Map 2.doc by longze569

VIEWS: 2,168 PAGES: 117

									                                               Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                                                    Ewa Lewandowska, Sławomira Kuśmierz, Michał Maludziński, Leszek Baj

                                                                                    EUROPEAN LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS
                            Note:                                   Introduction – the roots of European languages
                                                                    1. Indo-Europeans
 papers submitted have been shortened. Majority of pic-
                                                                    It is not exactly known, how the family of Indo-European languages spread into Europe and western
 tures [and tables] have been erased, too. If you wish to           Asia. Migrations and conquest may have caused this group to be present in central northern, south-
   recall the latter use the internet pages indicated as            eastern Europe as well as in the Near and Middle East1. There are several hypotheses about an event
                                                                    before the spread of Indo-European languages, that caused these movements of cultures and peo-
 Sources. A paper On national symbols will be displayed             ples.
                         separately.                                According to one of the hypotheses (called ―Pontic steppe hypothesis‖), the war-like culture called
                                                                    Battle-Axe or Kurgan spread through conquest of passive farming populations. The main proponent
To answer questions below combine different papers and              of this theory was Lithuanian-born American archeologist Maria Gimbutas. She suggested that horse-
                materials distributed earlier.                      riding warlike Kurgan had invaded Europe in the forth millennium BC and had given rise to secondary
                                                                    homeland of the Celtic, Italic, Germanic, Balto-Slavic Greek and other European branches, while
                                                                    conquests in the south and east produced Indo-European languages of India, Persia, Asia Minor,
                                                                    etc.2. Before the invasion of Kurgan Riders Europe was inhabited by agrarian tribes.
EUROPEAN LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS                        1                                               Map 1: Invasions of Indo-Europeans
                                                                                              Source: article ―March of the Titans…‖,
MULTILINGUAL COUNTRIES IN EUROPE                            9
                                                                    An alternative theory by British archaeologist C. Renfrew indicates a population wave (due the in-
THE BALKANS. THE BACKGROUND, THE WAR AND THE SPLIT         15       creasing carrying capacity of the farming lifeway) that flooded the hunter-gatherer groups speaking
THE FLEMISH-WALOON CONFLICT IN BELGIUM                     25       the non-Indo-European languages who inhabited Europe. He located the original homeland of Pre-
                                                                    Indo-Europeans in Anatolia (modern Turkey). In his vision of expansion a slowly-growing population
HUNGARY                                                    31       of farmers dispersed in Europe as early as 7000 BC3.
ITALY                                                      34       The Indo-Europeans who invaded (or dispersed in) Europe can be divided into four groups: [1] Celts,
THE SCANDINAVIAN NATIONS. THE LINKS. THE SPLIT. EGALITARIAN         [2] Germans, [3] Balts and [4] Slavs. They arrived to Europe in waves from 4000 BC to 500 BC. Their
APPROACH.                                                  38       original Homeland (according to booth ―Pontic steppe‖ and Renfrew hypotheses) was the Black Sea
                                                                    Basin. Some theories mention the sudden climatic changes after the Glacial age as a reason for the
SWITZERLAND - SWISS CONFEDERATION                          47       migrations of Indo-Europeans.
RELIGIONS IN EUROPE                                        53       In fact the climate changes may have had a little role in spreading of the farmers or post-neolithic
                                                                    warriors. Different processes could coincidentally have aided the spread of the Indo-European lan-
EDUCATION IN EUROPE                                        58
                                                                    guage family, at different times. Sudden climate change could have been the primary cause of migra-
EUROPEAN HOLIDAYS                                          62       tions of Indo-European-speaking neolithic farmers or horse riding warriors. 4
EUROPEAN ALCOHOLS                                          68                                       Map 2: Possible origin of Proto-Indo-Europeans
EUROPEAN CUISINE                                           81
                                                                    One of the first waves of Indo-Europeans who arrived in Europe were Celts or proto-Celts, for it is
FILM FESTIVALS IN EUROPE                                   87       difficult to define when Celts became a culture unto themselves 5. Around 15000 –1000 BC, the Celts
LIFE IN IBIZA                                              93       lived in an area which today is mostly in Eastern France. Until 600 BC Celts called Britanni occupied
                                                                    much of today‘s France, parts of Belgium and Holland, Britain and Spain. The names Brittany and
ORGANISED CRIME IN EUROPE                                  95       Britain are delivered from this group. The name Celts itself is much younger it comes from the world
TOURISM IN EUROPE                                         102       Keltoi, given to the Celtic tribes by Greeks. The Romans called Celts Galli or Gallus. The Celts Migrat-
WOMEN IN EUROPE                                           111       ing westwards from their original homeland found the area inhabited by Old Europeans. In most
                                                                    regions Celts assimilated with the indigenous inhabitants. In France and Spain they mixed with well
CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE                                      117

                                                                        Jonathan Adams, Marcel Otte ,‖Did Indo-European languages spread before farming?‖,
                                                                        Piotr Gąsowski‘s Indo-European Page:
                                                                        Piotr Gąsowski‘s Indo-European Page:
                                                                         Jonathan Adams, Marcel Otte ,‖Did Indo-European languages spread before farming?‖,
                                                                        Celts Historical Background,,
                                                                                                         Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
established Mediterranean population . The Celts of Eastern Europe being fragmented came under                                            As the Roman Empire began to unravel at the seams, the Slavs started moving westwards, first
the domination by the Germanic peoples. In medieval and modern times the Celtic tradition and                                             penetrating Balkan peninsula and then into central Europe. By 650 AD the Slav seized the coastline
languages survived in Brittany (Western France), Cornvall, Galicia (North Western Spain), Galatia                                         along the Adriatic Sea opposite Italy. They also later penetrated as far south as Turkey, where these
(Central Turkey), Wales, The Scotish Highlands, Isle of Man and Ireland, and to lesser extent in                                          elements were swallowed up into a larger mass occupying that country.
Norse/Celtic culture of Iceland7. From 1800 to 400 BC Celts in southern Germany and Austria devel-                                        2. Finno-Ugrian languages
oped two advanced metalworking, named after the places where their artifacts were found. These
cultures were Urnfield and Hallstatt8.                                                                                                    The Finno-Ugrian or Uralic language family includes a group of languages (mainly) in northern Eura-
                                                                                                                                          sia. (According to the traditional terminology, Uralic means both main branches of the language
In the first half of first millennium BC Gauls (of Celtic origin) from beyond the Alps began to pene-                                     family, the Finno-Ugrian and the Samoyedic languages, but some colleagues use "Finno-Ugrian" as a
trate the Northern Italy. In 8th century BC the tribe of Etruscans (who were of the Non-Indo-                                             synonym for "Uralic".)
European origin) began to take form in Central Italy. Already in the Copper Age the area of the Alban
Hills, to the south of the month Tiber, was inhabited by an Italic agricultural and pastoral tribe called                                 The greatest Finno-Ugrian languages are Hungarian (ca. 14 million speakers), Finnish (ca. 5 million)
Latini (possibly of the Celtic origin). And it was due to them9 in all probability, that Rome was founded                                 and Estonian (1 million). Other Finno-Ugrian languages are smaller, practically all of them more or
towards the middle of the 8th century BC on one of the numerous hills (the Palatine) in the marshy                                        less endangered. Some hypotheses have been made concerning the possible genetic relationship
depressions surrounding the river.                                                                                                        between Uralic and other language families (Altaic, Indo-European or even Basque, for example), but
                                                                                                                                          Finnish Uralicists at least take a very reserved attitude towards them.
The first group of Indo-Europeans to enter the Greek mainland were Mycenae10. They absorbed the
group of Old European Mediterranean types. Myceanean are regarded as the forerunners of the                                               Since language is not inherited genetically, linguistic relationship does not necessarily imply a genetic
classical Greek civilization. Another Indo-European tribe called Dorics invaded and destroyed the city                                    relationship between speakers (no more than there is, for example, between all the speakers of
of Mycenae 1100 BC. The later Greek language in the historical period divides itself into several                                         present-day Indo-European languages). The present-day peoples speaking Uralic languages do not
dialects which are largely mutually intelligible, but these are in turn replaced by politically dominant                                  share especially many genetic characteristics: there is no "Uralic race". Physically, and also culturally,
Athens with Attic Greek, the language of the culture from then on11.                                                                      most "Uralic peoples" have more in common with their neighbours (e.g. Finns with Swedes) than with
                                                                                                                                          each other13. The ways of living are very different, too: e.g. the Saami and the Nenets have tradition-
                                              Map 3: Indo-European tribes                                                                 ally supported themselves with reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing; most Uralic-speaking peoples
                                           Source:                                                   in Europe have been farmers; the Hungarians, in their earliest history, were horse nomads of the
The next wave of Indo-Europeans invading Europe were Germans. They settled in today‘s Denmark                                             steppe.
and southern Scandinavia and moved south to central Europe. By the 7 century BC they had begun a                                          All the Uralic languages originate from a common proto-language, but down the centuries, they have
division into many peoples. They did not call themselves Germans, the origin of the name is uncer-                                        branched off into separate offshoots. The precise origins and geographical range of Progo-Uralic
tain. Although the earliest mention of the Germans is by a Greek navigator who saw them in Norway                                         nevertheless remains a point of academic contention. Previously it was assumed that Proto-Uralic, or
and Jutland in the 4 century BC, their real appearance in history began with their contact (1 st century                                  Proto-Finno-Ugric, originated from a narrowly confinded region of eastern Russia. Linguistic differen-
BC) with the Romans. As the centuries passed the Germans became increasingly troublesome to the                                           tiation was believed to occur as these Proto-Uralic peoples migrated their separate ways. One of
Roman Empire. The Vandals in the west and the Ostrogoths in the east were the first to attack the                                         other theories postulates that the origins of Proto-Uralic are in continental Europe. The "contact
empire seriously. The Ostrogoths were a part of the Gothic people, often called the East Germanic,                                        theory," again, suggests that the proto languages of the language families of today developed as a
whose language (Gothic) was the first written Germanic language. The Goths apparently moved                                               result of convergence caused by close interaction between speakers of originally different languages.
south-eastwards from the Vistula River to the Balkans, then westwards across Europe12.                                                    However many linguists support the notion that the Uralic languages have so many points in common
                                       Map 4: Dispersion of Indo-Europeans                                                                in their basic structures - both in grammar and vocabulary - that these similarities cannot plausibly be
                                                  Source:                                             attributed to interaction between unrelated language groups across such a broad geographical range.
                                                                                                                                          Rather we must presume that they share a common point of origin whence they derive their charac-
The group of Indo-Europeans who settled closest to their original homeland were Slavs. The region
                                                                                                                                          teristic features and whence their geographical range began to expand: as it expanded, speakers of
where they settled first was today‘s Ukraine and Byelorussia. It was an ideal place for cereal farming,
                                                                                                                                          other languages who fell within its range presumably changed their original language in favour of
which encouraged the settlers to turn to agriculture rather than war or conquest. By 1000 BC they
started to move westwards, occupying territory around the Vistula River. Around 700 BC, the territory
occupied by Slavs was conquered by another Indo-European tribe, the Scythians who came from the                                           The origin of the Hungarian language is one of the several mysteries that surround the early history
south. By 100 BC, Scythians mastered the area, outfighting the agricultural Slavic farmers. By 200 BC                                     of the Magyars. For long it has been believed that Hungarian belongs to the Ugric branch of the
another Indo-European invaders, called Sarmatians began to replaced the Scythians as masters of                                           Uralic language family based on a relatively large number of words (~300-400) of Finno-Ugric origin
the Slavic lands. The Scythians were absorbed by new conquerors. In 600 BC an Indo-European tribe                                         in the language. Hungarian, like other Finno-Ugric languages is agglutinative, which means word
of Goths came from the Northern Europe and conquered the Sarmatians occupying Eastern Europe.                                             meanings are modified by adding different and multiple endings or suffixes to the words, rather than
                                                                                                                                          using prefixes like, for example, in English. On the other hand, several linguists believe that Hungar-
  ―Many of those Celtic/Mediterranean peoples in Spain were later to be occupied by Arabic Islamic armies during the first thousand
                                                                                                                                          ian is related to Turkic, rather than to Finno-Ugric languages. Turkic languages are also agglutinative,
years AD. Intermingling with the Arabic conquerors produced many people in Spain who are actually Celtic/Mediterraenian/Arabic            but they are classified into the Altaic language family. They form a sister group with the Finno-Ugric
mixes…‖ - ―March of the Titans…‖
                                                                                                                                          language family, and supposedly both groups originated from the same Ural-Altaic proto-language,
  ―March of the Titans…‖,
                                                                                                                                          although this idea has also been challenged. The most closely related language to Hungarian is spo-
  Windows on Italy – The Early Italic Tribes,
   ―March of the Titans…‖,
11                                                                                                                                        13
   William Harris ―The Indo-European background‖,,                                                        
12                                                                                                                                        14                                                                              
                                                                                               Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
ken on the eastern side of the Ural Mountain in western Sibiria by Khanty and Manshi people. Finnish,             in Spain.18
Estonian, and some other smaller languages within the Finno-Ugric language family are much more                   Catalonian history and culture is very different from that of the Spanish south: Catalonians don‘t
distantly related to Hungarian15.                                                                                 appreciate bull fighting, don‘t dance the flamenco, don‘t retain in their social life the feudal attitude
                                       Map 5: Indo-European Languages                                             found in other parts of Spain, and they don‘t think of themselves as Spaniards, but Catalonians first
                                      Source:                            and foremost. Catalonia is one of the richest regions in Spain. Catalonians are proud of their country
II. European languages and ethnic groups at present                                                               and try to show their independence in every aspect of life. Good example of such urge for independ-
                                                                                                                  ence are labels on the back of the cars showing its proprietor country of origin. In Catalonia it is often
1.The Romance languages area in Europe                                                                            not ―SP‖ but ―CAT‖. Although it is part of Spain, sometimes it is very hard to communicate in Spanish,
The Romance languages are spoken by about 600 million people across the globe. All of these lan-                  not because Catalonians don‘t speak this language, but because they just don‘t like to do it. At the
guages derive from Latin and came into being between 5th and 8th century. Latin was the official                  opening of the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992 the Catalonian flag was displayed and national
language of the Roman Empire. After brake up of this country in 5 th century, the Latin began to                  anthem was played before those of Spain.
evolve into different new languages.                                                                              Basque
Nowadays there are five national standard languages that are recognized including French, Spanish,                If considering main ethnic groups in this region, we can see that only the Basques who live in north-
Italian, Portuguese and Romanian (diagram 1). There are also several dialects/languages as well,                  ern Spain (map 6) and southern France (map 7) have different roots. The Basque language, euskara
such as Catalan, Occitan, Romansh, Galician, Corsican, Sicilian and Rhaeto-Romance, but language                  or euskera, is unique. Its origins are still unknown. Scholars have concluded that it predates the
status is accorded in different ways, and usually on cultural grounds.                                            migrations from the East, which brought the Indo-European languages into Europe some 3,000 years
The modern Romance languages have a high number of lexical overlap. French and Italian share                      ago.
89% lexical similarity, as do Spanish and Portuguese. (It should be noted that Sicilian is as different           The first written records for the Basques are from the Romans. At that time there were four tribes in
from standard Italian as Portuguese is from Spanish.). However, Spanish and Portuguese have bor-                  the Basque country, the Vascones, the Vardulos, the Caristios, and the Autrigones. The Romans
rowed from Arabic, French from Germanic, and Romanian from Slavic because of historical and geo-                  loosely ruled the region, yet with persistent rebellion. Also the Visigoths engaged in repeated wars
graphical reasons.16                                                                                              against the Basques, but never actually ruled them. So the Basques resisted domination from the
It is impossible to write about all ethnic groups and their languages in Europe because of its variety.           beginning of their history. Basque people have lived under centuries of semi-autonomous rule. During
Therefore only some of them would be described in this study.                                                     Franco's régime, however, this autonomy was drastically restricted. As a result, Basque nationalists,
                       Diagram 1: Simplified Proto-Indo-European language tree.                                   in conjunction with the newly-formed (1959) Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) began to carry out acts of
                                                                                                                  violence against a variety of targets.

