation, slow or rapid      Ecstasy is typically a small pill with a design
pulse and limited or no tactile sense. Ingesting        imprinted on it. These imprints include but are
GHB may be fatal. These effects can last four to six    not limited to: hearts, mushrooms, cartoon
hours. Most victims will suddenly wake up alert,        characters, animals, business logos, etc.
sober, acting as if nothing has happened but unable
to remember the past four to six hours.                  Side effects last two to eight hours and include
                                                        but are not limited to; dilated pupils, high pulse
                    Rohypnol                            rate, high body temperature, vision distortion,
 Rohypnol has a rapid onset, especially when used       high blood pressure, euphoric “rush,” teeth
with alcohol. Symptoms may persist for two to           grinding, enhanced senses (especially touch), and
three days and may include but are not limited to:      dehydration.
   STOP Newsletter
   Page 4

                               The STOP Grant’s History

            I    n 1994 President Clinton signed
                 the Violence Against Women Act
                (VAWA). This law dedicated
                                                    statewide conference on violence against women
                                                    issues. They also implemented a peer trainers’
                                                    program with areas of specialization in evidence
                    “...a firm commitment towards   collection, problems with mutual arrest policies
                    working to change the           and so on. The training program grew in 2001 to
            criminal justice system’s response to   include quarterly conference calls facilitated by
           violence that occurs when any woman      the STOP grant partners. The topics included
is threatened or assaulted.” Through VAWA           drug-facilitated sexual assault, advocacy and
Congress funded an initiative enabling each state   prosecution strategies when the batterer is a high
to implement a coordinated strategy. This           profile offender, and emergency contraception
initiative is known as the Services, Training,      after sexual assault.
Officers, and Prosecution (STOP) Grants             In 2003 the grant formula added services for
Program.                                            judges and court personnel. PCAR and PCADV
The Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and            were both charged with developing bench books
Delinquency (PCCD) administers STOP grants          and training for judges and court personnel.
in Pennsylvania. PCCD determined that               Every year of operation increases each STOP
domestic violence and sexual assault training       Grant County’s ability to respond appropriately
should be a mandatory component of all of the       to violence against women. PCAR and PCADV
STOP grants.                                        are proud to provide technical assistance and
Starting in 1997, Pennsylvania Coalition Against    training to counties that request help.
Domestic Violence (PCADV), the Pennsylvania
Coalition Against Rape (PCAR) and the               For more information about the assistance your county may
Pennsylvania District Attorney’s Institute          receive under the STOP Grant call PCAR at 800-692-7445
(PDAI) began providing training for police,         or PCADV at 888-235-3425. With your help we can all
prosecutors and advocates.                          work to achieve the goals of the Violence Against Women
In 2000, PCAR, PCADV and PDAI held a

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