Postwar and the 1920s and 30s.rtf

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					                              Post-war and the 1920s and 30s

·   ` known as a time of great change
    ·        politically
    ·        economically
    ·       culturally
    ·        technologically

    ·       Foreign Policy
            ·       The League of Nations
                    ·       followed Treaty of Versailles
                    ·       intended to keep the peace
                    ·       proposed by President of USA, Woodrow Wilson
                            ·        called for removal of economic barriers
                            ·        called for freedom of the seas
                    ·                general association of nations
                    ·       idea not welcomed by France, Britain, USA
                            ·        counterproductive to Imperialism
                    ·       idea welcomed by smaller nations, such as Canada

                     ·       Collective Security
                             ·         like a huge alliance system
                             ·         any aggressor nation would be subject to suppression by other nations
                                       ·        negotiation
                                       ·        sanctions
                                       ·        military blockade
                                                ·         but no army of its own: member nations to provide
                     ·       Drawbacks
                             ·         USA wouldn’t join
                                       ·        isolationists
                                                ·         not interested in what didn’t affect them directly
                             ·         Canada opposed article X about coming to aid of other nations
                                       ·        too much risk, especially since USA not involved
                                       ·        fear of another European war
                                       ·        Canada still under influence of Britain: French Canadians
                                                remembered conscription
                                       ·        Canada didn’t like reference to maintaining territorial integrity
                                                of existing political independence
                                                ·         Robert Borden protested in secret memorandum
                                                          ·         concern over Canadian autonomy
            ·        Formation of the League
                     ·       Canadian Parliament accepted Treaty of Versailles and membership in League
                     ·       a separate seat for Canada
                     ·       met at Geneva, Switzerland in 1920
                             ·         Canada interested in administrative role
                                       ·        also hoped to change article X
                                                ·         not revised
                                                ·         interpretive resolution carried
                                                          ·         states obligations
                                                                    ·        governed by proximity
                             ·         Canada elected to Council
                                       ·        soon demonstrated it was not a puppet to Britain
    ·        Failures of the League
             ·        many situations where the league should have acted and did not.
                      ·        Japan invaded Manchuria (part of China) in 1931
                               ·         League reluctant to interfere
                                         ·        did not use sanctions or military intervention
                                         ·        Canada supported inaction because of trade
                                                  agreements with Japan
                                         ·        Japan withdrew from League
                                                  ·         thereby not bound by rules
                      ·        Germany began to re-arm in 1933
                                         ·        Germany withdrew from League, thereby not bound
                                                  by rules
                      ·        Italy attacked Ethiopia in 1935
                               ·         League condemned the action
                                         ·        Britain and France wanted Italian support if another
                                                  war with Germany
                               ·         League imposed sanctions
                                         ·        continued supply of oil to Italy
                                                  ·         Canada supported



·   Political Change
    ·         Robert Borden out of Prime Minister's office in 1920, Arthur Meighen sworn in as Prime
              Minister
    ·         William Lyon Mackenzie King sworn in as Prime Minister in 1921
    ·         Canada asserted its independence from Britain
              ·        Canada joins League of Nations as independent nation

             ·        Chanak Crisis
                      ·        1922
                      ·      army in Turkey threatening neutral zone of Chanak, in the dardanelles
                             ·        Britain decides to go to war
                                      ·         said Canada also willing to go to war; hadn’t asked
                                                Canadians
                             ·        Prime Minister MacKenzie King, of Canada, said parliament
                                      would decide what Canada would do
                                      ·         Parliament said would not support Britain

             ·            Halibut Treaty
                      ·            1923
                      ·            Canada and USA had negotiated treaty on fishing
                      ·            British representative prepared to sign for Canada
                      ·            MacKenzie King announced to Britain that a Canadian would sign
                      ·            Canada persuaded US senate Canada would sign on its own behalf

             ·            King - Byng Crisis
                      ·           1926
                      ·           Prime Minister and Governor General clashed
                      ·           Prime Minister King lost election but formed a coalition to stay in power
                      ·           Prime Minister, losing power, called an election
                      ·           Governor General Byng wouldn’t dissolve parliament
                                  ·        gave opposition chance to hold office
                                           ·        lasted a short time
                                ·        election called
                                ·        Prime Minister King claimed British official should follow the
                                         advice of Prime Minister of Canada
                                         ·        got support of Canadian people
                                         ·        was re-elected