        1.1. Iberian Peninsula                                                                                    Today the Basque Country has autonomy, its own tax system, police, parliament, regional govern-
                                                                                                                  ment and Basque language is taught in schools. About 650,000 people speak Basque language. But
Iberian Peninsula is dominated by Romance languages from the Ibero-Romance group of languages.                    terrorism became a serious problem in this region. Nationalists from ETA, whose goal is national
Two national languages – Portuguese and Spanish are widely spoken not only in these two countries,                liberation and self-determination, has dominated the society and instilled a constant fear in the citi-
but also in other parts of the world. Other languages evolved from the same base and are more or                  zens and the leaders of the country. The interesting thing is the fact that only about 5 to 10 % of the
less similar to Spanish, Portuguese, Italian or French. On the map 6 we can see location of several               population follow the same kind of nationalism as members of ETA.19
main languages and dialects. Galician (about 3,5 million speakers in Spain and Portugal) and Asturian
(100,000 first language speakers, plus 450,000 second language speakers able to speak or under-                           1.2.        Regions with Francophone domination
stand it) in north-western part of peninsula.                                                                     French is spoken by 51 million people in France as a first language. Total population in all countries
                                    Map 6: Languages on Iberian Peninsula                                         where French is spoken as a first language is estimated at 77 million, 128 million including second
                                                                                                                  language speakers. In Europe French is official language in France, Belgium (with Dutch and Stan-
                                                                                                                  dard German), Switzerland (with Standard German, Italian, Rhaeto-Romance), Luxembourg (with
Extramadurian spoken in Autonomous region of Extremadura in western Spain by 200,000 active                       Standard German and Luxembourgeois), Andorra (with Catalan-Valencian-Balear) and in Monaco.
speakers, plus 500,000 people able to use it, out of 1,1 million people in the ethnic group. Aragonese
                                                                                                                  In France there are several dialects which are widely spoken especially in the southern part of the
is spoken in the north-eastern part of Spain near the Pyrenees. The ethnic group of is estimated on 2
                                                                                                                  country, but generally everybody treats French as the first language.
million people, but there are only about 11,000 active speakers and additional 20,000 people use it as
second language. 17                                                                                               Dialects in France
Catalan                                                                                                           Provençal is spoken fluently by about 250,000 people in south-eastern France, but also by about 100
                                                                                                                  thousand people in Italy and 4,500 in Monaco. Regional French has a lot of Provençal influence. Most
Catalan language has 87% lexical similarity with Italian, 85% with Portuguese and Spanish, 76% with
                                                                                                                  Provençal speakers are over 50 years old. Regional pride and increasing status of Provençal as a
Rhaeto-Romance, 75% with Sardinian, 73% with Romanian. It is spoken in northern-eastern part of
                                                                                                                  literary language provoke strong demand for teaching in school and printing books in Provençal.
Spain, on Balearic Islands, in south France, it is official language in Andorra (with French). There are
                                                                                                                  Frederic Mistal, French poet and Provençal patriot, who wrote in Provençal, was given in 1904 the
about 6,4 million mother tongue speakers (1996), plus 5,000,000 second or third language speakers
                                                                                                                  Nobel Prize for Literature.

16                                                                                                                18                                                                
17                                                                                                                19                                                   
                                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Languedocien is a separate language from Provençal. About 10% of the population in the region                      strong influence of the army and schooling systems, the dialect spoken in Tuscany had spread
speaks this language fluently, but usually it is used as a second language to talk to family and close             throughout the country as the common language. Despite attempts to standardize, the majority of
friends. It is mainly spoken in rural communities by people over 50. In the past there were some                   Italians today continue to be bilingual, speaking their dialects in social situations, and using Standard
attempts to standardize Languedocien for all languages of southern France, but it has not been ac-                 Italian in formal occasions.
cepted by speakers of other dialects.                                                                              Some of the dialects like Venetian or Emilia-Romagna are quite similar to Standard Italian. Other
Another dialect is Gascon. Gascon speakers have some intelligibility of Provençal, but rather limited              differ from Tuscan dialect so much that people speaking in these dialects cannot understand each
intelligibility of Languedocien. In 1990 there were about 250,000 speakers of Gascon in France, living             other.
mostly in the south-western part of the country.20                                                                 The evolution of dialects, for example Sardinian, Sicilian and Calabrian was mainly provoked by the
                                           Map 7: Languages in France                                              domination of different cultures over these regions. Latin largely influences Sicilian dialects, despite
                             Source:                      this region's volatile history: it was conquered both by Greek and Arabic speaking countries. As
Corsican                                                                                                           churches began using Latin in their masses, the Arabic language was discarded. In the Northern parts
                                                                                                                   of the island, the Greek language did not die out until the 16th Century. There are still words and
French is the official language of Corsica, but a large number of Corsicans speak Corsican - Corsu. It             place names such as Taormina that leave clues about its previous rulers. Today, there are still towns
has no current legal status, but there are some proposals of French Government for a new Corsican                  using dialects that draw from Greek.24
Corsican is not a dialect of French. It is an Indo-European language of Romance or Latin origin,
influenced by Tuscan. It was an oral language and it was only at the end of the 19 th century that it              The Albanian dialect of Italy, a language that now bears little resemblance to the standard language
came to be written. Being orally transmitted, it has many variations, even from village to village. To             of Albania, which is called Shqip, is spoken over a wide area comprising 49 towns and villages, a
the untutored ear, it sounds a bit like Italian and the Corsicans and Italians can understand each                 veritable archipelago of linguistic islands extending from the Abruzzi Appenines to the south of Italy
another.21                                                                                                         and to Sicily and situated mainly in mountainous or semi-mountainous regions.

Breton                                                                                                             Various sources put the number of Albanian speakers in Italy at around 100,000, although it has not
                                                                                                                   been possible to obtain reliable statistics since 1921, when Italy discontinued the practice of collect-
Breton is a language of completely different roots than Romance languages and is spoken in France                  ing census data on linguistic minorities. Moreover, the most reliable sources suggest that between 10
in Brittany. The Breton language is the only Celtic language spoken on the continent and it is now in              and 20% of the ethnic Albanians in Italy no longer speak the language, which would reduce this
a strongly contrasting situation. It was spoken by more than a million people at the beginning of the              figure to between 80,000 and 90,000. In addition, there is a marked, if not quantifiable, decline in the
20th century. Recent surveys (in the absence of a real census) show that 250,000 people speak the                  use of Albanian for social interaction among young people, who prefer to use Italian or the Romance
language daily and 600,000 people are capable of understanding it. There are about 800,000 school-                 dialects of the various regions in which they live.
going children in Brittany. Only 5,700 of them can benefit from bilingual schooling (Breton-French).
But the number of pupils in the bilingual schools is progressing every year by 15 to 20 %.22                       The Albanian communities, mainly rooted in semi-rural and rural regions of southern Italy, are ex-
                                                                                                                   periencing the same depopulation phenomenon as is observable in the Italian- and Greek-speaking
One of the most interesting habits of Bretons is Breton wrestling (gouren), which was practiced in the             communities of the region. Massive emigration to the industrial centres of Italy and western Europe is
court of Arthur, is still a Breton most famous and the noblest of sports. In the Middle Ages, the lords            due to a lack of job opportunities and to the gradual and increasingly rapid abandonment of tradi-
used it as good training for war. A Celtic hand to hand fight, "ar gouren" reached its peak in the last            tional economic activities (cultivation, crafts and trades, livestock farming). The emigration process
century. The combat was begun often during popular festivals and pardons. A man who wished to                      was particularly intense during the fifties and sixties. Calculations undertaken at the time reveal that
fight got up, took the trophy (handkerchief, silver or a sheep), and walked around the special circle.             the regions where ethnic Albanians live lost almost 20% of their total population during that period.25
If one of his adversaries shouted to him in the following manner: "chom't ho sao! (stay where you
are) and touched his shoulder, he took up the challenge. To be victorious, he had to make his adver-               In Italy there is a huge problem of Albanian immigration from Albania to Italy through Adriatic Sea.
sary fall on his two shoulder blades, and once again he had to challenge the wrestlers until only one              In 1991 24,000 Albanian refugees arrived in Italy within three days. The Ministry for Italians Commu-
valiant fighter remained. During fight the crowd often became heated and excited so the organizer                  nities Abroad and for Immigration gave the Albanians work permits. Yet when 15,000 Albanians
had to be armed with a whip or a black bottomed frying pan to keep order.23                                        arrived later that year the reception was less than welcoming, because they were sent back to Alba-
                                                                                                                   nia. The problems has been compounded since the 1999 invasion of Kosovo and the subsequent
        1.3.        Regions with Italian domination                                                                NATO air strikes when 800,000 ethnic Albanians left their homes.
Italian is the official language in Italy, Switzerland and San Marino. It is also spoken in former Italian         Rhaeto-Romanic
colonies and in countries with Italian immigrants. There are about 55 million mother tongue speakers
and about 62 million if counting ethnic groups using Italian as second language.                                   Rhaeto-Romanic is a collective term for three dialects of the Romance family spoken in north-eastern
                                                                                                                   Italy and south-eastern Switzerland. Of about 600,000 speakers of Rhaeto-Romanic, about 90 per-
The Italian language displays historical and contemporary influences. While Standard Italian is the                cent are in Italy, but there the language has no official status. The Swiss dialect on the other hand,
official language of the country, Italy is still divided into distinct regions with dialectical varieties,         known as Romansch, is one of Switzerland's four official languages, despite the fact that it is spoken
evolving mainly from Latin. At the time of the Unification of Italy in 1861, most of its citizens were             by only one percent of the population.26
monolingual, speaking only the dialectical variety of their region. Seventy years later, due to the

21                                                                                                                 24 Today                                                    
22                                                                                                                 25                                                           
23                                                                                                                 26                                                            
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
         1.4.        The Romance enclave in Romania                                                          ber of Samis cannot be determined unambiguously. According to the Sami Council there are 30,000-
The official language of Romania is Romanian which is spoken by about 20,5 million people in Roma-           70,000 Samis in Scandinavia.
nia and 26 million if counting total population in all countries. Romanian has 77% lexical similarity        The main problem of the Samis is their dispersion in four different countries. It has been unfavour-
with Italian, 75% with French, 74% with Sardinian, 73% with Catalan, 72% with Portuguese and                 able for their consolidation and for the formation of a national administrative unit. The vast territory
Rhaeto-Romance, 71% with Spanish. It is also official language in Moldova.                                   has contributed to the development of dialects into separate languages. Because of the rapid mod-
Romanian has four dialects - Daco-romanian - generally referred as Romanian, Istro-Romanian,                 ernisation on the way of their life in the 20th century, Samis have problems in adaptation into their
Megleno-Romanian, and Macedoromanian. It is thought that the Romanian language appeared north                new environment (e.g. national industrialisation projects).
and south of the Danube. All the four dialects are offsprings of the Romance languge spoken before           The Sami language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic family, and is closely related to
the settlement of the Slavonian tribes both in the North and South Danube.                                   the Baltic Sea-Finnish languages, such as Finnish and Estonian. There are a number of theories as to
Most words in Romanian vocabulary (about 65%) are of Latin origin, but it also contains many words           the origins of the language. One of these is that the Sami previously spoke a quite different language,
borrowed from its Slavonic and Turkish neighbours (about 20%) and more recently French, German               known as Proto-Lappish. Others believe that the ancestors of the Sami, who are generally believed to
and English words entered the spoken language.27                                                             have come from the east, spoke an entirely different language, which was related to Baltic Sea Fin-
                                                                                                             nish, and that this language was strongly influenced by contact with Finnish. 29
                                                                                                             "The Sami language" is a misleading term in that there are three distinct languages: East Sami,
There are more than twelve million Roma (Gypsies) located in many countries around the world.                Central Sami and South Sami. Central Sami includes North Sami, Pite Sami and Lule Sami. The main
There is no way to obtain an exact number since they are not recorded on most official census                dialects are generally believed to be the following; South Sami, Ume Sami, Pite Sami, Lule Sami,
counts. About 250 thousand Gypsies live in Romania. Many Roma themselves do not admit to their               North Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Sami, Kildin Sami and Ter Sami
true ethnic origins for economic and social reasons. The Roma are a distinct ethnic minority, distin-
guished at least by Rom blood and the Romani language, whose origins began on the Indian subcon-             Within the past few decades there has been a notable upsurge of national feelings and self-
tinent over one thousand years ago. The roots of this Indo-European language comes from ancient              confidence of the Samis. Very important is the growing importance of Sami as the language of in-
Punjabi or Hindi.                                                                                            struction at schools. The unified system of orthography of Northern Sami (introduced 1978) enables
                                                                                                             to link the educational and cultural life of Samis in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Today there are
No one knows for certain why the original Roma began their great migration from India to Europe              laws of the Sami language in Norway, Finland and Sweden, which help regulate the functioning of
and beyond, but they have dispersed worldwide, despite persecution and oppression through the                Sami as the language of education and management. The literary Kildin Sami language has been
centuries.                                                                                                   revived on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet (1982). The Sami language is taught at Lujavr (Lovozero)
The word Gypsies come from insufficient knowledge of Roma history. Because Roma arrived to                   School on the Kola Peninsula. Linguistic research and regulation of the usage of Sami have intensi-
Europe from the East, they were thought by the first Europeans to be from Turkey, Nubia or Egypt,            fied; Sami fiction and film have emerged.30
or any other acknowledged non-European places, so they were called ―Egyptians‖ or ―Gyptians‖,                               2.2. The Celtic Languages
which is where the word "Gypsy" comes from.
                                                                                                             At the beginning of the Christian era the whole of the British islands were doubtless occupied by
The spoken Romani language is varied, but all dialects contain some common words in use by all               Celtic-speaking peoples, though the earlier inhabitants had by no means been exterminated.
Roma. Based on language, Roma are divided into three populations. They are the Domari of the
Middle East and Eastern Europe (the Dom), the Lomarvren of Central Europe (the Lom), and the                 Even at this early period Irish differed very greatly from the languages of Gaul and Britain. This old
Romani of Western Europe (the Rom). There is no universal written Romani language in use by all              Celtic tongue belonged to the great Indo-European family of languages and showed affinity to the
Roma. However, the codification of a constructed, standardized dialect is currently in progress by           cognate dialects of Italy, chief amongst which was Latin.
members of the Linguistic Commission of the International Romani Union.28                                    The Celtic languages form a branch of the Indo-European family tree. In UK Celtic languages fall into
         2.     Languages of Northern Europe                                                                 two significant divisions: the Gaels of Ireland, Man and Scotland and the speakers of Welsh, Cornish
                                                                                                             and Breton. The Celtic languages which survived in modern times may be classified as follows: Goe-
                        Map 8: Language groups in the area inhabited by the Sami                             delic [Irish, Manx, Scottish, Gaelic] and Brythonic [Welsh, Cornish, Breton]31 The original Indo-
                                                  Source: (The Sami people 1990)                             European tongue possessed a peculiar Q sound which was treated differently by the various groups.
                2.1. Sami minority in Finland, Sweden and Norway.                                            We may therefore speak of p-Celts and q-Celts, the former being also known, as far as our islands
The native territory of the Samis is situated in the northern part of Fennoscandia, Sweden, along the        are concerned, as Brythons, the latter as Goidels.
coast of the Arctic Ocean over Norway and Finland to the central part of the Kola Peninsula in Russia.       Welsh in United Kingdom
This area, extending over four countries, is 2000 km long, covering almost 400,000 sq. km. In the            Wales is a country with two languages: Welsh and English. Welsh is spoken by around 19% of the
past the Sami territory used to reach farther South, but under the pressure of other peoples they            population. Most of the Welsh-speakers live in the north west of the country. There are several dia-
have been forced to move northwards. There has been introduced a definition of Sami, which is                lects of Welsh. The road signs are bilingual, giving both the Welsh and English versions of the text
primarily based on linguistic criteria. So in Finland a "Sami" is a person who identifies himself or         and place-names. The language continues to flourish within Wales thanks to Welsh-medium educa-
herself as a Sami and he himself or herself, or at least one of his or her parents or grandparents,          tion, a lively media industry and the enthusiasm of people living in Wales. The rights of the language
learnt Sami as their first language. In Norway and Sweden the basic criterion is the relation to rein-
deer-herding. In these countries citizenship is not separated from nationality, and therefore the num-

