Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei by Perendale

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The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has widely replaced Penaeus monodon as the cultured species. One of the reasons for this change is the fact that L. vannamei can be cultured in higher densities and with a lower exchange of water, which increases the bio-security.

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									                                              July | August 2010
Feature title: Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture
                      of Litopenaeus vannameih
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
 F: Mineral premix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Phosphate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mineral salts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for optimal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     growth




                                       Inclusion of a mineral
                               premix for low-salinity culture
                                   of Litopenaeus vannamei                                                                                            A worldwide leader in phosphate creativity                                                          www.prayon.com
                                                                                                                                                      PRAYON S.A. - 144, rue J. Wauters - 4480 Engis - Belgium - Tel: +32 4 273 93 15 - Fax: +32 4 275 68 36 - Email: FMartens@prayon.be

                         by Eric De Muylder of Belgium; Leon Claessens of The Netherlands and Frederic Martens of Belgium




T
            he white shrimp Litopenaeus              more difficul-
            vannamei has widely replaced             ties to uptake
            Penaeus monodon as the                   macro-miner-
            cultured species. One of the             als from the
reasons for this change is the fact that             water.
L. vannamei can be cultured in higher                    It     has                                                                                  Rising feed                  Escalating                Opportunistic               Environmental                        Low Shrimp
densities and with a lower exchange of               been shown                                                                                          cost                  fish meal price                diseases                     impact                            & fish prices
water, which increases the bio-security.             that inclusion
                                                     of these min-
    L. vannamei is a euryhaline species and          erals through
can be cultured in salinities from 0 to 50ppt,       the feed can
although the best growth is obtained in
salinities between 10 and 25ppt.
    In lower salinity culture, there is an
                                                     be a solution.
                                                         However,
                                                     leaching of
                                                                                Leaching of selected minerals in different diets                        Tired of hearing only bad news ?
                                                                                                                                                                                  Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations …
osmotic pressure between the shrimp body             these miner-
and the surrounding water, resulting in auto-        als, which are often highly water soluble           Samples of feed were put in water                                and the most difficult one to reduce when ingredient prices are rising …
matic water uptake mainly through gills and          reduces this option.                             with 0ppt salinity and 25°C for one hour.
intestine. With lower salinity the shrimp face           Therefore, a mix of specific minerals was    The minerals in the feed were analysed
                                                     developed which shows increased retention        before and after leaching and corrected for
    Table 1: Apparent digestibility of selected      in the pellets and is available for the shrimp.A moisture content and overall leaching. A       Performance                 Preservation                   Health and                   Feed and                            Sensory
    minerals K and P in different diets              growth trial confirms that shrimp show good      reference diet, (0) without added minerals,    Enhancement                & Stabilization                 Well-Being                  Food Safety                        Improvement
     Diet            ADC P               ADC K       growth even at low salinities when minerals      was also analysed to have an idea of the
                                                     are added in the feed.                           retention of minerals from the other ingre-     AQUAGEST®            maximizes digestibility and feed utilization efficiency
                                                                                                      dients. This gave a retention percentage for
         0           94,99%               99,85%                                                                                                      AQUABITE
                                                     Leaching of minerals                             each mineral for each sample, which can be
                                                                                                                                                                   ®
                                                                                                                                                                           enhances palatability and appetite
         4           96,46%               99,93%     from feed pellets                                seen in Graph 1.
                                                                                                                                                      SANACORE® GM improves growth and productivity by promoting                                        applying nature for a healthy and sustainable future
         6           96,74%               99,93%         In the first experiment, 12 diets were          It is clear that leaching of minerals                             a healthy gut microflora
       10            99,46%               99,98%     produced with a different mix of minerals.       is especially important for Na and K,
                                                     98 percent of the ingredients used are the       although we can see that some samples
       12            99,63%               99,98%                                                                                                      info.aqua@nutriad.net • www.nutriad.net
                                                     same and two percent minerals were added.        show a higher retention than others.