            ·       Balfour Report
                    ·        1926
                    ·        Imperial Conference
                             ·        Dominions requested recognition of their autonomy
                                      ·       special committee considered request
                                              ·        supported Dominions
                                                       ·       autonomous communities within
                                                               the Empire
                                                       ·       equal in status
                                                       ·       united by common allegiance to
                                                               Crown
                                                       ·       part of “Commonwealth of Nations”

            ·           Statute of Westminster
                    ·           1931
                    ·           formally turned British Empire into “British Commonwealth of Nations”
                    ·           established Canada’s right to make decisions in foreign affairs
                                ·         Canada could still not reform its constitution
                                          ·       British North America Act



·   Domestic Policy
    ·       women’s suffrage
            ·       women got federal vote in 1918
            ·       First female MP, Agnes Macphail, elected in 1921
            ·       other women elected at provincial level
            ·       Judge Emily Murphy challenged as judge because not a person
                    ·        Alberta court said she could be a judge
            ·       “Famous Five” challenged MacKenzie King to appoint a female senator
                    ·        required to be a person
                    ·        Supreme Court of Canada said women not persons
                    ·        appealed to Privy Council in Britain
                    ·        in 1929 Privy Council said women should be considered persons and
                             permitted to hold all public offices
                    ·        Corrine Wilson, Canada’s first female senator

    ·       Immigration
                    ·           tensions between groups of Canadians
                                ·         returning soldiers resented immigrants with jobs
                                ·         immigrants considered socialist revolutionaries
                                ·         Ku Klux Klan in prairies in 1924, spread to Ontario by 1928
                                          ·        disliked Catholics, Jews,
                                                   ·         anti-Jewish riots in Toronto in 1932
                    ·           restrictions on immigration
                                ·         preference given to British and Americans
                                ·         eastern Europeans had to have a job lined up
                                ·         exclusion of Asians
             ·        improved economy in 1925 led to acceptance of some immigrants
                      ·       mostly ended up in city slums in abject poverty

·   Aboriginal nations
    ·        Indian Act still governed them
    ·        reserves lost land to government
    ·        continued residential schools
    ·        over-harvesting of furs led to drop in prices
    ·        Williams Treaty in 1923
             ·         many lands in NWT but also some lands in Southern Ontario
    ·        formation of Native Brotherhood of British Columbia
    ·        formation of League of Indians of Canada
             ·         attempt to unite all Indians across Canada
             ·         leader accused of being communist
    ·        in 1930s reduced money to build schools and hospitals on reserves

·   Economic Policy
    ·      permitted buying of stocks “on margin”
           ·        many invested in stocks after 1927
    ·      1920s - general optimism about economy
           ·        predictions by banks about prosperous future
                    but
                    ·          wheat prices began to fall in 1927
                    ·          decreased demand for newsprint
                    ·          slowed economy in USA
    ·      overall economic instability internationally
           ·        result of inability of Germany to pay war debt to Britain and France
           ·        Britain couldn’t afford to lend money
    ·      Stock Market Crash, October 1929
           ·        more than just a correction
           ·        a few investors lost millions of dollars
           ·        many small investors lost large amounts
           ·        recession then depression then The Great Depression
                    ·          fewer jobs
                    ·          less to spend on goods
                    ·          overstock of products
                    ·          farmers hit hard
                               ·          drop in price of wheat
                               ·          mechanization led to good harvest, glut on market
                               ·          drought from 1928
                               ·          dust storms
                                          ·        fertile topsoil blew away
                               ·          grasshoppers
                    ·          Atlantic fisheries couldn’t export --- jobs cut
                    ·          pulp and paper production dropped -- jobs cut
                    ·          mining cut back --- jobs cut
                    ·          railway construction stopped -– jobs cut
                    ·          reduced sale of farm implements – jobs cut
                    ·          reduced sale of automobiles – jobs cut
                    ·          reduced demand for steel – jobs cut
                    ·          businesses failed – jobs cut
                    ·          married women turned away when seeking jobs
                    ·          women asked to leave jobs to let married men have them
·   economy believed by politicians to be temporary
    ·      unemployed went on pogey or the dole or relief
           ·        money given by government
                    ·         those on it felt ashamed
                    ·         could not own anything of value
                    ·         received food vouchers
    ·      Federal government slashed government spending – jobs cut
           ·        MacKenzie King rejected giving relief payments to
                    provinces
                    ·         wouldn’t give 5 cents to a Tory government
                    ·         Provinces and Municipalities payed for relief
                              by cutting jobs
    ·      Prime Minister R. B. Bennett passed Unemployment Relief
           Act, 1930, but also felt relief to be a provincial responsibility
           ·        by 1932 one third of workforce unemployed
           ·        government established Unemployment Relief
                    Camps
                    ·         under Department of National Defence
                    ·         housed mostly young single men
                    ·         in isolated areas
                    ·         construction of roads and airfields, and
                              make-work projects
                    ·         low wages, poor food
                              ·          men rebelled in B.C.
                              ·          On To Ottawa Trek
                                         ·         rode trains east toward
                                                   Ottawa
                                         ·         stopped at Regina by
                                                   RCMP
                                                   ·          leaders met
                                                              Bennett, but
                                                              dismissed
                                                   ·          riots in Regina
                                                   ·          one man dead
                                                   ·          130 trekkers
                                                              arrested
                                                   ·          many injured
                    ·         government afraid of agitators and
                              communists
                              ·          communism outlawed in 1931
                                         ·         leader of Communist Party
                                                   of Canada, Tim Buck,
                                                   jailed for two years
                              ·          foreigners threatened with
                                         deportation