27                                                                                                           30                                                    
28                                                                                                           31                                                    
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
have also been helped by bilingual and language policies made by the Government.                               Some scientists consider both theories absurd, because they think that Slavs as such appeared and
The language of Wales, more properly called Cymraeg in preference to Welsh (A Germanic word                    differentiated from other tribes after AD. There is theory that there were two waves of Slavs: Proto-
denoting "foreigner"). Welsh is related to Irish and Scots Gaelic and a closely to Breton. In the West-        Slavs, called Wenetes or Veneds, and Slavs proper, and that two groups created today's Slavs. That
ern and Northern regions, (Gwynedd and Dyfed particularly) the Welsh language remains strong and               theory at least tries to deal with very complicated question arising from archeological findings in the
highly visible. Regional differences in spoken Welsh do not make speakers in one area unintelligible to        area. Nobody also is sure where was Slavic homeland before they start their big expansion. Slavs
those in another (as is so often claimed), standard Welsh is understood by Welsh speakers every-               have first been recorded in the Pripjet Marshes area.
where.                                                                                                         In religion, the Slavs traditionally divided into two main groups: those associated with the Eastern
Scottish in United Kingdom                                                                                     Orthodox Church: (Russians, most Ukrainians, some Belarusians, Serbs, Bulgarians and Macedonians
                                                                                                               Slavs) and those associated with the Catholic Church (Roman Catholic Church and Greek Catholic
Scottish is also called Scots Gaelic, or Erse, and belongs to the Goidelic group of Celtic languages. It       Church): Poles, Sorbs, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes, some Ukrainians, and most Belarusians).
is spoken along the northwest coast of Scotland and in the Hebrides islands. Scottish Gaelic is a              The division is further marked by the use of the Cyrillic alphabet by the former (but including all
recent offshoot of the Irish language. It was introduced into Scotland about AD 500 (displacing an             Ukrainians and Belarusians) and the Roman alphabet by the latter. There are also many minority
earlier Celtic language). However, a truly distinctive Scots Gaelic did not appear before the 13th cent        religious groups, such as Muslims, Protestants, and Jews.36
Scots Gaelic is the language of about 60,000 persons in the Highlands of Scotland. Most of these
people also speak English. 33                                                                                  3.2. Slavic Languages
Manx is a dialect of Scots Gaelic that was once spoken on the Isle of Man, but it has almost entirely          Slavic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. The Slavic group of
died out there. First recorded in writing in the early 17th century, Manx does not have an important           languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, that is why some scholars com-
literature. It is written in the Roman alphabet and shows a strong Norse influence.                            bine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European languages. The total number of people
                                                                                                               for whom a Slavic language is the mother tongue is estimated at more than 300 million; the great
The Scottish language has a wide range of dialects. In Shetland and Orkney, there is strong Norse              majority of them live in Russia and Ukraine.
influence, as indicated above. Mainland Scotland has three main dialect divisions: Northern, Central
and Southern. Central is further divided into East Central (north and south of the Forth), West Central        The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe, residing
(Glasgow and surrounding area) and South-West (mainly Dumfries and Galloway). Southern covers                  chiefly in eastern and south-eastern Europe but extending also across northern Asia to the Pacific
most of the Borders area. Scots is also spoken in Northern Ireland, the result of many crossings of            Ocean. Slavic languages belong to the Indo-European family.
the waters by populations over the centuries, in particular from the settlements of the early seven-           The Slavic subfamily has three divisions: East Slavic, West Slavic, and South Slavic. Members of
teenth century. Many of these Scots later moved on to North America, where they were known as the              the East Slavic branch are Russian, or Great Russian; Ukrainian, also called Little Russian or Ruthe-
Scotch-Irish; their language has added significant Scots features to some North American dialects. 34          nian; and Belarussian, or White Russian. Together they claim close to 225 million native speakers,
3. Languages and ethnic groups of Eastern Europe                                                               almost all in the former USSR. The West Slavic branch includes Polish, Czech, Slovak, Lusatian, Ka-
                                                                                                               shubian, and the extinct Polabian. The living West Slavic languages can claim approximately 56 mil-
3.1. The Slavs                                                                                                 lion speakers, chiefly in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. The South Slavic tongues consist of
Prehistorically, the original habitat of the Slavs, as of all Indo-Europeans, was Asia, from which they        Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Slovenian, and Macedonian, together with the liturgical language known as
migrated in the 3rd or 2nd millennium BC to populate parts of eastern Europe. Subsequently, these              Church Slavonic. The first four are native to more than 30 million people, largely in Slovenia, Croatia,
European lands of the Slavs were crossed or settled by many peoples forced by economic conditions              Bosnia and Hercegovina, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, and Bulgaria.37
to migrate. In the middle of the 1st millennium BC, Celtic tribes settled along the upper Odra River,          All Slavic tongues are believed to have evolved from a single parent language, usually called Proto-
and Germanic tribes settled on the lower Vistula and lower Odra rivers, usually without displacing the         Slavic, which, in turn, is thought to have split off much earlier (possibly c.2000 B.C.) from Proto-Indo-
Slavs there. Actually the land at the Elbe, Odra and Vistula Rivers was all recorded as Magna Germa-           European, the original ancestor of the members of the Indo-European language family. Proto-Slavic
nia 1900 years ago and later. Finally, the movement westward of the Germans in the 5th and 6th                 was probably still common to all Slavs in the 1st cent. B.C., and possibly as late as the 8th A.D., but
century A.D. necessitated by the onslaught of people from the Far East: Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Hun-             by the 9th century A.D. the individual Slavic languages had begun to emerge. In the opinion of lin-
garians, started the great migration of the Slavs, who proceeded in the Germans' wake westward into            guists, probably even in X-XII century all Slavs spoke generally the same language, with very slight
the country between the Odra and the Elbe-Saale line, southward into Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary,                differences.
and the Balkans, and northward along the upper Dnieper River. When the migratory movements had
ended, there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a             The spoken Slavic tongues resemble one another more closely than do those of the Germanic and
prince with a treasury and defence force, and the beginning of class differentiation, who pledged              Romance groups; yet, although Slavic languages have much in common in basic vocabulary, gram-
allegiance to the Frankish and Holy Roman Emperors.35                                                          mar, and phonetic characteristics, they differ with regard to such features in many instances. One
                                                                                                               feature common to most of them is the relatively large number of consonant sounds. Grammatically
There were two theories in history about original homeland of Slavs: first, called autochtonic, was            the Slavic languages, with the exception of Bulgarian and Macedonian, have a highly developed
based on assumption that Slavs had lived north of the Carpathian Mountains since 1000 BC. Second,              inflection of the noun, with up to seven cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative,
called allochtonic, assumed that Slavs came there in 5th-6th century AD. Both theories were used as            instrumental, and vocative). The Slavic verb usually takes one of three simple tenses (past, present,
tools of political propaganda by Germans and different Slavic nations, with great harm to science.             and future), but it is further characterized by a complex feature called aspect, which can be either
                                                                                                               imperfective (showing continuous or repeated action) or perfective (denoting a completed action).
                                                                                                               Participles and gerunds are often employed where in English clauses would be used. The article is
34                                                                                                             36                                            
35                                                                                                             37                                                                          stan na dzień 6.04 2003
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
lacking in all Slavic languages except Bulgarian and Macedonian. Members of the Slavic subfamily are           The Belarusian language has evolved considerably from its early roots, as the dialects of Ruthe-
more conservative and thus closer to Proto-Indo-European than languages in the Germanic and                    nian (East Slavic Orthodox) spoken in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. A standardized
Romance groups, as is witnessed by their preservation of seven of the eight cases for the noun that            version of Ruthenian became the official language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the 16th
Proto-Indo-European possessed and by their continuation of aspects for the verb. The vocabulary of             century, the term "Ruthenian" referred to the language spoken in modern-day Ukraine and Belarus; a
the Slavic languages is substantially of Indo-European origin; there is an important Balto-Slavic ele-         process of divergence that accelerated in the 17th century created a new division between the lan-
ment as well. Loan words or loan translations can be traced to the Iranian and Germanic groups and             guages spoken in the south (Ukraine) and north (Belarus) of Ruthenian-speaking territory.
also to Greek, Latin, and Turkish. More recently, Italian and French have had some measure of influ-           Like Ukraine, Belarus and the Belarusian language has been subject to heavy Russification. Unlike
ence. Slavic languages have also borrowed from each other. They tend, however, to translate and                Ukraine, Belarus has historically lacked a strongly nationalistic population, which tends to identify
imitate foreign words rather than directly absorb them. It is in writing, perhaps, that the most dra-          itself as a close associate of Russia (if not Russian outright). This lack of a strong ethno-linguistic
matic differences among the Slavic languages occur. Some Slavic languages (notably, Czech, Slovak,             identity, along with the popular association of Belarusian dialects as rural peasant languages as op-
Slovenian, and Polish) are written in differing versions of the Roman alphabet because their speakers          posed to Russian's modern/urban connotations, is seen by some to threaten the eventual extinction
are predominantly Roman Catholic. Other Slavic languages (such as Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian,             of the Belarusian language in Belarus. The Russophile foreign policy orientation of Aleksandr Luka-
Macedonian, and Bulgarian) use variations of the Cyrillic alphabet as a result of the influence of the         shenko‘s government in Belarus is seen as further threatening the Belarusian language.
Orthodox Eastern Church. The single language Serbo-Croatian is called Serbian when it is written by
Serbs in the Cyrillic alphabet and Croatian when it is written by Croats in the Roman alphabet.                Perhaps the largest center of Belarusian cultural activity in the world, in the Belarusian language, is in
                                                                                                               the Polish city of Bialystok, home to a long-established Belarusian minority. 40
3.3. Languages of Slavic countries
                                                                                                               Languages of Bulgaria
Languages of Ukraine
                                                                                                               National or official languages are Bulgarian and Turkish. The number of languages listed for Bulgaria
National or official language: Ukrainian. 50,861,000. The number of languages listed for Ukraine is            is 12. Of those, 11 are living languages (Albanian, Bulgarian, Crimean, Turkish, Gagauz, Macedonian,
11. Of those, 10 are living languages and one is extinct.                                                      Romani and others).
Ukrainian is an East Slavic language closely related to Russian but with some regular differences. The         Bulgarian (български) is an Indo-European language, a member of the South branch of the Slavic
Ukrainian language is currently emerging from a long period of disuse. Although there are almost fifty         languages, along with Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, and Slovene. It is the oldest written Slavic lan-
million ethnic Ukrainians worldwide, including roughly 38-39 million in Ukraine (three-quarters of the         guage. Historically it is divided into Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th century), Middle Bulgarian (12th to
total population), only in western Ukraine is the Ukrainian language commonly spoken. In Kyiv and              15th century) and Modern Bulgarian (16th century onwards). Present-day written language was
central Ukraine Russian is spoken almost as much as Ukrainian, although there is a shift towards               standardised in the 19th century. In the past, Bulgarian was written in the Glagolitic alphabet but
Ukrainian; in eastern Ukraine, Russian is dominant and a Russified Ukrainian spoken in some circles,           during the Old Bulgarian period it was replaced by the Cyrillic one, which is still in use, in its modern
while in the Crimea Ukrainian is almost absent. Use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine can be                form.41
expected to increase, as the rural population of Ukraine (still overwhelmingly Ukrainophone) migrates
to Ukrainian cities and the Ukrainian language enters into wider use in central Ukraine.38                     Languages of former Yugoslavia

Languages of Russia (Europe)                                                                                   The Serbo-Croatian language (Srpsko-Hrvatski or Hrvatsko-Srpski) is a language of the Western
                                                                                                               group of the South Slavic languages. It is the main language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzego-
National or official language: Russian, 153,655,000. The number of languages listed for Russia                 vina and Montenegro and is also spoken and understood in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(Europe) is 59. Of those, 58 are living languages and 1 is extinct.                                            and Slovenia. The language is also spoken by Serbian and Croatian minorities in Austria, Hungary and
Russian39 (Russian Русский язык) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is primarily            Romania. There are currently four standard written versions of the language, Croatian, Serbian,
spoken in Russia and other nations of the former Soviet Union, and was also widely taught in schools           Bosnian and BCS (Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian, a version used at the International Criminal Tribunal for
in member countries of the Warsaw Pact. In Soviet times, Russian was often strongly promoted to                the Former Yugoslavia). A fifth, Montenegrin version is emerging.
the detriment of other local languages. While many of the countries of the former Soviet Union are             Serbo-Croatian is the common name for three large dialect groups, Shtokavian, Kajkavian and
now promoting their local languages rather than Russian, Russian remains widely spoken in these                Chakavian. These have nothing to do with various standard versions, which are all based on the
areas and is often used for intercommunication between these countries.                                        Shtokavian dialect. Furthermore, differences in the usage of dialects and variants is geographical, not
Russian is written using the Cyrillic alphabet.                                                                ethnic. They have enough differences to be at times mutually unintelligable, but all share the same
Russian speaking population totals in all countries 167,000,000 as first language speakers (1999);             basic grammar.
277,000,000 including second language users (1999 ).Russian is one of the official languages of the            The language can be written in both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. Serbian and Bosnian standard
United Nations.                                                                                                version use both alphabets, while Croatian uses only Latin.
Languages of Belarus                                                                                           In Yugoslavia there is also Romano-Serbian language which comes from Western group of South
National or official language: Belarusan. 10,315,000 (1998 UN). The number of languages listed for             Slavic languages. It is spoken by Gypsies in Serbia. It is related to Serbian with influences from Ro-
Belarus is 1. Belarusian, spoken in and around Belarus, is one of the three East Slavic languages. It is       mani.
also written "Belarusan", "Belorussian", "Byelorussian", and other ways. The present government                Spoken Living Languages on the territory are: Albanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romani, Romanian,
prefers "Belarusian".

38                                                                                                             40                                                           
39                                                                                                             41                                                           
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Romano-Serbian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, and others.                                                            by Poles from the Soviet Union, the older generation came to speak a language characteristic of the
Languages of Macedonia [FYROM]                                                                                 former eastern provinces. Small numbers of people also speak Belarusian, Ukrainian, and German as
                                                                                                               well as several varieties of Romany.
National or official language is Macedonian (1,999,000). Spoken Living Languages in Macedonia are:
Adyghe, Albanian, Balkan, Gagauz, Turkish, Macedonian Romani, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish.               Kashubian is one of the Lekhitic languages. In 2000, it has some 200,000 speakers mainly in north
                                                                                                               central Poland
The Macedonian language is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. It is
spoken by two million people in Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia and other              The Slovincian language became extinct in the 20th century. It was one of the Lekhitic languages.
countries where Slavic emigrants of this region live. A modified Cyrillic script is used for writing.          Its users lived in parishes of Schmolsin and Garde in Pomerania in present-day Poland. Slovincian was
                                                                                                               so closely related to Kashubian that it must be regarded as its dialect, but it is conventionally treated
Languages of Czech Republic                                                                                    separately. Slovincians regarded themseves as Kashubs-Lutherans and their language as Kashubian.
National or official language is Czech with 10,282,000 speakers (1998 UN). Spoken Living Languages             Spoken living languages are Belarusan 230,000, German, Standard 500,000, Kashubian A few
are: Bavarian Czech German Polish Romani Silesian.                                                             thousand speakers. Most of the ethnic group of over 100,000 speak a regional variety of Polish.
The Czech language is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish and Sorbian. It              Population total both countries 3,000 or more, Polish, 36,554,000 in Poland, 98% of the population
is spoken by most people in the Czech Republic and Czechs dispersed all over the world (about 11               (1986). Population total all countries 44,000,000, Romani, Baltic 30,000, Romani, Carpathian, Ro-
million native speakers in total).                                                                             mani, Sinte, Romani, Vlax 5,000 Lovari in Poland, Silesian, Lower Dolny Slask (Lower Silesia), Ukrain-
Due to its complexity is said to be a difficult language to learn.                                             ian 1,500,000 in Poland 44
Slavic Languages of Germany                                                                                    Languages of Slovakia
The Polabian language was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany -                  Slovak language (Slovenčina) is a West Slavic language spoken in Slovakia. It is closely related to
Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.                 Czech in written form, but differs both phonetically and grammatically. Slovak uses a modified Latin
Became extinct in the 18th century. There are known Polabian texts writen in Hanover Wendland                  alphabet.
(Luechow-Dannenberg) in XVII and XVIII centuries. Polabian was one of the Lekhitic languages.                  Spoken Living Languages are: German, Hungarian Polish Romani Rusyn Serbo-Croatian Slovak
The Sorbian language is a member of the West Slavic branch of languages. It is also known as                   Ukrainian
Wendish. It is similar to Czech, Polish and Slovak, but still it is a completely different language that       Languages of Slovenia
has kept some of the elements of the old language of the Slavs. It is spoken in a small area in Ger-           Slovene language is the westernmost language in the south Slav branch of the Slavi languages
many called Lusatia (Luzica or Lausitz). Therefore the name of its speakers is Luzicki Srbi. There are         group. It is spoken by about 2.2 million people, the Slovenes who live mostly in Central Europe in
2 important dialects which are sometimes described as separate languages, Upper Sorbian and Lower              their native land Slovenia, plus the Slovenes in Venetian Slovenia ( Beneška Slovenija) in Italy, in
Sorbian language.                                                                                              Austrian Carinthia (Avstrijska Koroška) in Austria, in Croatian Istria (Hrvaška Istra) in Croatia, in some
Sorbian is also spoken in a small Wendish settlement in Lee County, Texas, and until recently news-            southern parts of Hungary and the Slovenes dispersed all over the world (specially American Slo-
papers were published in Wendish there. It has been heavily influenced by surrounding speakers of              venes, or even Kansas Slovenes, Argentinian Slovenes, Canadian Slovenians, Australian Slovenes,
German and English.                                                                                            South African Slovenes). It is one of the rare Slavic languages that have preserved the dual gram-
        Sorbian, Lower - 14,000 or fewer speakers (1991 Elle) out of a larger ethnic group in Nieder-         matical number (like the Upper and Lower Sorbian language) and it has a very difficult noun case
        lausitz (Dolna Luzica) in eastern Germany, Cottbus (Chosebuz) the main town. The ethnic group          system.
        has over 60 towns and villages.                                                                        Spoken Living Languages are Hungarian, Italian, Slovenian.45
       Sorbian, Upper 55,000 (1991 Elle). 15,000 are reported to be primary users. 40,000 to 45,000           Ending
        others have some knowledge of it (1996). Upper Saxony, eastern Germany, principal towns                Europe with more than 700 million people is the third (after Asia an Africa) most populated continent
        Bautzen (Budysin, Catholic) and Kamenz (Protestant). Perhaps a few in Texas, USA. 43                   in the world. As we look on the map of Europe we can see many countries with many ethnic groups
Languages of Poland                                                                                            which speak many different languages. But only about 3% of living languages of the world is spoken
The Polish language (together with Upper and Lower Sorbian, and other Lekhitic languages) as                   in Europe.
well as Czech-Slovak, belongs to the West Slavic branch of Slavic languages. It has several dialects           Across the centuries ethnic groups and their languages have been modifying. Wars, natural disasters,
that correspond in the main to the old tribal divisions; the most significant of these (in terms of num-       economic migrations and many others factors influenced on the present view of Europe. That is why
bers of speakers) are Great Polish (spoken in the northwest), Little Polish (spoken in the southeast),         the nations of Europe range nowadays from ethnically homogenous (like in Poland) to ethnically
Mazovian, and Silesian. Mazovian shares some features with Kashubian, whose remaining speakers                 pluralist (such as in Belgium) and to ethnically heterogenous (such as in Spain and Italy).
(estimations vary from 100,000 to over 200,000) live west of Gdansk near the Baltic Sea. Elsewhere,            Probably in the future the map of European ethnic groups and languages, due to heavy migrations,
Polish has been influenced by contact with foreign languages. In Great Poland and especially Silesia           integration and globalisation processes, will be changing more quickly and only the strongest cultures
the inimitable regional patois contains a mixture of Polish and German elements. Since 1945, as the            will not have problems in keeping their ethnic and language identity. On the other hand EU countries
result of mass education and mass migrations, standard Polish has become far more homogeneous,                 try to help minorities in cultivating their habits and learning their languages and this can be a chance
although regional dialects persist. In the western and northern territories, resettled in large measure        for them to resist.