                                                   12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 2010                                                                                              July-august 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13
  F: Mineral premix                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           F: Feature
  Table 2: Growth results during week 1 and 2                                       Table 3: Growth results during week 3 and 4 with lower feeding frequency
                                   average weight                 total                                                average weight                     total       Solubility and digestibility                      lower salinity anymore, maybe because             10ppt and lower salinity, which confirms
                                                                                                                                                                          The lower leaching rate (higher reten-        shrimp adapted to this condition. The best        earlier results of leaching and digestibility.
                                                                  Growth                                                                                 Growth
                                                                                   salinity      feed         day 14        day 21        day 28        (g/week)
                                                                                                                                                                      tion) could be the result of a lower solubil-     growth was obtained with diet number              Based on these results a special mineral
salinity      feed         start        day 7       day 14       (g/week)
                                                                                                                                                                      ity of the mineral; which could affect the        three.                                            premix was developed jointly by companies
                                                                                                                                                                      digestibility of this minerals for the shrimp.       For week five and six the feeding fre-         Prayon and CreveTec.
   10 ppt             1       6,72         8,57         10,05          1,67          10 ppt              1       10,05         11,68          12,82            1,39       Therefore, the apparent digestibility was     quency was further lowered to only two
                                                                                                                                                                      tested for some selected growth trials. It        times per day.
   10 ppt             2       6,83         8,62         10,76          1,97          10 ppt              2       10,76         12,20          13,12            1,18   is clear from Table 1 that for all diets, the        To understand the influence of leaching
                                                                                                                                                                      digestibility of selected minerals is not the     on growth, the feed for the three replicates
   10 ppt             3       6,64         8,21          9,79          1,58          10 ppt              3         9,79        11,24          12,44            1,33
                                                                                                                                                                      problem.                                          in tank number one was treated before               more   inFormation:
   10 ppt             4       7,27         9,16         10,83          1,78          10 ppt              4       10,83         11,74          13,02             1,1                                                     feeding: Four nets received normal feeds;           Frederic Martens
                                                                                                                                                                      Material and methods                              four nets received feeds which were first           Prayon SA, Rue J Wauters 144
    5 ppt             1       6,27         7,99          9,78          1,75            4 ppt             1         9,78        11,05          11,97             1,1       From the leaching experiment, the most        soaked in fresh water for one hour before           4480 Engis, Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                      promising combinations were used for a            feeding and four nets received feeds which          Email: fmartens@prayon.be
    5 ppt             2       5,21         6,86          8,64          1,72            4 ppt             2         8,64        10,06          11,38            1,37                                                                                                         Tel: +32 4 2739310
                                                                                                                                                                      feed trial. Four diets were produced on           were first soaked in tank water (10ppt) for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Website: www.prayon.com
    5 ppt             3       6,31         7,49          9,18          1,44            4 ppt             3         9,18        10,64          12,16            1,99   a small pellet mill with a diameter of two        one hour before feeding (see table 4).
                                                                                                                                                                      millimeters.                                         There was a clear influence of leaching          Eric De Muylder
    5 ppt             4       6,47         8,17         10,00          1,77            4 ppt             4       10,00         11,50          12,34            1,17       Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were            on growth, indicating that leaching of nutri-       CreveTec
                                                                                                                                                                      imported from Thailand and raised to two          ents is an imported factor in the growth            Email: eric@crevetec.be
   10 ppt     average         6,87         8,64         10,36          1,75          10 ppt      average         10,36         11,71          12,85            1,25                                                                                                         Website: www.crevetec.be
                                                                                                                                                                      grams. They were then transferred to the          of shrimp. Leaching for one hour in 10ppt
    5 ppt     average         6,06         7,63          9,40          1,67            4 ppt     average           9,40        10,81          11,96            1,28   CreveTec-AFT Research station in Venray           water reduces the growth by 15 percent              Leon Claessens
                                                                                                                                                                      and divided over 20 nets (volume 150L) in         and leaching in fresh water reduces growth          Aquaculture Farming Technology
 average              1       6,49         8,28          9,91          1,71         average              1         9,91        11,36          12,39            1,24   two separate tanks. Shrimp were acclima-          by 33 percent.                                      Email: info@aquaculture-ft.com
                                                                                                                                                                      tised for several weeks to a lower salinity.                                                          Website: www.aquaculture-ft.com
 average              2       6,02         7,74          9,70          1,84         average              2         9,70        11,13          12,25            1,28
                                                                                                                                                                          Each tank is connected to a biofloc           Week one to six – overall
 average              3       6,48         7,85          9,49          1,51         average              3         9,49        10,94          12,30            1,41   reactor to control water quality. This way,       performance (see table 5).
                                                                                                                                                                      the water quality is equal for all nets. One       • Growth is negatively affected by lower
 average              4       6,87         8,67         10,42          1,78         average              4       10,42         11,62          12,68            1,13                                                                           EZ Artemia IAF2:Layout 1 6/16/2010 3:53 PM                          Page 1
                                                                                                                                                                      tank was running on a salinity of 10ppt and          salinity.
                                                                                                                                                                      the other on 5ppt. Each diet was used in           • The best
                                                                                                                                                                      three replicates for the 10ppt salinity and          growth was
  Table 4: Growth results during week 5 and 6: influence of leaching                 Table 5: Overall growth results                                                  two replicates for the 5ppt salinity.                observed           Is artemia throwing you for a loop?
  of pellets before feeding                                                                                                                                               Each net is equipped with a belt feeder.         with diet
