Microsoft PowerPoint hjgRespCruisinginAntarctica.pdf

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					International Centre for Responsible Tourism
                                                   Further Information

                                                     Daniela H Liggett 2009
 What would Responsible Tourism                      Tourism in the Antarctic (VDM)
 in Antarctica look like? -                          Desk research on environmental
                                                     monitoring
                                                     Ross Klein
       Prof. Harold Goodwin


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What is different about
Antarctica?                                        Tourism in Antarctica
1. Cruising issues                                 1956 first tourist flight to Antarctic Peninsular
2. Conservation issues – aesthetics of             1958 first cruise Argentina naval transport vessel
   wilderness                                      1984 first hotel the Chilean Temiente Marsh base
3. It is cold there                                has a 100 bed hotel
4. It is remote (but not very)                     Small ship expedition cruising has opened the
5. It is dangerous                                 way for larger vessels.
6. There is no local population – except the       Large ships Ocean Princess with 350 pax
                                                   1990/1in 2007/8 10 ships with over 500 pax
   scientists, military and support staff –
   they take recreation.                           2007/8 53 ships sailed in Antarctica, 300+ trips
7. It is a global commons reliant on self-         Prohibition has never been seriously discussed
   regulation.

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                                                    Why are we addressing this?
                                                     Beginning to frame a research agenda and a
                                                     methodology.
  Port states
                                                     Polar Regions Unit FCO “development of a
  Flag States                                        comprehensive, consistent and robust
  Gateways                                           framework to manage Antarctic tourism
                                                     activities.”
                                                     Polar Unit defining tourism as “all forms of
                                                     recreational activity in Antarctica” commercial
                                                     tourism and “recreational activities of national
                                                     programme personnel”



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                                                                                                            1
Responsible Tourism in
Antarctica
                                                   The consumer ….

1.Minimising negative environmental                  “We heard that there were worries that there
  impacts                                            are too many ships going to the Antarctic, and
                                                     that they may be stopped. We thought we’d
4.Making a positive contribution to the              better go now before it is too late”
  conservation of natural and cultural               Bridge classes
  heritage                                           Europe-Buenos Aires-Ushuaia- Stanley- South
5.Greater understanding of the issues                Georgia – Antarctic Peninsula – Chile – Europe
6.Access for people with disabilities                No landing in Antarctica. 14 days £2,000



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                                                   Polar Regions Unit Principles
Concerns from guides                               1. Tourism should have “no more than a minor
                                                      or transitory impact on the environment”
                                                   2. Decisions should be made on “pragmatic,
 Handling larger groups                               precautionary and risk assessment basis”
 Brushing passenger clothing to                    3. All tourism activities should be “regulated in a
 limit seed transfer                                  proactive and consistent way”
                                                   4. Future tourism growth “monitored, managed
 Clustering of vessels spoils guest                   and controlled”
 experience of wilderness                          5. Priority for enrichment and education of
                                                      visitors, scientific research accorded priority
 Open lifeboats of MV Explorer
                                                   6. Systematic environmental monitoring of sites
                                                      visited by tourists.

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Tourism grows and diversifies
 Expedition ships       Yachting,
 Over flights           kayaking,
 Larger cruises         surfing,
 Land expeditions       skiing,
 Fly ins with and       helicopter flights,
 without                mountaineering/cl
 overnights             imbing,
                         snow board,
                        scuba diving and
                        marathon running

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                                                                                                              2
                                                            Perceived risks PRUnit
 Pressure for Growth
                                    Supply side              Non-IATTO operators
    Demand side
                                    – Technology and         Cumulative impacts at heavily visited
     – Combines                                              sites
       cruising and                   capacity
       great scenery                – Commercial             Larger cruise only vessels
     – Global icon                    opportunity            Hazardous and damaging activities
                                       • Companies           Development of land based tourism
     – See it while you
                                       • Science             infrastructure
       can
                                    – Political
     – TV programmes                                         Tourism at scientific bases
                                       • Population
     – Unique honey                                          Fly-ins and overflights
                                       • Structures
       pot

                                                       13                                                  14




Norwegian Sun and
Star Princess
                                                            Safety

                                                             Waiting for another Titanic?
                                                             Economist 12 February 2009 citing
                                                             Argentinean and Chilean officials
                                                             Uncharted Oceans
                                                             Ice inexperienced captains
                                                             Not ice strengthened


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          Aerovias DAP BAE 146
          Antarctic shuttle plane
                                                            Management Strategies
                                                             Limit tourism numbers?
                                                             Limit types of activities?
                                                             Specific activity prohibitions?
                                                             Limit non-governmental visitors to specific
                                                             regions?
                                                             Agreed start and end dates for Antarctic
                                                             tourism?
                                                             What should be the balance of mandatory
                                                             and self-regulation?
                                                             Certification?
                                                             Legally binding instrument on Antarctic
                                                             shipping through the IMO?


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                                                                                                                3
 Avoiding the Drake Passage                                         Regulatory Issues
                                                                    “There continues to be a significant difference
                                                                    between the management of tourism activities
                                                                    between Treat Parties.” PRU
                                                                    Limited information sharing
                                                                    Site Guidelines
                                                                    Cumulative environmental impacts?
                                                                    Certified standard for zodiac operations?
                                                                    Mandatory obligation to have ice masters on
                                                                    board?
                                                                    “greater monitoring and enforcement on
                                                                    tourism activities”
 Chilean base (Presidente Frei) on King George Island
                                                                    Mandatory limits on size of cruise ships and
                                                                    numbers landed (US

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Complex Regulation
                                                                    More regulation?
 Treaty Party and non-Treaty Party states and
 reporting choice
 Consensus: Regulations only legally binding                         Marpol                               Liggett’s Research
                                                                     International Convention for the
 once ratified by the 28 ATPS                                        Prevention of Pollution from Ships
 No enforcement mechanism –bureaucratically                          Currently south of 60°
                                                                                                          “The dominant
 or on the ground                                                    ships have to use marine             feeling is that
 No sanctioning mechanism                                            gas oil.                             self-regulation
                                                                     From 2011 will have to
 Even enforcing maximum site visitor numbers
                                                                     be used for entire round
                                                                                                          has to be backed
 not possible                                                        trip – Saga, Swan                    by governmental
 Companies move registration                                         Hellenic and Voyages of              regulation ….”
 Flags of Convenience                                                Discovery pulling out
 Scientific stations taking groups

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What of the Future?                                                  5m distance? (from tour
  Helmut Rohde and Partners have a plan for Project Oasis            company publicity
  science – tourism – environmental complex Vestfold Hills           brochure)
  Australia Antarctic Treaty territory 344 visitors
  Chile and Argentina Adventure Network
  International/Antarctic Logistics and Expeditions maintain
  a campsite at Patriot Hills from which they operate a land
  based programme

1. Increasing numbers and new operators
2. Development of permanent land based facilities
   – accommodation and site hardening
3. Increased shipping and flights
4. Blurring of distinction between government and
   commercial activity
5. Fly-ins with stopovers and activities

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