42                                                                                                             44                                                   
43                                                                                                             45                                                    
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Ewa Glezman (Editor), Anna Dzienis, Jakub Nowacki, Tomasz Kula                                                  Luxembourgish, French, or German, but in practice mostly are written in French. This trilingualism in
                                                                                                                administrative matters is reflected in daily life, where individuals remain free to use the language of
                        MULTILINGUAL COUNTRIES IN EUROPE                                                        their choice. Thus, Luxembourgers today write in any of these languages, and sometimes even in
GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG                                                                                       The use of three languages in Luxembourg today
Main information about Luxembourg                                                                               Strictly speaking Luxembourgish cannot be considered a minority language. It is spoken as a native
Luxembourg is a country, which is not even big enough, to contain the letters of its name on most               language by nearly the entire Luxembourg population (about 290,000 speakers). However, a consi-
maps of Europe. This respected member of the European Union, has an area of 2586 sq km, with a                  derable number of foreigners (110,000 residents, 65,000 working along the border) neither speak nor
population of about 430000 citizens. About 70% of the Luxembourgs population are nationals and the              understand Luxembourgish50
rest 30% consist of foreigners such as Belgian, French, German, Italian and Portuguese. This consti-            The utilisation of Luxembourgish (spoken and written) in public life is becoming more and more
tutional monarchy is ruled by the Grand Duke Henri. There are three main languages used in Luxem-               widespread in the Grand Duchy, while German seems to be losing momentum and French enjoys a
bourg, which are Luxembourgish, French and German.46                                                            certain prestige! With English, French tends more and more to be used alongside Luxembourgish
Language in the past                                                                                            since the majority of foreigners living and working in Luxembourg express themselves in international
In the Middle Ages, the great dividing line between Latinia and Germania, already underlying the                languages. Therefore the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg basically presents a trilingual image. The use
treaty concluded at Meerssen between the grandsons of Charlemagne in 870, exactly constituted the               of these three languages is extremely complex..
territory of old Luxembourg, which had first entered on the historical stage in the year 963. Through-          French may be considered as a official language of the authorities. Parliamentary documents, pro-
out the Ancien Regime, and even under Maria-Theresia of Austria, the country of Luxembourg was                  posed bills, procedures in court, administrative and judicial acts, are held and written in French, but
composed of a Walloon area and a Germanic region. These designations, which may be read on                      the synoptic accounts of parliamentary debates (themselves carried out in Lëtzebuergesch or in
geographical charts of the era, make reference to the linguistic usage of the population, and of an             French) are printed in German (Analytischer Kammerbericht) because they are distributed to all
administration which published all its edicts and laws in bilingual form, French and German.                    households in the country.51 Speeches at political rallies and other public occasions are in Lëtzebuer-
Moreover the dialect still developed. The Luxembourgish language is referred to a Letzebuergesch by             gesch. Certain texts are multilingual, depending on the need to make sure that information is brought
the inhabitants of the Grand Duchy, the Letzebuerger. Historically it finds its origins in the migrations       to all levels of the population.
of the Germanic tribes during the late Empire, of whom the salian Franks (from the North Sea) and               Luxembourgish is used as a teaching medium at pre-primary level, and partly also at primary level. At
the riparian Franks (from the Rhine) settled in the region of Luxembourg, at the foot of the Ardennes           secondary level, Luxembourgish is not taught as a subject, but used in practical courses. The lan-
(and the Eifel in Germany) from the end of the third century of the Christian era. The Germanic                 guage is not taught or used as a medium of teaching in higher education except in teacher training
language of Luxembourg is the result of a linguistic symbiosis which lasted for several centuries               colleges where future pre- and primary school teachers a follow courses in teaching methods for
between these Frankish populations and the Gallo-Romans of the North East Gaul.47                               Luxembourgish and Luxembourgish literature. Adult courses in Luxembourgish do exist. Education
From the point of view of German dialectology, which considers Luxembourgish as one of its most                 give the students a unique opportunity to learn many languages and thus gives access to many
westerly and one of its most archaic dialects, Letzebuergesch finds itself classed among the dialects           cultures. From the second year of primary school onwards, French is added as a discipline to the
of Middle German (mitteldeutsch). The earliest written evidence of Luxembourgish appears in the                 general program of education which, at this stage is still taught in German. Over the years, however,
biography of Countess Yolanda of Vianden (c.1290). However, some scholars suggest it would be                   and particularly in secondary education, French gets an ever bigger share until it completely replaces
more prudent to recognize the first written expression of Luxembourgish in a French survey of the               German as the language of instruction, German being limited to the specialised courses in German
language in 1806. Until the twentieth century, the official use of Luxembourgish was sporadic, and              language and literature. English too, it should be added, is required as a compulsory language
its speakers did not see themselves as having a separate linguistic identity. In 1848 Luxembourgish             throughout most of secondary education, and students choosing language studies also have the
was first used at a meeting of the Estates (a forerunner of the parliament of Luxembourg). In 1896              option to add Latin and/or ancient Greek.It appears therefore that the Luxembourg intellectual is
the poet Caspar Mathias Spoo gave his inaugural speech in parliament in Luxembourgish 48.A number               mainly orientated towards French cultural values through his education, the more so since he will
of attempts have been made to establish Luxembourgish as a written language. In 1912 according to               most probably attend University either in Belgium or in France (attendance at German Universities is
a Education Law Luxembourgish was introduced into primary schools. This system never became                     statistically in third place). Tradition, natural sympathy and education all concur to put the Luxem-
official, though a generation of Luxembourg school children became familiar with it. In 1941 Nazi               bourg élite within the French cultural orbit:52
occupiers sought to have Luxembourgers declare German their native language and identity, but the               The Catholic church, the leading denomination in Luxembourg, uses German in the majority of its
people defiantly declared ―Luxembourgish‖ instead. In 1950, a new dictionary of the Luxembourg                  written communications, while sermons and even liturgy are spoken more and more often in Luxem-
language was commissioned. First the orthography had to be invented, that would have been more                  bourgish.53
transparent than that of felters, and closer to the German. 49 In 1975 the first official orthography of        Audio-visual media are concerned, the Luxembourg viewer is able to receive thirty or more foreign
Luxembourgish was adopted and the dictionary Luxemburger Wörterbuch was published. In 1984                      and local stations as a consequence of the country's central geographical location. The radio pro-
parliament voted to designate Luxembourgish as the national language, while stipulating that legisla-           gramme in the Luxembourg language, was joined in October 1991 by a daily television magazine
tion would continue to be written in French. All other administrative or judicial acts may be written in        programme. There is an exception to this process of mixing languages in the Luxembourg press:

46                                                                                                              50                                          
47                                                                                                              51
48                                                                                                              52                                                    
49                                                                                                              53
                                                                                                     Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
official notices from the government and from the administration are drawn up in French, the tradi-                         government and the province of Friesland was signed. This covenant is the implementation instru-
tional language of government and administration. A full radio service operates in the language all                         ment of the Charter. In 1995, the right to use Frisian in the local and provincial assemblies was con-
day.54 Most of the written press is in German. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in Luxem-                            firmed by statute. In 1980, Westerlauwer Frisian became a mandatory subject in Friesland‘s elemen-
bourgish, but some newspapers in French or German do carry articles in the language. There are a                            tary schools, and in 1993 it became mandatory in early secondary education. Already in the 1970s,
number of periodical publications in Luxembourgish                                                                          Friesland‘s students were able to choose Frisian as an examination subject in secondary education
                                                                                                                            and in teacher training. The provincial government and the councils of several municipalities have
KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS                                                                                                  begun to afford equal rights to Frisian and Dutch. ―Friesland‖ (rather than Dutch ―Friesland‖) is now
Basic information about the Netherlands                                                                                     the official name of the province, and some Frisian place names in the province have been declared
The Netherlands is a country, which is quite small, with a territory of 41526 sq km and a population                        the only official ones.58
of 16105000 citizens. It is a constitutional monarchy with a Queen Beatrix van Oranje Nassau being                          There are no printed newspapers totally in Frisian. Newspapers tend to carry some Frisian articles on
a head of state. Over 95% of this country population are Dutch (Germanic and Gallo-Celtic stock),                           cultural matters, and in Dutch articles Frisian speakers are usually quoted in their language. A small
most of the rest are Indonesian, Surinamese and Moroccan. 60% of citizens are Christian, mainly                             number of literary periodicals are published totally in Frisian.
Roman Catolics and Protestants, 3% are Muslims. The main languages of that country comes from
                                                                                                                            Frisian used to be covered rarely and sparsely in the North German media. Some local newspapers
Netherlandic branch. These are Deutch and Flemish. Other languages spoken are Frisian, Low saxon,
                                                                                                                            and newsletters carry Frisian articles and columns. Some regular Frisian radio broadcasting was
Limburgish, Zeeuws and Brabantish.55
                                                                                                                            introduced recently.
The Netherland's early history is linked with Belgium and Luxembourg; the three were known as the
                                                                                                                            Literary production in Westerlauwer Frisian is considerable, fairly meager in other Frisian language
'Low Countries' until the 16th century, when the present-day Netherlands' boundaries were roughly
                                                                                                                            varieties. There are several Frisian museums, libraries, archives and cultural centres in both countries.
drawn. Originally the land was inhabited by tribal groups: the Germanic Batavi drained the sea la-
                                                                                                                            Westerlauwer Frisian radio and television is broadcast all over the Netherlands. There is some pro-
goons while the Frisii lived on mounds in the remote north.
                                                                                                                            duction of Westerlauwer Frisian musical compact disks and lately also of films.59
In the late 16th century the region's northern provinces, inhabited by recent converts to Protestant-
                                                                                                                            Low saxon
ism, united to fight the Catholic Spanish rulers. Philip II of Spain sent the cruel Inquisition to enforce
Catholicism, and war broke out in 1568. The revolt of the Netherlands was led by Prince William of                          There are several varieties of Low-Saxon in the Netherlands. The main differences exist in the prov-
Orange, nicknamed William the Silent for his refusal to enter into religious arguments. After 80 years                      ince of Drenthe, between eastern parts of the province of Overijssel, and between east and west in
of conflict Holland and its allied provinces expelled the Spaniards in 1648, and Holland became syn-                        the province of Gelderland. The Stellingwerfs variety is spoken in the municipalities of Oost- en
onymous with the independent country that emerged in this corner of Europe (a bit like saying Eng-                          Weststellingwerf in Friesland and adjacent parts of Drenthe and the Northwestern part of Overijssel.
land when you mean Britain). The first king, King William I of Orange, was crowned in 1814, and the                         Low-Saxon in the Netherlands is linguistically related to Low-Saxon/Low-German in northern Germa-
House of Orange rules to this day. In 1830 the Belgians rebelled and became independent; Luxem-                             ny60
bourg did the same soon after.56                                                                                            Limburgish
Netherlands languages                                                                                                       Limburgish is spoken in the two provinces of Limburg (Netherlands & Belgium), and in a few border
Frisian                                                                                                                     villages in a small neighbouring part of Germany (the Selfkant area).
It is Westerlauwer Frisian that most people mean when they say ―Frisian.‖ Westerlauwer Frisian                              There are many varieties of Limburgish. Each village and city has its own dialect, but they are all
(Westerlauwersk Frysk, Frisian west of the Lauwer river) is used in the Netherlands‘ province of                            mutually intelligible. The dialects in the north of Dutch Limburg are not considered Limburgish. The
Friesland and in the western parts of the Netherlands‘ province of Groningen. Outside the Nether-                           north boundary of the language is roughly marked by the "ik-ich isogloss". In this area, a lot of lin-
lands, these varieties tend to be known as ―West Frisian,‖ but in the Netherlands this name                                 guistic boundaries converge. In the east, there is a gradual transition to the Rhenish dialects (Ker-
(Westfries) refers to certain, strongly Frisian-influenced Dutch dialects.Frisian dialects survive in some                  krade-Aachen, Sittard-Selfkant, Venlo-Krefeld).
emigrant communities, particularly in North America57.                                                                      Research has shown that approximately 75% of the inhabitants of the Dutch province of Limburg are
The Netherlands province of Friesland has more than 600,000 inhabitants, about 450,000 of whom                              able to speak the language. In a population of 1,200,000 people, this makes ± 900,000 speakers.
are able to speak Frisian. Approximately 350,000 use it as a native language. The estimated number                          The number of speakers is higher in the south, and lower in the northern parts and the city of Heer-
of Frisian speakers in the province Groningen is 3,000. A 1994 survey revealed that 94% of Fries-                           len. The number of speakers in Belgian Limburg (675,000 inhabitants) is not exactly known. It is
land‘s population can understand Frisian, 74% can speak it, 65% are able to read it, and 17% can                            spoken in the entire province, but in a less extensive range of situations.61
write it. Westerlauwer Frisian speakers are large majorities in rural communities. They are small                           Since 1997, the Limburgish language has been recognized as regional language by the Netherlands'
minorities in the cities, on the Frisian Islands and in two Lowlands-Saxon-dominated southeastern                           government, according to Article 2, paragraph 1, of the "European Charter for Regional or Minority
municipalities of Friesland.                                                                                                Languages". Because of this, the Dutch Government is obligated to encourage the use of the lan-
Friesland has been an officially (Frisian and Dutch) bilingual province for a few decades now. In 1996,                     guage, although no specific rules or arrangements have been set.
the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages was ratified by the Netherlands, and this                           With regard to social status, Limburgish is better off than many other regional languages. Not only
included Frisian. In 2001, a Covenant on Frisian Language and Culture between the Netherlands‘