                                                                                                                average weight               total         FCR
                                     average weight                total                                                                                              Feeding was adjusted daily to an estimated           number
                                                                  Growth                                                                                              growth and percentage of biomass.                    two for 10
                                                                                                                                          Growth
leaching       feed        day 28        day 35       day 42     (g/week)          salinity      feed          start        day 42       (g/week)                                                                          and lower
                                                                                                                                                                      Results                                              salinities.
                                                                                                                                                                          During the first two weeks (see table 2)
       no             1        11,16       12,43            14         1,42         10 ppt              1         6,72         15,10              1,4          2,01   the shrimp were fed continuously through          Conclusion
                                                                                                                                                                      a belt feeder. Growth was good for all                Growth
       no             2        12,36       13,36        14,61          1,13
                                                                                    10 ppt              2         6,83         15,28            1,41           2,06   replicates. Average growth loss between           and     survival
       no             3        10,77         11,7       12,93          1,08                                                                                           10ppt and 5ppt was 4.3 percent.                   are negatively             New Syn th e ti c Ar t e mia
                                                                                    10 ppt              3         6,64         14,33            1,28           2,12
                                                                                                                                                                          The most promising diets were diet            affected      by                                      for Shrimp from Z1 to PL
       no             4        13,04       14,31        15,73          1,35                                                                                                                                                                          New
                                                                                    10 ppt              4         7,27         15,02            1,29           2,29   number two and four. For diet four                lower salinity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Formula
    0 ppt             1        13,69       14,46        15,62          0,97                                                                                           there was no growth diffference between           of pond water                  &
                                                                                    5-2 ppt             1         6,27         13,83            1,26           2,23   salinities.                                       and by decreas-            Smaller
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Size
    0 ppt             2        13,95       14,69        15,59          0,82                                                                                               These results show that Litopenaeus           ing      feeding
                                                                                    5-2 ppt             2         5,21         12,55            1,38            1,6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                �    Up to 100% artemia replacement in shrimp trials
                                                                                                                                                                      vannamei can easily be grown at good              frequency.                              �    No hatching or processing
    0 ppt             3        13,18       14,38        14,94          0,88
                                                                                    5-2 ppt             3         6,31         13,63            1,22           2,09
                                                                                                                                                                      growth rates in lower salinities if minerals          The addi-                           �    Shortens larval culture cycle up to 3 days
    0 ppt             4        12,99       13,75        14,38           0,7                                                                                           are added in the diet.                            tion of various                         �    Contains VpakTM and probiotics for stronger PL’s
                                                                                    5-2 ppt             4         6,47         14,07            1,27           2,28       For week three and four the feeding           minerals      in                        �    Completely Bi-secure
  10 ppt              1        13,60       14,47        15,68          1,04                                                                                                                                                                                                                       T
                                                                                                                                                                      frequency was lowered to only four times          feeds     makes                                                       50-2wo Size
                                                                                    10 ppt       average          6,87         14,94            1,35           2,12   per day. This will result in slower feed          it possible to                                                       300 00 Mic s!
  10 ppt              2        13,04       14,66        15,65          1,32                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -500       r
                                                                                                                                                                      uptake, longer interaction of feed and water      still     obtain                                                                Mic ons
                                                                                    5-2 ppt      average          6,06         13,52            1,24           2,05                                                                                                                                         ron
  10 ppt              3        13,36       13,77        15,13          0,89                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     s
                                                                                                                                                                      and higher leaching of minerals from the          growth in those
                                                                                   average              1         6,49         14,46            1,33           2,12   feed. The salinity of tank number two was         conditions.
  10 ppt              4        13,02       13,89        14,97          0,98
                                                                                                                                                                      lowered from five to four ppt.                        Diet number
       no      average         11,83       12,95        14,32          1,25        average              2         6,02         13,92              1,4          1,83       Growth was affected negatively by the         two seems to                                        Zeigler Bros., Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    P. O. Box 95, Gardners, PA 17324
                                                                                                                                                                      lower feeding frequency and dropped to            be the best                                           717-677-6181
    0 ppt      average         13,45       14,32        15,13          0,84        average              3         6,48         13,98            1,25            2,1                                                                                                        www.zeiglerfeed.com
                                                                                                                                                                      1.25g/week (see table 3).                         source of min-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Product of USA
  10 ppt       average         13,25         14,2       15,36          1,06        average              4         6,87         14,55            1,28           2,28       There was no negative influence of            erals in both


                                                      14 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 2010                                                                                                                   July-august 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 15
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                                                             Inclusion of a mineral
                                                                    premix for low-
                                                                     salinity culture
                                                                         of Litopenaeus vannamei

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