    ·        Bennett’s New Deal
             ·        Package of promised reforms, dependent on re-
                      election (which didn’t happen)
    ·        Rowell-Sirois Commission recommended new federal-
             provincial relations
             ·        federal government take over relief payments
             ·        provincial taxation restricted
    ·        New Political Parties
             ·       Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
                     ·          socialist movement established in 1932
                     ·          in Saskatchewan
                     ·          farmers and labour and middle class
                     ·          led by J.S. Woodsworth
                     ·          Regina Manifesto
                                ·         proposed to replace capitalist system
                                ·         proposed public works projects
                                ·         proposed public ownership of key industries
                                ·         proposed national minimum wage
                     ·          won five seats in federal parliament
             ·       Social Credit
                     ·          in Alberta
                     ·          considered capitalism wasteful
                     ·          “if people have money they will spend it”
                     ·          established 1935 by William Aberhart
                                ·         promised people $25 a month for necessities
                                ·         couldn’t get federal money so issued its own notes
                                ·         federal government challenged right of province to issue its
                                          own currency
             ·       Unione Nationale
                     ·          in Quebec
                     ·          nationalist French-Canadian Party
                     ·          formed in 1936 by Maurice Duplessis
                                ·         claimed English minority was cause of economic hardship
                                ·         kept power through government favours




·   Cultural Change
    ·        Increased Urbanization
             ·         rural / urban balance tipped in 1931
             ·         slums
                       ·         poverty
                       ·         pollution
                       ·         health problems
                       ·         moral problems
             ·         Rural shrinkage
                       ·         farms more specialized
                       ·         farms larger
                       ·         farms less self-sufficient
    ·        Industrialization
             ·         exploitation of natural resources
                       ·         hydro-electricity
                       ·         pulp and paper
                       ·         mining
                       ·         oil
             ·         American investment
                       ·         goods exported to USA
              ·        money borrowed from American banks and firms
              ·        branch plants of American companies set up in Canada
·   Prohibition
    ·         alcohol production and consumption banned in Canada during WW1
              ·        prevent use of grain needed to feed soldiers
              ·        aim of Women’s Christian Temperance Union
                       ·          arrests for drunkenness dropped 93 percent in Calgary
              ·        still available by medical prescription
                       ·          abused
              ·        available from illegal sources
                       ·          bootleggers
    ·         incomplete after 1921, some places “dry” others not
              ·        alcohol consumption and production regulated by government
    ·         continued in USA until 1933
              ·        Canadians supplied Americans with illegal alcohol
                       ·          Rum Runners
                                  ·         anywhere you could cross the border undetected
                                            ·       1000 islands
                                            ·       Windsor
                                            ·       Cornwall
                                            ·       prairies
                                            ·       east and west coasts