54                                                                                                                          58                                                                http//
55                                                                                                                          59                                                              ibidem
56                                                                                                                          60
     Skoczny Tadeusz (red.), Holandia-Unia Europejska, Centrum Europejskie Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 1997
57                                                                                                                          61                                                                     
                                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
the common people, but also the middle classes and the elite speak Limburgish.62                                     The Spanish languages that are officially recognized by the Statutes of the Autonomous Communities
Zeeuws                                                                                                               are: Euskera (País Vasco and Navarra), Gallego (Galicia), Catalan (Cataluna and Islas Baleares) and
                                                                                                                     Comunidad Valenciana where, as stated at the Dictionary of the Real Academia, this variety of Cata-
Zeeuws or Zeelandic is a regional language with a lot of North Sea Germanic features and is therefore                lan is called Valenciano. Other Statutes give special protection for the following Spanish languages:
related to Frisian, Scots and English. Some of these features can be found in Frisian as well, but                   Bable in Asturias and the linguistic diversity in Aragón. 65
others are exclusive to Zeeuws. As a reslut of continuing influence on Zeeuws by the Dutch standard
language since the 17th century, a lot of these features have disappeared and made way for more                      Castilian
'Hollandic' forms. If this official recognition would go through in West and French Flanders as well, a              “Castilian is the official language of the State. All Spaniards have the duty to know it and
huge linguistic area would become to exist with more than 1,2 million speakers. Zeeland and French                   the right to use it”.66
Flanders are allready on their way.                                                                                  Castilian, which is spoken in all the national territory, Equatorial Guinea, the former Spanish territory
It is the dialects of the Netherlands‘ province Northern Brabant (Noord-Brabant) and the Belgian                     of Sahara, Central and South America (except Brazil and the Guyanas) and parts of the Philippines, is
provinces of Antwerp (Antwerpen) and Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant) that are considered Bra-                       the official and cultural language of some 350 million people the world over. Of these, nearly 300
bantish. Of course, the isoglosses do not exactly coincide with the provincial boundaries. There are                 million speak it as their mother tongue. These figures make the official language of the Spanish State
three smaller areas in Northern Brabant where non-Brabantish dialects are used: the Westhoek                         the most widely spoken Romance Language, an expressive instrument of a community which em-
around Dinteloord with dialects that are rather more Hollandish, Budel and environs, that is Dommel-                 braces two different worlds and which is spoken by people of different races.
lands (d.h. Northwestern Belgian Limburgish), and the region of Cuijk where Kleverlandish is used,                   Declared the official language of Spain by Philip V in 1714, it is usually known as Spanish, a name
thus being more connected with the northern parts of Netherlands Limburg and southeastern Gelder-                    that was already used in the Middle Ages in Castile, and frequently by the grammarians and authors
land. Furthermore, there are a few transitional areas in which no exact boundary can be determined.                  of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Royal Academy preferred to say Castilian until the 1925
The dialects of the Bommelerwaard to the north of eastern Northern Brabant strongly resemble the                     edition of its Dictionary, when it adopted the name of Spanish. The Real Academia Espanola located
Brabantish dialects south of the Maas River. Flemish Brabant borders the Eastern Flemish dialect area                in Madrid, is entrusted with "purifying, clarifying and giving splendour" to the language, in close
in the west; the dialects in the transitional area, the Denderstreek, are also more or less Brabantish.              contact with other Latin American academies, and mitigating the problems arising from the use of a
Flemish Brabant borders Belgian Limburg in the east; the dialects of the transitional area, the Gete-                language spoken in such a large geographic expanse.67 Its members are recruited from among the
land, are also more or less Brabantish. In these three problematic cases, the provincial boundaries                  most prestigious literary creators and erudites.
are referred to for the sake of convenience, although this is not quite correct in terms of dialectology.
Important features of Brabantish dialects include umlauting, diminutive forms with -ke, and 2nd                      Catalan
person pronouns with g- (ge, gij, gellie).63                                                                         Catalan is a Romance Language of the West branch. It has common aspects with the Iberianromance
                                                                                                                     languages - such as its morphology - and the Gauleromance languages - such as its phonetics and
KINGDOM OF SPAIN                                                                                                     some vocabulary. It is quite similar to the Occitan language. Catalan‘s the earliest literary text, the
Ethnic minorities                                                                                                    Homilies d'Organya, dates back to about the middle of 12th century. In the 13th, 14th and 15th
At the beginning of the Modern Age, the national State imposed a rigid ethnic, religious and cultural                centuries, Catalan literature flourished, first under the influence of Provençal literature and later as
homogenization. After expelling the two most important minorities, the Jews exiled by the Catholic                   the producer of its own thematic and formal resources. From the 16th to the 18th centuries it under-
Monarchs in 1492, and the Moriscos banished by Felipe II in 1609, there remained a religiously ho-                   went a period of decline, from which emerged in the 19th century with the movement known as the
mogeneous population that was oblivious of its ethnic origins (at least until the appearance of the                  Renaixença, Renaissance. Its modern linguistic normalization was brought about with the creation in
late 19th century Basque nationalism) and easily assimilated the small immigrant minorities ( African                1907 by Prat de la Riba of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, whose principal pursuit was higher scientific
slaves brought to Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries and the Germans who settled in the Sierra                     research of all the elements of the Catalan culture. In the Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Pompeu Fabra
Morena in the 18th century). There has always existed some differentiated groups, for example the                    effected the regulation and grammatical systematization of the unifying norms for its spelling
'agotes' in Navarra or the 'vaqueiros de alzada' in Asturias, however the only clearly traditional ethnic            (1913).68 Both Castilian and Catalan (since 1979) are the official languages of Catalunya and the
minority are the Gypsies, who seemed to have arrived in Spain at the end of Middle Ages.                             Balearic Islands (since 1983) and in Valencia the Catalan is called Valenciano, denomination which is
                                                                                                                     recognized by the Statute of Autonomy. "The two official languages of the Autonomous Community
Their nomadic way of life has dispersed them all over the country, although the greatest number,
                                                                                                                     are the Valenciano and the Castilian. Everyone has the right to know and use them".69 The old King-
Gypsy communities, are to be found in Madrid, Barcelona and the larger southern cities.
                                                                                                                     dom of Valencia was set up as an Autonomous Community in 1982, and the Law for the linguistic
As in other countries, Spanish gypsies have for centuries managed to preserve their own culture and                  nomalization of the Valencian language was approved on 23 November, 1983 (B.O.E. Number 20th of
social organization, based on classes and lineages. The traditional pattern of segregation is increa-                20 January, 1984).70 Taking under consideration Catalan‘s linguistic domain it is also spoken in some
singly difficult to maintain in urban areas, where their integration poses conflicts in schools, neigh-              areas of Aragon and Murcia and, outside Spain, in the French Roussillon region, the Principality of
bourhoods and even in local communities.                                                                             Andorra and in the Italian city of Alguer (Sardinia). It is the mother tongue of some 5 to 6 million
Recent immigration is giving rise to new ethnic minorities as of yet not clearly defined. While Euro-                persons. Furthermore many Castilian or Spanish speaking people who live in any of the aforemen-
peans have no incorporation problems whatsoever, and the assimilation of Latin Americans presents                    tioned areas speak and understand it.
few difficulties owing to their cultural affinity to Spanish, the integration of Africans and Asians is
more problematical.64                                                                                                65
                                                                                                                          The Article 3 of the Spanish Constitution,
                                                                                                                          REAL ACADEMIA ESPANOLA, Felipe IV, 4, 28071 Madrid (Spain)
62                                                                                                                   68
     http://www.intschools.hl/general.htm                                                                                 MINISTERIO DE CULTURA, Secretaria General Tecnica, 'Guia de Servicios Culturales', Abdon Terradas, 7, 28015 MADRID
63                                                                                                                   69                                                                          In Article 7.1 of the Statute of the Comunidad Valenciana which includes the provinces of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia.
64                                                                                                                   70
     Direccion General de Relaciones Culturales, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, 28071 MADRID                           INSTITUT D'ESTUDIS CATALANS, Carme, 47, 08071 BARCELONA (Spain)
                                                                                                      Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Specifically, this is its domain: (In Spain): Catalonia 5.980.000 inhabitants 3/5 Valencian Country                        Basque grammar called batúa was adopted for official purposes.
3.350.000 in. Balearic islands 755.000 in. East part of Aragon 48.000 in. El Carxe (in Murcia) 2.000 in.                   As far as regional nationalists in Catalonia and the Basque country are concerned they claim to have
(Andorra): Andorra 38.000 in. (In France): North Catalonia (in the South of France) 330.000 in. (In                        histories that run separate to a Spain dominated by Castilian monarchs. However, Mr Aznar's gov-
Italy): L'Alguer (in Sardinia island) 37.000 in.71                                                                         ernment, has mounted a vigorous campaign against the Basque proposals for a referendum on self-
All these figures are just approximate, but the total population of Catalan speakers is about                              determination.75
10.540.000 people. From the linguistic point of view, these countries border on: Spanish - in the West
and South- , Occitan -in the North and North-East- and Italian -in the East-. But the main influence is
                                                                                                                           KINGDOM OF BELGIUM
from: Spanish, French and Italian, official languages in the countries where Catalan is spoken. Cata-                      Main information about Kingdom of Belgium
lan is found in the 21st place (out of 56)in number of speaker people if we compare it with other                          Kingdom of Belgium is quite a small country with a territory of 30,518 sq km and a population of 10,2
European languages, such as Danish, Norvegian, Eslovac, Eslovenian, Basque, and so on. As an                               millions. Belgium is a constitutional parliamentary monarchy. Over 55% of the population are Flemish
example, its territory is bigger than Holland, Belgium, Denmark and Switzerland.                                           (of Teutonic origin) 33% are Walloons (French Latin) and about 10% are foreigners. Over 75% of the
According to the demands made in a historic speech by the new leader of Catalonia's ruling national-                       population are Roman Catholic. The main languages are Flemish, French and German, and to a much
ists, Artur Mas, there should be added pressure for an extensive rewrite of the rules that have go-                        lesser extent Luxembourgish and Walon. 76
verned Spain since the transition to democracy 25 years ago. Futhermore Catalonia would also have                          The languages spoken in Kingdom of Belgium
to be formally recognised by the rest of Spain as "a nation", he said.72
                                                                                                                           Belgium's tangled tongues date back to when Christ was a toddler and Franks were forcing Celts and
Galician                                                                                                                   Gauls into the land's southern regions, making an early form of Dutch the norm in the north. And so it
Galician-Portuguese originated in Galicia at the beginning of the Middle Ages, and was carried by the                      remains, with French the accepted language in the south. Brussels, stuck in the middle, is one of the
Christian reconquerors outhwards, that is, to present day Portugal. Its first literary and notarial text                   world's few officially bilingual capitals.77
date from the 12th century. In the second half of the 14th century, after producing a splendid litera-                     From the time of the Franks through to the post war period, the dominant language politically and
ture, the language split into Galician and Portuguese, for historical and political reasons. It was the                    culturally had been French. This is the native tongue of the Walloons (there is also a Walloon dialect),
War of Independence against Napoleon, and even more the ensuing struggles between absolutists                              who are to be found in French Brabant and the provinces of Hainaut, Ličge, Namur and Luxembourg,
and liberals, that encouraged a certain literary renaissance of Galician, especially of a politicial nature,               whose neighboring namesake, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, also has French as its official lan-
with pieces in verse and dialogues or prose speeches, which are of interest today from the standpoint                      guage.
of the history of the language and society of the region. The true renaissance did not come till half-
                                                                                                                           Most Belgians have some knowledge of French, which is taught nationwide, but the number of native
way through the 19th century, especially via poetry. It became the co-official language of Galicia in
                                                                                                                           speakers is now down to 40 percent of the population and that minority has lost its pre-war intellec-
1981 but it is also spoken in areas of Asturias and Castilla-León. Approximately two million people
                                                                                                                           tual and social predominance.78 Thus the French language is somewhat cushioned by the linguistic
speak Galician, although due to its similarity to Castilian and the multiple interferences derived from a
                                                                                                                           enclave of Brussels (which accounts for 8 percent of the native French speakers).
practically universal bilingualism, it is very difficult to make an exact calculation. To this figure we
must add the Galician communities living in Latin American countries that use it.73 The Real Academia                      The Flemings speaking Flemish now constitute 60 percent of the Belgian people due to a high birth
Galega, founded in Havana (Cuba) in 1905, dictated its official standardization although the differ-                       rate coinciding with a tremendous growth in regional economic prosperity. Though the Flemish lan-
ences in dialect are not too profound.                                                                                     guage movement dates from the end of the last century, its continuous rise in status essentially
                                                                                                                           started in 1932, when French was ousted as the official language in Flanders. Originally Flemish was
Basque (Euskera)
                                                                                                                           a collection of dialects varying from region to region, but now although the Flemings are said to
Euskera, or the Basque language, is nowadays written with Latin alphabet. There are about 600,000                          speak Flemish, Dutch is its proper title, because the language, its grammar, spelling and vocabulary,
speakers in the north of Spain, the entire province of Guipúzcoa, in addition to the provinces of Viz-                     is shared with that of the neighboring Netherlands. The Provinces of East and West Flanders, Ant-
caya and Navarra and some areas in Alava, and in the western part of the French Atlantic Pyrenees                          werp and Limburg are Dutch speaking, as is newer Flemish Brabant. In Brussels, with some 10 per-
(approximately 100,000 speakers).                                                                                          cent of the total population of Belgium, about 15 percent are Dutch speaking.
With regard to the origin of the Basque tongue, there have been a number of hypotheses. It has                             German is spoken in a geographically discontinuous area which stretches for about 100 kilometres
been suggested that the language of the ancestors of the Basques was introduced into this part of                          along the border with Germany and Luxembourg. When describing the situation of German in Bel-
Europe by immigrants from Asia Minor at the beginning of the Bronze Age (i.e. round about the year                         gium, it is necessary to make a distinction between the areas awarded to Belgium in 1918 following
2000 BC).                                                                                                                  the Treaty of Versailles (the cantons of Eupen, Malmedy and St. Vith), and those German-speaking
Basque and Castilian entered History together, since the first text preserved in Castilian, the Código                     areas which have been part of Belgium since its creation in 1830 (Montzener Land, an area around
Emilianense, c.977, is also written in Basque.74 Euskera is the official language of the Basque prov-                      Montzen/Welkenraedt), or since 1839, following the division of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
inces since 1982, together with Castilian. The orographic features of the region have contributed to                       (Areler Land, which corresponds to the administrative district of Arlon, near the border with Luxem-
maintaining its linguistic diversity, which cause some linguists, based on the intercommunicative                          bourg). The latter region is now generally considered a part of the Letzebuergesch-speaking area, as
difficulties, to claim the existence of seven different Basque languages. To overcome this fragmenta-                      the local Germanic speech is effectively the same as the national language of the Grand Duchy of
tion the Royal Academy of the Basque Language was created in 1919, and in 1968, a standardized                             Luxembourg. According to estimates, the number of speakers ranges from between 95,000 and

71                                                                                                                         75
   MINISTERIO DE CULTURA, Plaza del Rey, 1, 28004 MADRID,                                                                       „Catalonia echoes Basque call for autonomy―, Giles Tremlett in Madrid, The Guardian, Wednesday October 23, 2002.
72                                                                                                                         76
   „Catalonia echoes Basque call for autonomy―, Giles Tremlett in Madrid, The Guardian, Wednesday October 23, 2002.   
73                                                                                                                         77
   REAL ACADEMIA GALLEGA, Tabernas, 11, 15071 La Coruna (Spain)                                                       
74                                                                                                                         78
   REAL ACADEMIA DE LA LENGUA VASCA-EUSKALTZAINDIA, Arbieto, 3, 48071 Bilbao (Vizcaya), (Spain)                       
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
100,000 (69,000 speakers in the officially recognized areas, and 20,000/25,000 speakers in the other            spoken on an occasional and informal basis in the French Community of Belgium. Walloon is spoken
unrecognized areas)79 .German is one of the three official languages of Belgium (alongside Dutch and            by an estimated 600,000 people in the greater part of the province of Liège, in the French-speaking
French). However, it is officially recognized only in the nine municipalities of the region of Eupen and        part of the province of Brabant, in the province of Namur, in the northern part of the province of
St. Vith (German-language community). Consecutive constitutional reforms in the 1970s, 1980s and                Luxembourg and in the eastern part of the province of Hainaut. Picard is spoken by an estimated
1990s have given the German-language community in this area certain legal powers, similar to the                200,000 people in the western part of the province of Hainaut. Lorrain is spoken by an estimated
other linguistic communities in Belgium, although more limited in scope. The German-language com-               20,000 people in the south of the province of Luxembourg and Champenois is spoken in a few villag-
munity (with its executive body and community council) can act autonomously in matters relating to              es in the west of the provinces of Namur and Luxembourg.84
culture, health, education etc. However, the German-language community forms part of the territory              In 1990 a decree concerning the protection and promotion of these regional languages and granting
of the region of Wallonia, and is dependent on decisions from the regional Walloon Council in impor-            them co-officiality was passed by the Council of the French Community. Following the adoption of the
tant socioeconomic matters such as economic policy, environment, public works, transport, energy                decree, a Council of Regional Languages was created to function as a consultative body in all matters
etc.80 In the official German-language community all public services are carried out in German, docu-           relating to these languages.The aim of the decree is to develop the presence of the regional languag-
ments are available in German and French and public officials must have a knowledge of German.                  es in the education system. At present, the languages are offered as voluntary subjects in various
The use of German is allowed in local courts and in the appeal court in LiPge. Public signs are usually         primary and secondary schools, and in third-level non-university establishments. 85 It is, however, not
in German. Some roadsigns, however, are bilingual (French-German)81.In the area around Mont-                    possible (and not intended by the decree) to introduce the regional languages as languages of in-
zen/Welkenraedt and in the municipalities of Malmedy and Waimes certain 'facilities' are given to               struction, as this would be against the Belgian language acts. Adult courses are being set up in many
members of the public who want to use a language other than French in their dealings with the                   places, and Walloon is offered as an optional subject in Romance Philology at several universities
public administration. However, this opportunity is seldom availed of. In the official German-language          (Brussels, Liège and Louvain-La-Neuve).The French-language public radio and television ser-
community education is entirely in German, from pre-primary to higher level. Primary school teachers            vice (RTBF) broadcasts some programmes in the regional languages. There are also a number of
are trained in German. There is no German-language university in Belgium. German-speaking stu-                  local radio and television stations doing the same. Some articles appear in the French-language press
dents either go to universities in Germany or take courses at Belgian universities through French or            in the regional languages. Several local associations publish periodicals dealing with the literature and
Dutch. Those who wish to enter German-language secondary school teaching, but who studied at a                  linguistic make-up of these languages.There is a great theatrical and literary tradition in Walloon:
Belgian university first need to pass a linguistic test. There is an extensive network of adult language        there are now two Walloon theatres and numerous publications appear in the language.
classes in German. A certain number of primary schools offer German from the third year on.There
are no television services in German. There is, however, one public radio service entirely in German,           SWITZERLAND
and there are also a number of local radio stations which broadcast in the language. There is one               Main information about Switzerland
daily newspaper in German. A large number of periodical publications covering a wide variety of
                                                                                                                Switzerland is a small country, situated in the heart of Europe. The area of the country amounts to
interests are published in German.Books, theatre productions, libraries, cultural centres, museums are
                                                                                                                41 290 sq. km., while its population accounts for 7 301 994 (in July 2002)86. Although the territory of
only some of the many cultural activities and facilities in German 82
                                                                                                                the country is rather small, it is populated by four main ethnic groups: German (65%), French (18%),
Approach to other than official languages                                                                       Italian (6%) and Romansch (Rhaeto-Romanic) (1%)87. Each of these groups has different mother
Luxembourgish is of Indo-European origin: Germanic, but classified as Moselle-Frankish (West-                   tongue: German (spoken as a native language by 65,9 % of population), French (19,5%), Italian
moselfränkisch) or Luxembourgish-Frankish by certain philologists and linguists.Luxembourgish is                (6,6%) and Romansch (called also Rumantsch or Rhaeto-Rumantsch) (0,5%). More than 9 % citizens
spoken in the administrative area of Arlon/Arel (Areler Land) which is adjacent to the Grand Duchy of           of Switzerland use another language as their mother tongue (English, Croatian, Serbian etc.) 88. Multi-
Luxembourg. There is no diaspora. Arelerland is a historical and toponomical unit.There are no official         lingualism is one of the main features of the country. This result in four official names of the country:
figures on the number of speakers of Luxembourgish. Estimates mention a figure of 24,000.In 1990 a              ―Die Schweiz‖ in German, ―La Suisse‖ in French, ―La Svizzera‖ in Italian, ―La Svizra‖ in Romansch, as
decree concerning the protection and promotion of the regional languages was passed by the Council              well as ―Confederatio Helvetica‖ with its origin in ancient Latin. In principle all four main languages
of the French Community of Belgium. Following the adoption of the decree, a Council of Regional                 have equal rights. However, French, German and Italian are Swiss official languages, whereas Ro-
Languages was created to act as a consultative body in all matters relating to these languages 83 .             mansch is used in the official communications with Romansch speakers, who in turn have the right to
Luxembourgish is officially represented.The official language of provincial and communal administra-            use their native language in addressing the central authorities.89
tion is French. In the last few years a certain number of bilingual street signs have been erected in           When we are likely to understand Swiss multilingualism, we have to acknowledge some facts from
French/Luxembourgish or Luxembourgish only. This was done by the local authorities in response to               the history of Switzerland. The Swiss Federation appeared in 1291, when the three states Uri, Schwyz
legal obligations in this area.The official language of the education system is French. More demands            and Unterwalden - the so called "Ur-Kantone" united against the surrounding aggressors. A citizen of
are now made for the introduction of Luxembourgish in schools. In one pre-primary school the lan-               each state sweared on august, 1st 1291 on a small mountain named "Rütli": "we will be a one and
guage is used as a teaching medium as part of a pilot programme. The teaching of Luxembourgish to               only nation of brothers ...". This lead to the term confederation ("Eidgenossenschaft"). However,
adults is very much in demand, especially among people working across the border in the Grand-                  within the next three centuries Switzerland was dependent on the Holy Roman Emperors. The situa-
Duchy of Luxembourg, but it is very much hampered by a lack of qualified teachers.                              tion changed in 1648, when Switzerland declared independence. From 13th to 19th century the coun-
Walon (including the other regional languages of Oïl: Champenois, Lorrain and Picard,etc.) is of                try territory was growing, next cantons were joining the federation, until it reached its final bounda-
Indo-European origin: Romance.In addition to French, there are also a variety of regional languages
79                                                                                                              85                                                           
80                                                                                                              86
81                                                                                                              87                                                        
82                                                                                                              88
83                                                                                                              89                                                                        
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
ries in 1815. Since this time new cantons have appeared only through division of the existing ones.                 dialects have remained intact, particularly in rural areas. Artists and writers tend to look toward near-
Swiss population by mother tongue                                                                                   by Milan, the cultural center of northern Italy. Of course, Italian is also spoken in other parts of Swit-
                                                                                                                    zerland by a relatively large Italian population which migrated to Switzerland as guest workers espe-
22 from among 26 Swiss cantons are monolingual. German is native language for citizens of 17                        cially in the '50s and '60s.92
cantons in northern, central and eastern Switzerland. French-speaking cantons are Geneva, Jura,
Neuchatel and Vaud in the western part of the country. Italian is spoken in Ticino.                                 The Romansch-speaking region
Three cantons in western Switzerland are bilingual, French and German. These are Bern, Fribourg                     The many valleys of Rhaetia (today's Grisons) were conquered in 15 B.C. by the Romans, and this
and Valais. In these cantons sometimes the language barrier reaches across a town, for example,                     resulted in the latinization of the original inhabitants. The isolation of the numerous valleys led to the
Fribourg/Freiburg and Biel/Bienne, where even street signs are bilingual. The only trilingual canton is             development of at least five distinguishable idioms besides Italian (each with its own written tradition
Grisons. Most of its inhabitants speak German, however there are Italian-speakers and Romansch-                     and each with several dialects) in three southern valleys--a unique linguistic phenomenon in such a
speakers living in the alpine valleys.                                                                              small area with no major cultural and commercial center. Rural migration around 1200 by the German-
                                                                                                                    speaking ―Walser‖ from Valais, and in the 19th and 20th century large migration to the economic cen-
There are many foreigners resident in Switzerland, who brought with them their own languages,                       ters of German-speaking Switzerland, as well as the influx of tourists have constituted a great threat
which taken as a whole outnumber both Romansch and Italian. In 2000 the census showed that                          to this linguistic phenomenon. In order to protect the language and culture of Romansch-speakers,
speakers of Serbian/Croatian are the largest foreign language group with 1.4% of the population.                    there was established an organization, the Lia Rumantscha93.
English was the main language for 1 %90.
                                                                                                                    An artificial standard Romansch language, "Rumantsch Grischun", was created in 1982, as a compro-
The German-speaking region                                                                                          mise between the existing idioms. It is used mainly for administrative purposes. However, in the
The term "German speaking Swiss" is not really correct, they actually speak Swiss-German ("Schwei-                  media and for literary works, most speakers prefer to use their own idiom. In 2001 a cantonal refe-
zerdeutsch"). Swiss-German is very different form the German spoken in Germany or Austria. Even                     rendum in Grisons approved Rumantsch Grischun as the form to be used in official election material
more surprisingly, there is no written Swiss-German at all. People in Austria, Germany and Switzerland              and the legal code.
share the same written German language, known as "High German" ("Hochdeutsch") - however, the                       Romansch is considered to be ―dead‖ language, because it doesn`t change anymore. They don`t
term "written German" ("Deutsche Schriftsprache") is far more accurate. The written German is very                  introduce new words for new things, instead they borrow terms from the German.
different form the Swiss-German, it is almost a foreign language. The German-speaking Swiss learn
―written German‖ at school, however it always retains an element of strangeness for them.                           The multilingual approach
People in each canton have their own, very distinct dialect. The dialects vary so much that it is possi-            Language rights are enshrined in the Swiss constitution. German, French, Italian and Rhaeto-
ble to determine where a speaker comes from, but generally they are not so different as to be incom-                Romansch all have the status of national languages (but only the first three are considered as offi-
prehensible to other Swiss-German speakers. The dialects which give the most difficulty are those                   cial). Everything from the list of the ingredients on the package of the groceries to the manual of the
spoken in the southern canton of Valais, but with a bit of effort from both sides even these can be                 most complicated TV set has to be printed in at least three different languages.
understood by speakers of other Swiss-German dialects. The language changes gradually from north                    Foreigners usually assume that the fact that there are four national languages in Switzerland means
to south and from east to west. Even though the French and the Italian spoken in Switzerland are not                that every Swiss speaks four languages, or at least three. However, the reality is very different.
absolutely the same as in the neighboring countries, they are not as different as the Swiss-German                  Although there are no central regulations for education, traditionally children in schools learn their
from the German-German or the Austrian-German. This poses a problem within Switzerland: French                      mother tongue (its official version) and one of other national languages. In German-speaking region
and Italian speakers who learn German at school are taught the standard language, and find they still               this second language is usually French, while in Italian- and French-speaking regions it is German. In
cannot communicate with their compatriots.                                                                          Romansch-speaking areas both French and German are learned during compulsory schooling. In
Radio and television allow the dialects plenty of scope, and they are also used to a certain extent in              German-speaking cantons children have traditionally started French from the age of 9.
churches and schools.91                                                                                             However, the approach has been changing within the last years. Although the Swiss can be proud of
The French-speaking region                                                                                          their linguistic proficiency and many understand the other languages of their fellow countrymen very
                                                                                                                    well. However, proficiency in the national languages is decreasing in favour of English. Quadrilingual
French-speaking part of Switzerland is called ―Romandie‖. It also used to have its dialects, but the                Switzerland is apparently becoming a two-and-a-half-language Switzerland. People speak their moth-
church and schools suppressed them in the rural districts. The French spoken in western Switzerland                 er tongue and English and understand a second national language.94 In 2002 Ticino (Italian-speaking
has some regional characteristics, but otherwise the Romands (French-speaking Swiss) speak French                   canton) deided to make English a compulsory subject, alongside French and German. In 2000 Zu-
as it is spoken in France. In fact, it is the Geneva reformer Jean Calvin who played a decisive role in             rich`s education minister provoked a wide debate by announcing that his canton intended to make
shaping the cultural and linguistic identity of these cantons.                                                      English the first foreign language rather than French. He argued that English is more useful in the
The Italian-speaking region                                                                                         world and moreover, since the motivation is an important ingredient in language learning, pupils are
In Italian-speaking Switzerland, however, dialects are part of the citizens` linguistic repertoire. The             likely to learn English more successfully than the do French. Opponents see that idea as a threat to
standard language is used in writing and in public, whereas the dialect is mainly reserved for the                  the unity of Switzerland. Moreover, they fear that French- and Italian-speakers will be disadvantaged
private sphere. While the construction and development of international traffic routes (St.Gotthard                 because they will still need a good standard of German to rise in their careers within Switzerland95.
Pass) and tourism from the north brought economic prosperity to what used to be the impoverished
southern part of Switzerland, it also resulted in a threat to the region's cultural identity. The rich local
90                                                                                                                  94                                                         
91                                                                                                                  95                                   
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Learning other national languages than the mother tongue is the necessity especially for the minori-                                                  THE BALKANS.
ties, such as Romansch- and Italian-speakers. The 50000 Swiss, whose mother tongue is Romansch
all speak German too. Thev have no other choice, as they form only a small language enclave within
the Swiss-German region (Chur – the capital of Grisons is German-speaking). The numerical and
                                                                                                                           THE BACKGROUND, THE WAR AND THE SPLIT
economic superiority of the German-spaeking region of Switzerland increasingly means that Italian-             INTRODUCTION
speakers are also forced to speak German if they want their region to have a say and survive eco-
                                                                                                               For ages one of the hottest spot on the European continent were the Balkans. This territory, among
                                                                                                               other things because of its strategic location, was the object of various conflicts between many coun-
Although for national languages are officially equal, there can be observed the growing domination of          tries and nations. The region experienced also some periods of stabilization, but the real and deep
German. Nearly all citizens of Switzerland speak or at least understand German. The investigation              causes of the disputes seemed never to find final and effective solutions.
into the proportion of non-German-speakers employed in federal offices and agencies revealed that
                                                                                                               The dissolution of the communist system in Eastern Europe proved to be a watershed for Yugoslavia,
German was the usual working language. Moreover, research has shown that earnings are considera-
                                                                                                               encouraging nationalist sentiments in its republics and laying the groundwork for the election of
bly affected by a worker`s mother tongue, with Italian-speakers at a particular disadvantage. This
                                                                                                               several separatist-minded governments by 1990. Soon the old and almost forgotten ethnic conflicts
facts cause that linguistic minorities consider their cultures to be threatened by German-speakers.
                                                                                                               were revived. All this circumstances led to bloody wars and finally the split of the Yugoslavian Repub-
The evidence show, that some dialects are dying out: for example the Ticinese-Italian dialect, which
has been spoken there since centuries, now is used only by 6% of school children in the region96.
                                                                                                               Wars, which had broken out in result of the falling apart of the Yugoslav Federation in 1991, were the
Cultures together or side by side?
                                                                                                               most tragic and longest armed conflict in Europe since World War II in 1945. They caused the death
Switzerland lies at the intersection of three great European linguistic cultures. Language regions have        of over 80 thousand people. The intensive work of international institutions and the involvement of
easy access to the culture of the neighbour countries, but at the same time they have also access to           the USA and other western countries did not put a definitive end to these wars, either. In Bosnia,
the culture of other parts of Switzerland. Radio and TV programs in all four languages can be re-              Herzegovina and Kosovo, only the presence of UN peacekeepers somewhat contained the situation.
ceived across the whole country. However, people usually tune the programs in their mother tongue.
                                                                                                               The present work will deal the history of the Balkans, the wars of the 90‘s and their consequences.
Moreover, Swiss writers complain that very few books have a readership outside their own language
region.In fact, language boundaries in Switzerland are not cultural or denominational boundaries. For          The work consists of two parts. In the first one the Balkans background and a brief history of those
some issues – a new abortion law, for example – different boundaries apply. Then, the Catholic                 territories will be presented. The second one deals with the wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and
populations (46% of Swiss are Catholics 97) stick together, whichever part of Switzerland they live in.        Kosovo conflict. The situation in that region is still dynamic and it seems that all the current solutions
In some cases there are also fewer differences between the language regions than between urban                 are temporary after all. For that reason and due to the contents of resource accessible the work
and rural regions. Language boundaries run between villages which celebrate the same festivals and             concentrates and analyses more precisely only the period up to the year 2000.
whose houses look similar. They run straight through the centers of towns with centuries of history.           This paper has been based on various Polish and foreign books (especially by Maciej Kuczyński,
The fact that boundaries and interests overlap holds Switzerland together and instills its people the          Krwawiąca Europa. Konflikty zbrojne I punkty zapalne w latach 1990-2000. Tło historyczne i stan
sense that they can only exist and retain their sovereignty collectively.                                      obecny), press releases from Polityka but mainly on information from various Internet pages.
Is there such a thing as Swissness?                                                                            THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Here arises another vivid question: is there such a thing as Swissness. Switzerland is in the highly           The conflicts in Yugoslavia were the next act in the Balkan wars; the result of long, tragic and compli-
unusual situation of being the home of three of Europe's major languages, but apart from Rumanstch             cated history of this region, which caused the inhabitation of this small territory by many different
- spoken by only 0.5% of the population - it has no language of its own. Whichever language group              nations, who were often forced to live within the borders of one country, while still remembering the
they belong to, the different Swiss communities have linguistic and cultural ties with one of their            many wars and sufferings of the past.
larger neighbours. It's easier for someone from Geneva to speak to a Parisian than to a fellow Swiss           THE BALKANS BEFORE THE RISE OF THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION (UNTIL 1918)
from Berne, or for a native of Ticino to read Milan's Corriere della Sera than the Neue Zürcher Zei-
tung.                                                                                                          1. OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF YUGOSLAVIAN LAND AND PEOPLE UNTIL 1874
The language communities eat different things and have different traditions and customs. Even their            The present territory of Yugoslavia was conquered by Rome in the II century B.C. In the year 395
shared history only goes back about two centuries. Before the Napoleonic invasion of 1798, some of             A.D. Emperor Theodosius the Great divided his country between two of his sons, Honorius and Ar-
the cantons even ruled other parts of Switzerland. The inhabitants of what is now Canton Vaud, for             cadius, creating the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) and the Western Roman Empire. The division
example, were the subjects of Berne, and did not enjoy the same rights as the Bernese.                         line ran through the middle of future Yugoslavian land. In time this caused that part of the Balkan
                                                                                                               nations were baptized by the Byzantine and the rest by the Romans, which divided the two groups
The Swiss themselves are sometimes puzzled about what they have in common apart from their                     for long centuries to come. The fall of the Eastern Empire in 476 A.D. and the weakening of the
passport, what it is that makes them Swiss. The Swiss say they are held together by the desire to              Byzantium caused the conquest of this land by Mongolian people. Until the end of the 7 th century,
stay united. The general attitude is summed up in the formula "unity, but not uniformity."                     Slavs had been throwing out the Mongolians, becoming masters of this region, as well as settling on
                                                                                                               the whole land of present Yugoslavia. At the end of the 7th century the Slav people divided them-
Elżbieta Łupkowska, Magda Kaczmarczuk, Jakub Borowiec, Michał Markowski /the Editor/                           selves into smaller tribes, which later became nations. The Slaves settled the furthest north, while
                                                                                                               more to the south were the Croatians and in the south-eastern part were the Serbs. The furthest