·   Entertainment
    ·        Fads
             ·        miniature golf
             ·        roller-skating
             ·        board games (Monopoly)
             ·        contract bridge
             ·        Golf
    ·        Radio
             ·        Canadian Broadcasting Corporation founded 1932
                      ·       to protect culture against American influence
             ·        voice and music broadcasts
                      ·       listened with earphones, later speakers in wooden cabinets
                      ·       required “Private Receiving Station Licence” to help pay for
                              CBC
                      ·       both Canadian and American content
                      ·       broadcasts were live
                      ·       inclusion of advertising after 1925
                              ·         soap operas actually advertised soap
             ·        reduced feelings of isolation
             ·        developed “common culture”
    ·        Film
             ·        silent movies
                      ·        music provided by in-house piano
                      ·        subtitles indicated location and “voice”
                      ·        rise of “personalities”

             ·        Talking movies
                      ·        included voice and music on the film track; after 1927
                      ·        personalities
                               ·        some made transition to “talkies”, some didn’t
                 ·       some Canadians who moved to Hollywood
        ·        Animation
                 ·       Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie, by Disney, 1928
                 ·       Snow White, by Disney,
        ·        Formation of National Film Board of Canada, 1939
                 ·       to interpret Canada to Canadians and other nations
        ·        Newsreels
                 ·       shown ahead of the main feature

    ·   Painting
        ·        Group of Seven established 1920
                 ·         landscape painters
                           ·          used bold colours and strong brush strokes
                                      ·         un-European style
                                      ·         painted in Algonquin and Algoma;
                                                Canadian Shield
·       Print
        ·        Magazines popular
                 ·         Maclean’s
                 ·         Chatelaine
                 ·         Readers Digest
                 ·         Canadian Home Journal
        ·        Novels written about the hardships and bleak loneliness of
                 Canada
        ·        Newspapers
                 ·         content contests increased circulation
                 ·         sensational headlines
                 ·         comic strips
                           ·          Moon Mullins
                           ·          Winnie Winkle
                           ·          Little Orphan Annie
    ·   Sports
        ·        interest in spectator sports
                 ·         there was a Western Canada Hockey league
                           ·          teams in Saskatoon, Regina, Calgary,
                                      Edmonton, Vancouver, Victoria
                 ·         Hockey Night in Canada first broadcast 1923
                 ·         First NHL game outside Canada (Toronto vs. Boston)
                           in 1924
                 ·         baseball popular in small towns
                 ·         first participation in Olympic Games in 1920s
                 ·         first women’s Olympic teams in 1928
                 ·         College football popular
    ·   Music
        ·        Jazz
        ·        Big Bands
        ·        Swing
    ·   Fashion for women
        ·        The Flapper look
                 ·         “boyish”
                           ·          short hair
                           ·          straight hanging waistline
                           ·          bare arms
                                                ·          cloche hat, later wide brimmed
                                                ·          rising hemline
                              ·        The “30's fashions
                                       ·        waist returned to mid-figure for women
                                       ·        hemlines fell and rose
                                       ·        full-skirted look
                                       ·        slacks worn for sports or around the home only

·   Technological Change
    ·       Electrification
            ·         Appliances made house work “easier”
                      ·         washing machines
                      ·          refrigerators
                      ·         floor polishers
                      ·         Gramophones
                      ·         improved radios
                      ·         doorbells
                      ·         telephones
                      ·         toasters
    ·       Flight
            ·         American Charles Lindbergh flies solo across Atlantic, 1927
            ·         Canadian North opened up by bush pilots in bush planes
                      ·         Noorduyn Norseman
                      ·         DeHaveland Beaver
            ·         Mercy flights
                      ·         “Wop” May and Vic Horner flew serum to diphtheria stricken Vermillion
                                Bay
            ·         Man hunts
                      ·         “Wop” May located the Mad Trapper Albert Johnson
            ·         Air Mail 1924
            ·         Trans-Canada Airlines established 1937



    ·       Automobiles
            ·      used for a variety of purposes
            ·      extended the average person’s “world”
            ·      improved models
                   ·         closed cars
                   ·         windshield washers
                   ·         heaters
                   ·         electric start
                   ·         increased expense to operate
            ·      use led to paving of roads and highways
            ·      led to factories to produce replacement parts
            ·      development and spread of service stations
            ·      increase in tourism
                   ·         cottages
                   ·         lodges




    ·       Products
    ·       Linoleum
    ·       Rayon
    ·       Pablum
            ·         cereal for infants
    ·       Kraft (strong) paper for containers


·   Medicine
    ·       Insulin discovered by Dr. Banting and Dr. Best as treatment for diabetes

				
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