                                                                                                         Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
south, on the border with Greece, were the people later called the Macedonians. 98                                                            Serbia not being able to accept the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed a confidential
At the end of the 8th century Slavs and Croatian lands became dependant by Charles the Great. Slo-                                            organization, ―Unification or Death,‖ later called ―Black hand,‖ at the beginning of 1911. Its purpose
venia from this moment until the year 1918 had become a part of the German Reich, and later Aus-                                              was to act against Turkey, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, in order to join Bosnia and Macedonia with
trian. However, after German rule, the Hungarians had conquered Croatia in the year 1102. Both of                                             Serbia.
these countries accepted baptism from Rome.99                                                                                                 At the beginning of 1912, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece entered a military alliance and on
The Serbs and Macedonian ancestors accepted baptism from Byzantine and to present day they are                                                October 8th they attacked Bulgaria. In result of this war, also called the first Balkan war, Turkey lost
faithful to their Orthodox religion. The Serbs were the only people who managed to keep their land.                                           almost all of its property, mainly to Greece and Bulgaria. However, Serbia and Montenegro gained
However, Macedonia was divided into Byzantine and Bulgaria. In the 11th century, Byzantine formed a                                           very little territory. In consequence, together with Greece they demanded that Bulgaria give up a part
separate nation on its own land, called Bosnia, which was inhabited by Serbs. In the 11th century                                             of the conquered land. In response, on 29 June 1913, Bulgaria declared war on them, starting the
Montenegrins, (mountaineers who were settled on the mountains bordering with Albania) separated                                               second Balkan war. At the same time, Turkey and Romania turned against Bulgaria. The war ended
from Serbia. Around the year 1400, Bosnia fell apart and then, among others Herzegovina was cre-                                              with the defeat of Bulgaria, and Serbia acquiring most of the territories of Macedonia, however, the
ated (occupied by Serbs and Croatians).                                                                                                       rest of the conquered land was divided between Greece and Romania.
Near the end of the 14th century, the Turkish had started their conquest of Balkan territories. Al-                                           THE RISE AND FALL OF YUGOSLAVIA
though, there was resistance the Turkish successively conquered nation after nation. Until 1528,                                              1. WORLD WAR I AND THE RISE OF YUGOSLAVIA (1914-1918)
almost the whole Balkan region, except for Slovenia was under Turkish rule. 250 years of horrific                                             In 1914 Serbia and Montenegro started negotiations concerning the creation of a confederation,
Muslim slavery and unsuccessful uprisings were awaiting Christians of these Balkan areas.                                                     which would be the origin of a future nation, then called for the first time ―Yugoslavia.‖ The successes
The Turkish fought against Christian defiance by moving the populations from revolting areas and                                              of Serbs and Montenegrins considerably increased the pro-Yugoslavian state of mind among Croa-
replacing them with Muslims. Intensive works of converting Christians to Islam were also led. The                                             tians, Slovenians and Bosnians. 102
majority of the population, which converted to Islam, was in Albania and in Bosnia. Those who were                                            28 June 1914 in Sarajevo, a group of assassins belonging to a terrorist group ―Young Bosnia‖ mani-
converted (Serbs and Croatians from Bosnia and Albanians) became the key element allowing for                                                 pulated by the ―Black Hand‖ killed the heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, arch prince Franz Ferdi-
Turkish domination, actively helping in the suffocation of Christian uprisings. The Serbs and Croatians                                       nand and his wife, princess Sophie. In result, on 28 July Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. The
remembered this role played by local Muslims very well.                                                                                       existing military alliance system in Europe caused the quick expansion of World War I onto the whole
At the end of the 18th century, Montenegro was able to free itself from Turkish rule. The Serbs, en-                                          of Europe and its colonies.
couraged by this example, also gained independence at the beginning of the 19th century. 100                                                  Despite Austria-Hungary‘s advantage, Serbian and Montenegrin troops were resistant and only after
After Napoleon succeeded in Austria, he then in 1809 formed from parts of Slovenia and Croatia                                                German and Bulgarian armies entered in September 1915 were they defeated. In December 1915,
(Caryntia, South Istrian Peninsula, Croatia, Dalmatia and Raguza) Ikra provinces, which were included                                         most of the Serbian army and civilians retreated over the Albanian mountains and to the sea, where
into France. They existed until 1813, when an Austrian army had taken them over, but later they                                               they were evacuated by the British-French fleet to Greece. This winter ―death march,‖ in which
played a large role in Balkan politics. The Yugoslavian idea finds its origin here - the thought of form-                                     around 250 thousand people died due to hunger and cold, is the key element of Serbian national
ing one country from all southern Slovenians. After the Viennese Congress in 1815 the provinces                                               memory.
were divided between Austria and Turkey. As the Turkish rule in the Balkans weakened, other nations                                           The Serbs, who were evacuated to Greece formed a regular army and government under supreme
fought for their autonomy or independence.                                                                                                    power of the regent, prince Alexander Karadjordjevic. After long negotiations regent Alexander and
2. RESISTANCE AGAINST AUSTRIA-HUNGARIAN HEGEMONY AND THE RISE OF                                                                              the Serbian prime minister, Pasic came to an understanding on 20 July 1917 with the emissaries of
   YUGOSLAVIA (1875-1918)                                                                                                                     the Yugoslavian Committee (Croatian and Slovenian) in London, in order to create the nation of
The uprising in Bosnia in 1874 against Turkish domination prompted other nations (Bulgaria, Albania,                                          Yugoslavia after the war, under the rule of the Karadjordjevic dynasty. After the capitulation of the
Serbia and Montenegro) to armed demonstrations against the aggressor. In 1878, Russia entered war                                             Central Powers, on 1 December 1918 in Belgrade, regent Alexander announced the formation of the
against Turkey, pushing the Turkish army out to Constantinople.                                                                               Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia.
On the strength of the peace negotiations from 1878, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro                                                 2. THE FIRST YUGOSLAVIAN NATION (1918-1941)
gained independence. Austria-Hungary gained the right to temporarily occupy Bosnia and Herzego-                                               The Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia was a nation of many nationalities. Among 12 million
vina. Due to the rising danger from Austria, but also from Turkey many Serbs, Croatians and Sloveni-                                          residents, besides the three main nationalities there were 500 thousand Germans, 470 thousand
ans started to think about joining into one nation by gathering most of the southern Slovenians                                               Hungarians, 440 thousand Albanians, 231 thousand Romanians and 150 thousand Turks revealed in
(without Bulgarians). The Austrian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina differed the Croatians from                                           the 1921 census. Including the Jews, Gypsies, Greeks and Bulgarians the minorities counted about 2
the Serbs and Bosnian Muslims. In contrast to the Croatians, who thanks to the actual joining of                                              million people. The Macedonian population was not then distinguished. 49% of the population was
these regions into Austria-Hungary found themselves within the borders of one country. Bosnian                                                Orthodox (Serbs, Romanians, Bulgarians) and 38% was Catholic (Croatians, Hungarians, Slovenians
Muslims were against the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 101                                                                            and Germans). Muslims, who determined 11% of the population, were Bosnians, Albanians from
                                                                                                                                              Kosovo and Montenegro, as well as Turks and Macedonians. 103
                                                                                                                                              From the very beginning, the kingdom‘s government had to confront many conflicts concerning the
   For this section look: Maciej Kuczyński, Krwawiąca Europa. Konflikty zbrojne i punkty zapalne w latach 1990-2000. Tło historyczne I        countries‘ intricate ethnic structure. From 1920, the number of terrorist attacks organized by Croatian
stan obecny, Dom Wydawniczy Bellona, Warszawa 2001.
   Zlatko Osakovic, Democratization, democracy and ethic conflicts in the Balkans, Copenhagen 2000.
100                                                                                                                                           102                                                                                       For this section look: Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit.
101                                                                                                                                           103
    Ibidem.                                                                                                                                         Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
extremists and communists, as well as by the Macedonian independence organization, VRHO signifi-               The emigration government in London announced the continuation of the war by the alliance side.
cantly were increasing. On 16 August 1921, Alexander Karadjordjevic took up the throne. He was a               Colonel Draza Mihailovic took control of the resistance movement. His troops mainly Serbian soldiers
decided partisan of centralism and he depended mainly on the Serbs and the dominated by them                   took on the name ―Tchetnics‖. The resistance against the occupants was rather symbolic, because
army. The instability of the following governments, the terrorist attacks and the bad economic situa-          the Tchetnics were only starting to organize themselves. The communists, who were loyal to Stalin‘s
tion resulted in the dissolution of the parliament by king Alexander and his taking up full control. In        command, stopped all actions, in order to avoid upsetting of the Germans.
addition, in order to break away from the past he changed the name of the country to the Kingdom               It was not until Germany‘s attack on the USSR on 22 June 1941 that the communists under the rule
of Yugoslavia.                                                                                                 of Joseph Broz, known as Tito, turned to military attack. Not long after, a national uprising broke out
Croatian and Macedonian extremists continued their bloody attacks, using the help of Yugoslavian               in Montenegro against the Italians.
enemy countries, like Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria. Croatian Pravases turned out to be especially               The most critical attacks started in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Pavelic Regime established the
dangerous. Their leader was Ante Pavelic, who in the year 1930 formed a terrorist organization,                elimination of some of the ethnic groups in the recently formed nations, especially Jews, Gypsies and
―Ustashe‖ (Insurgent) with the alliance of Italy and Hungary.                                                  Serbs. The Croatians set up concentration camps, in which the one in Jasenovac was the worst,
In agreement with the Macedonians from VMRO, Ustashe assassinated king Alexander and the French                where tens of thousands people were murdered. Mihailovic‘s ―Tchetnics‖ quickly came with help,
Foreign Affairs Minister, Barthou on 9 November 1934. The death of the king deeply weakened the                however they didn‘t have a chance against the militarised Croatian army, who had the support of
central government in Yugoslavia and deprived the country of a strong leader in the following years.           Germany and Italy. In this horrific war between 200,000-250,000 Serbs, Jews and Gypsies most likely
Peter Karadjordjevic, became the new king, however, in his replacement the government formed a 3-              died.
person regency.                                                                                                Pavelic and the Ustashe are mainly responsible for the long-term prevention of enabling the Yugo-
Despite the rise in power of the III Reich and the increasing tension in all of Europe, an agreement           slavian nations to exist within the boundaries of one country. The memory of the slaughtering of
between Serbia and Croatia was made in August 1939. Banovina Croatia was formed within the                     Serbs, Jews and Gypsies in the years 1941-1943 and the role that the Croatians and Muslim-Bosnians
Kingdom of Yugoslavia on the strength of this agreement. In effect, Pavelic‘s radical nationalists were        played in it, became in the future one of the most important factors of the wide-range nationalism,
pushed on the side of political life, while the Yugoslavian government strengthened its position. The          which put and end to the existence of Yugoslavia.105
main goal of the Yugoslavian government during World War II was to maintain neutrality, when the               In 1942 the Tchetnics and the communists who at first fought together on the same side, later turned
country was surrounded from all sides by potential enemies: the III Reich controlling Austria; Hun-            on each other and despite the fact that Mihailovic‘s troops were greater in number they were eventu-
gary, Bulgaria and Italy presenting territorial pretensions. This type of politics was presenting good         ally defeated. The Tchetnics‘ leader made a crucial mistake in 1943, trying to fight on two fronts by
results until the beginning 1941, when it was Yugoslavia who entered the Three Monarchy Pact                   contacting the Italians in order to make local cooperation possible against the communists. This
(Germany, Italy and Japan). Its goal was the formation of a new order in the world.                            allowed him to obtain some support, however in the future it gave his enemies a serious argument
However, the pact with Germany was unpopular, and on the night of 26 March 1941 conspiracy                     treating him as a collaborator, which was then presented to the allies. 106
creators lead by general Dusan Sinovic, performed in Belgrade a coup d´état (attack on the nation).            Tito‘s armies were the most active of all resistant movement groups and were quickly growing in
The revolution was supported by the English intelligence, which wanted to involve Hitler in the Balkan         power. However, due to the transfer of the well known troops Wehrmacht and Waffen SS, Italians
conflicts. The new government accepted the countries entrance into the Three Monarchy Pact how-                and Croatians for a few months to Bosnia, the Tito communists lost a large amount of troops. On the
ever; they also made a pact concerning friendship and peace with the USSR.                                     other hand, there was a short-term victory, when the Italians announced capitulation. Consequently,
Hitler saw this as a sign of open provocation and one day after signing this pact (6 April 1941), the          Italian troops who were stationed in Yugoslavia surrendered, concurrently giving up their weapons to
axis countries attacked Yugoslavia from the north, east and south. Meanwhile, the Ustashe caused an            more active communists. Thanks to the gained weaponry, equipment and the new recruits, Tito
uprising in Croatia. The first day of war, thousands of bombers attacked Belgrade killing one thou-            achieved an advantage over the Tchetnics. Further conflicts between the Tchetnics and the commu-
sand people. On 17 April the Yugoslavian army surrendered, while the prime minister and king fled to           nists broke out. In this situation Mihailovic made the same mistake, agreeing on aid from the Ger-
Greece.                                                                                                        mans. This caused parts of the western alliance to get to Tito, who at this time already received aid
3. WORLD WAR II ON YUGOSLAVIAN LAND (1941-1945)                                                                from USSR. Thanks to this the communists defeated Mihailovic‘s army with no greater effort. In
                                                                                                               October 1944 Tito‘s army, working together with the Soviet army attacking from Romania, took over
Yugoslavia was divided between the victorious and their allies, where a large part was awarded to the          Belgrade.
Italians. They acquired a part of Slovenia and Dalmacia, as well as, the western part of Macedonia
and Kosovo, which were later joined to the Italian ―Great Albania‖. 104                                        In March 1945 Tito officially formed the Yugoslavian government. In April his armies, equipped by the
                                                                                                               Soviets and the United States, attacked the German and Croatian armies. In May Pavelic and his
Germany, Bulgaria and Hungary received smaller parts of the country, however, Croatia and Bosnia               government fled to Austria. Revenge of the partisans and local Serbs on Croatians and Muslims from
and Herzegovina were given to Ante Pavelic‘s Ustashe, who formed a Croatian nation on this land,               Bosnia was horrifying. In mass murders over 100 thousand people died, not just Ustashe and Croa-
leaving it under protection of Germany and Italy. In Serbia, the commanding officer of the German              tian soldiers, but also civilians.
occupational army took control. The Serbian government of Milan Nedice was under rule of the Ger-
man leader.                                                                                                    When Tito‘s armies were approaching Slovenia, general Rupnik (leader of the Slovenian formation
                                                                                                               cooperating with the occupants) on 3 May announced the revolution of the independent Slovenian
The Italian army occupied Montenegro. Occupants created many collaborate formations, which led to              country. It survived 2 days, after which Tito‘s armies conquered the entire country. The Yugoslavian
the quick breakout of a bloody domestic war. Together with the regular Croatian army and the                   army next entered to Italian Trieste to finish the shocking slaughter of civilians, Italian as well as
Ustashe formations they were used for the pacification and mass murders of the civil population.               Slovenian (5-10 thousand people died).

104                                                                                                            106
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                    Antoni Giza, Narodziny i rozpad Jugosławi, Szczecin 1994.
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Tito‘s victory was also completed in Serbia. In May 1945, when the battles were over in Kocevje in               sources in Yugoslavia greatly decreased. Another problem was Tito‘s catastrophic self-management
Slovenia, on Tito‘s orders about 30 thousand Slovenian captives, Ustashe, Croatian soldiers and                  system, which concerned the empowerment of employees in firms. When in 1980 Tito died, Yugosla-
Montenegrins and Serbian Tchetnics were gathered. All of these people were killed in Kocev Rog                   via had already been influenced by a severe economic crisis.
gorge. This mass murder ended World War II in the Balkans.                                                       FROM THE ECONOMIC TO POLITICAL CRISIS (1980-1989)
From 1941 to 1945 over 16 million inhabitants died, about 12% of the population, in this 400 thou-               For the first time in many years in 1981 there was a lack of nourishment in stores. Strikes and street
sand of Tito‘s partisans, Mihailovic‘s Tchetnics, soldiers from pro-German formations, and over 1                manifestations began arising and emigration increased. In the mid 1980‘s inflation reached 140%
million civilians! What‘s worse, the country was divided with the memory of the battles and the most             annually, there was over 1 million unemployed and Yugoslavia with great trouble paid off interest
horrific war in the history of Yugoslavian lands.                                                                from foreign debts, which were estimated at $19 billion. With the rise of discontent, serious incidents
THE SECOND YUGOSLAVIAN NATION UNDER TITO’S CONTROL (1945-1980)                                                   broke out in Kosovo. In 1986 the general atmosphere among citizens was becoming critical. The
The new leader of Yugoslavia knew that the country was divided into aggressive ethnic groups, so he              communist party LCY (League of Communists of Yugoslavia) with the federal army was quickly losing
decided that it was essential to create such a country structure that would weaken the strongest                 power. After the death of Tito, there was no longer a person who would continue the unification of
ethnic groups and also please the needs of various ethnic groups. This is why the new country was                the nation. That is why local parties, who concentrated people of the same nationality, were con-
supposed to be a federation of 6 republics: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Montenegro as well             stantly growing in power, while the federal government and the collective presidency had less actual
as Bosnia and Herzegovina.                                                                                       power. The economic crisis strengthened these tendencies, since every republic tried to retain the
                                                                                                                 majority of their profits and their potential. The key factor in the future breakdown of Yugoslavia was
Tito‘s main priority was to weaken the position of the Serbs, being about 40% of the population. Tito            the rebirth of Serbia, which began in 1981 with different events in Kosovo, especially the coming into
created 2 autonomic regions: Kosovo inhabited mainly by Albanians, and Vojvodina with a mosaic of                power of Slobodan Milosevic of the Serbian local party, LCY. 111
nationalities (Serbs, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Slovakians, Gypsies). To end this Serbian-Croatian con-
flict and to weaken both nationalities, Tito created a separate republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina.107             In 1987 the leader of LCY in Serbia, Stambolic sent Milosevic to control the situation in Kosovo and
                                                                                                                 called to order local Serbian nationalists. Instead of fighting off nationalists he became their leader.
The element that finished off the construction of the new Yugoslavia was the classification of Islam             In 1987 Milosevic became leader of LCY in Serbia by using common anti-Albanian ideologies and their
living in Bosnia as a new independent nationality, Muslims (earlier some were known as Serbian                   will to keep Kosovo at any cost.
Muslims, or as Croatian Muslims). Because of the continuous slaughters of Serbians and Croatians,
Islam in 1945 was the largest in number in Bosnia and Herzegovina (about 45%).108                                Milosevic wanted to achieve 2 goals: abolish Kosovo‘s and Vojvodina‘s autonomy and strengthen their
                                                                                                                 power, in order to dominate the entire federation. His pursuit to changes in the constitution caused
However, this would not be enough to ensure the end of the ethnic conflicts, if it weren‘t for the               uneasiness in public opinion and local parties. Slovenians, Croatians and Macedonians feared that
conflict between Tito and Stalin and the Soviet threat towards Yugoslavia. From the beginning of his             these changes were the first steps towards restoration of a centralized nation controlled by the Serbs.
command, Tito was not pleased with the trust towards Moscow, since together with the Albanian                    The fall of communist regimes in south-eastern Europe and the weakening of USSR in 1989 consid-
leader Enver Hodza, he was the only communist leader in Eastern Europe, and by staying in alliance               erably increased the development of events. The intervention of soviet armies no longer was a threat
with Stalin he concurrently kept his independence. Tito, afraid of invasion by the Soviets quickly               to Yugoslavia therefore eliminating the key element in cementing the federation. The communist
made contacts with the West and gained aid from USA armies.                                                      authority was then questioned by new political movements that weakened another element in the
Tito allowed for much wider and stronger contacts with the West and for more allowance in their                  unification. What‘s more, this proved that other small nations would be able to successfully fight for
economy than in other communist countries, and this also resulted in the fact that Yugoslavia was                their independence. 112
wealthier than the countries belonging to the Warsaw Pact. Slovenia and Croatia especially developed             MARCH TOWARDS WAR (1989-1991)
since they had the easiest contact with the West and had a more traditional economy than the iso-
lated and constantly under the influence of wars and terror Bosnia, Serbia or Macedonia. 109                     The modification of the Yugoslavian constitution from 28 March 1989 by which Kosovo‘s and Vo-
                                                                                                                 jvodina‘s autonomy was almost completely abolished caused great concern in other republics, espe-
Conflicts between nationalities were weakened by force, but the complicated ethnic structure inside              cially in Slovenia and Croatia. The situation worsened by the economic crisis and hyperinflation – in
the country was still noticeable. In 1966, Tito removed the vice president of Yugoslavia, Serb Alexan-           1989 it reached 2500%. LCY, one of few elements unifying the federation, ceased to exist.
der Rankovic from all of his functions, who was also in charge of the secret police. He was openly
accused of ―panserbism‖; desire to once again subordinate all of the Yugoslavian nationalities to the            The federal government continued to do what was in its power to prevent the federation from falling
Serbs. Amongst Yugoslavian communists a phenomenon occurred, which concerned the infiltration of                 apart. Milosevic was now aware of the fact that Yugoslavia was going to collapse and unable to
social ideologies to one organization, which had the right to take up politics. Due to this the period of        prevent this he believed that Serbia during these times should keep all lands inhabited by Serbs in
Tito‘s rule was supposed to be unique in the history of Yugoslavian nations.                                     Croatia and Bosnia, as well as Macedonia.
In 1971 Tito led the reform of public institutions, putting in power a committee of 8 delegates repre-           In April, Milan Kucan was elected president of Slovenia. For the first time in May there were free
senting the republics and regions, in order to prevent the growth of nationalism. Each one of these              elections to the parliament in Croatia. Franjo Tudjman‘s Croatian Democratic Union was victorious,
delegates successively became chief of the committee and took power over the country for a one-                  and later he was elected for president. Tudjman, a former partisan and general of the Yugoslavian
year period. Despite the increasing rights of republics and regions, Tito was still in high command.110          army, spent 9 years in jail for ―Croatian nationalism‖. His goal was independence for his country and
                                                                                                                 unification of all territories inhabited by Croatians. Tudjman and Kucan quickly started to cooperate,
During the crisis in the late 1970‘s in Western Europe, income from tourism and the export of re-                officially in order to change Yugoslavia from a federation to a confederation. By the summer of 1990

      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
109                                                                                                              111
      Antoni Giza, op. cit..                                                                                           Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
110                                                                                                              112                                                          Antoni Giza, op. cit..
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
they started to prepare the declaration of independence and war in its defence. 113                                         Bosnia and Herzegovina: total population – 4.1 million, Muslims – 44%, Serbs – 31.5%,
Tito, in fear of invasion by the Soviets and in need of support for his authority, created a mighty                         Croatians – 17%, as well as Gypsies and Montenegrins
army. However in 1969, after the USSR invasion on Czechoslovakia, the Yugoslavian dictator called                           Macedonia: total population – 2 million, Macedonians – 67%, Albanians – 20%, Bulgarians –
upon a different formation, territory defence. In 1990 local territorial defence units and police in                        4%, Turks – 3 %, Serbs – 2.5%, as well as Gypsies and Muslims
Slovenia and Croatia were under republic control and became the origin of the national armies of                            Slovenia: total population – 2 million, Slovenians – 90.5%, Croatians – 3%, Serbs – 2.5%, as
both countries.                                                                                                             well as Italians
Milosevic decided to threaten Tudjman with secession of regions of Croatia inhabited by Serbs –                             Montenegro: total population – 630 thousand, Montenegrins – 68.5%, Muslims - 13.5%, Alba-
Kraina and Slavonia. August 19 Croatian Serbs announced autonomy of the province Kraina.                                    nians – 6.5%, Serbs – 3.5%
From this moment on in Kraina and Slavonia, violent incidents constantly broke out. Both Serbs and                 Source: Maciej Kuczyński, Krwawiąca Europa. Konflikty zbrojne i punkty zapalne w latach 1990-2000.
Croatians gathered weapons and prepared for conflict. Milosevic gathered more and more power only                  Tło historyczne I stan obecny, Dom Wydawniczy Bellona, Warszawa 2001.
for himself. The Serbian leader was keen on gaining full control over the country only for himself and
Serbia. Milosevic supported the Croatian Serbs. Their plan to make Serbia a dominating power was to                                                                 THE WAR AND THE SPLIT
be realized by including Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Croatian Slavonia, Kraina and Dalmacia,                WAR IN SLOVENIA
as well as Macedonia. 114                                                                                          The military action against Slovenia began on 27 June 1991 and was conducted by the federal army.
On December 23 in Slovenia, a referendum was held in which 88% voted for independence. 3 days                      It had 20 thousand soldiers in the regional bases but only 3 thousand were ready to fight, while the
later Milan Kucan announced independence of Slovenia, however underlining that this would be                       military ability of Slovenia was over 40 thousand. 118
possible only if the negotiations concerning the establishment of the confederation would fall                     Just after the beginning of the war, almost every federal unit was immediately surrounded. That
through. He was supported by Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Macedonia, however                        made the federal authorities sent the aircraft to bomb the Slovenian barricades. The bomb attack
federal and Serbian governments rejected this proposition. 115                                                     appeared to be a failure and the federal units surrendered or simply ran away. The rest of the sol-
On March 15, the Serbian republic of Kraina announced secession of this province and started to                    diers, staying in the bases, were blocked.
determine the boundaries of their country. Serbs living in eastern Slavonia also started to prepare for            The human cost of the first stage of fights was only 60 dead soldiers and 2 thousand jailed. Belgrade
secession.                                                                                                         could not sent any military help to support the already fighting army, as all additional units would
On April 1, Serbs from Kraina announced their accession into Serbia. From this moment in Kraina and                have to be delivered by sea or cross the Croatian territory. The last attempt of the federal soldiers to
Slavonia there was not one day of peace. Serbs and Croatians fortified their villages, hamlets and                 support the surrounded was carried out on 7 July, when special armored units left their garrison in
regions; they set up barricades on roads and introduced patrols on their territories.116                           Croatia, but they were caught in the trap set by the Slovenian. 119
On May 19, there was a referendum in Croatia – 95% voted for an independent and sovereign coun-                    During the whole war, there were only 100 people killed and few hundred wounded. Belgrade was
try. However, on May 28 Tudjman called for national military forces (national guard) and openly                    not focused on fighting with Slovenia, as the authorities wanted to take over Croatian territories
began preparations for defence. 117                                                                                inhabited by the Serbs. The peace treaty was signed on the island Brioni on 8 June 1991. Slovenia
On 25 June 1991, at 20.00 Slovenia and Croatia concurrently announced their independence. In                       finally won its independence and the war has not affected this country again. 120
response the federal armies began their military operations in order to gain control over these rebel-             FIRST WAR BETWEEN SERBIA AND CROATIA
lious regions. These series of events gave birth to the conflicts in former Yugoslavia lasting till present        The position of Croatia in the very beginning of the fights was much worse than the one of Slovenia.
day.                                                                                                               First of all, there were more federal forces staying on the Croatian territory. Moreover, the local
Yugoslavia‘s population in 1991                                                                                    Serbia military groups also controlled some parts of the country. These units could be supported
         Yugoslavia: total population - 23.5 million, Serbs –8.6 million (36.3%), Croatians – 4.6 million          anytime by the additional detachments from Bosnia or Serbia.
         (19.8%), Muslims – 2.1 million (8.9%), Albanians – 1.9 million (7.7%), Slovenians – 1.8 million           Serbian army had 28 thousand troops in the region, comparing to 75 thousand of Croatian armed
         (7.8%), Macedonians – 1.4 million (6%), Yugoslavians – 1.2 million (5.1%), Montenegrins – 600             forces (police and soldiers). The fights began on 26 June. Croats learnt quickly that Serbia and the
         thousand (2.6%), Hungarians – 500 thousand (1.9%), Turks – 100 thousand (0.5%), Roma-                     federalists tried to hide their cooperation. And while the forces of Croatia and Serbia were fighting,
         nians – 100 thousand (0.5%), other nationalities (Gypsies, Bulgarians, Slovenians, Italians,              the federal troops usually intervened to allow the Serbs to run away.
         Greeks, etc) – 600 thousand (2.6%)                                                                        Although the EC wanted to stop the conflict, trying to persuade Belgrade to withdraw the troops from
         Serbia (with Vojvodina and Kosovo): total population – 9.3 million, Serbs – 66.5%, Alba-                  the fights, on 7 July the federation frankly supported the Serbia rebels in the battle near Osijeck.
         nians – 19.6%, Hungarians – 5%, Muslims, as well as Montenegrins, Romanians, Slovenians,                  Croatia was forced to conduct the war both with Yugoslavia and Serbia. 121
         Gypsies and Russians                                                                                      From 22 July, Serbia was backed by the federal aircraft. Already on 1 August Tudjman announced the
         Croatians: total population – 4.6 million, Croatians – 75%, Serbs – 12%, as well as Hunga-                creation of the government of national unity, which included also representatives of other ethnic
         rians, Gypsies, Montenegrins and Muslims                                                                  groups. At the same time the Croatian proposed negotiations, as they wanted to win some more time
                                                                                                                   to switch their industry on the military production and to buy more weapon.
114                                                                                                                118
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                        Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
115                                                                                                                119                                                                        Ibidem
116                                                                                                                120
      Antoni Giza, op. cit..                                                                                             Steve Fallon, Słowenia. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal, Warszawa 1999.
117                                                                                                                121
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                        Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
On 15 August Serbia minority announced a creation of autonomy in the Western Slavonia. That                      organized military fraction Croatian Defense Council – HVO. Following these facts, Serbs created
meant the third front for the Croatian army (after Kraina and Eastern Slavonia). It is worth mention-            military units too. 126
ing that criminals, taken to the Serbia army, supported rebels. The most notorious were ―Captain                 After secession of Slovenia and Croatia, Bosnia announced its neutrality in the conflict. On 15 October
Dragan‖ and ―Arkan‖- Zeljko Raznatovica.                                                                         1991 the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina accepted the declaration of the independence of the
The lack of the armoured vehicles among Croats made it impossible for them to strike back. Till the              republic. That unleashed real storm of conflicts.
beginning of September the whole region of Kraina was taken over by the Serbs. Nevertheless, they                In referendum in November 1991, Bosnian Serbs were for independence of their region – Karadzic
also suffered their first defeat as Croatia won their battles in the towns of Sisak and Karlovac. Finally        announced the creation of Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The leaders of three parties
Serbia managed to gain the control over whole eastern zone in Croatia (from Knina in the south to                decided that on 29 February and 1 March, the referendum on independence would take place. But
Pakraca in the north). Furthermore the federal navy started to attack Croatian position on the cost              just few days before the voting, the military groups started to build barricades and the future lines of
and block their harbours.                                                                                        republic division already appeared. The Muslims overwhelmed in the center of the country and in
To get an armament the Croats decided to take over the garrisons and the ammunition, weapon and                  Sarajevo and Tuzla, while the Croatians controlled Western Herzegovina and Serbs Eastern Herzego-
vehicles being held there. After these battles the federal army began a big offensive. A total war had           vina and Western Bosnia. 127
begun, what resulted in an action taken by the UN. The Security Council imposed an embargo on                    On 1 March 1992, just before announcing the results of referendum, the war began. These were
arms shipments in the Balkan region. Despite this fact, the war began for good. Almost whole territo-            mainly the fights of the local military units. The biggest problem for the leaders appeared to be a lack
ry of Croatia was under fire. 122                                                                                of support from many people living in Bosnia (three ethnic groups; people often lived in mixed mar-
In November Serbia started the evacuation of its garrisons. In the same time the federal navy                    riages and they did not identify with a certain group). The creation of the native states had been
stopped its harbour blockade under the EC pressure. And while eyes of the world‘s public opinion                 postponed, as the leaders understood the necessity of building strong military position. The negotia-
where focused on Osijeck, the Croatian army started the strike back. The initiative came back to                 tions were stopped till the end of March, generally, without being interrupted by any king of serious,
Croatia, as its troops started to win, the Serbs were forced to withdraw some forces to Bosnia and               military incident.128
Kosovo. Finally, Germany acknowledged the independence of Slovenia and Croatia, and EC imposed                   The real war started with the beginning of April. During a peace manifestation in Sarajevo, military
sanctions on whole Yugoslavia. On 3 January 1992 special representative of the UN managed to                     units were shooting and killing innocent people, who just wanted new elections. After this sad acci-
negotiate an armistice. 123                                                                                      dent the governments of the EC and the USA accepted the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This agreement gave the Serbs whole territory they had occupied. But Croatia understood the neces-               At the beginning the military initiative belonged to the Serbs, who took control over a half of territory.
sity of more time to get the lost land back. Furthermore Mr Milosevic knew that Serbia had achieved              The prisoners where held in the concentration camps, probably the biggest hell on earth during the
everything they had wanted. Longer war could bring only problems. The Yugoslavian economy was                    whole conflict. A big, long-lasting battle began in Sarajevo between the Serbs and Muslims. The
already exhausted and Bosnia started to draw the attention and efforts of the federation. On 15                  Serbs had been supported by the federal army, which after the creation of the New Yugoslavia was
January 1992 the countries of the EC accepted the independence of Slovenia and Croatia. 124                      withdrawn from the territory of Bosnia. But they left some of their machines and ammunition to the
The UN forces - UNPROFOR (14 thousand) were located in Croatia to keep peace, while all Serbs                    Bosnian Serbs.
were told to leave Croatian territory. The first stage of this war was closed, but the definite solution         On 1 July the Special Forces of the UN landed in Sarajevo to secure the local airport and make it
was postponed till 1995.                                                                                         finally possible to deliver humanitarian aid in the region. News about a cruelty in the conflict started
WAR IN BOSNIA AND THE SECOND WAR BETWEEN SERBIA AND CROATIA                                                      to reach the public opinion of the world. The estimations show that probably between 4 to 8 thou-
Along with the democratisation process all over the Eastern and Central Europe, also in Bosnia and               sand civilians and prisoners had been killed by the Serbs. The report of the UN special representative
Herzegovina new political parties started to emerge. One of the firsts was Muslim Party of Democratic            – Pole Tadeusz Mazowiecki proved the ethnic cruelty among every group and contributed to the steps
Action (Stranka Demokratske Akcije – SDA), with the leadership of Alija Izetbegovic and Ejub Ganic.              taken by the UN and Western countries to soften the crisis.
Another fraction was a nationalistic Serbia Democratic Party (Srbska Demokratska Stranka – SDS),                 In October a new kind of war began. Everybody against everybody. Almost 2 million people were
with Radovan Karadzic as a leader. The third party was Croatian Democratic Party (Hrvatska Demo-                 forced to leave their homes between May and October. Moreover, a lot of humanitarian aid was
kratska Zajednica – HDZ). These tree parties cooperated strongly to win elections with the commun-               stolen and sold on the black market. Even the enemies were able to stop fighting for few days to
ists in Bosnia in 1990. They managed to create coalition and to take over the power and all positions            allow the rivals to gather money or food, so that they could trade and earn money. This procedure
in public administration (government, police, army etc.). 125                                                    had completely destroyed the economy and society of Bosnia. Furthermore ethnic cleansing came
This coalition appeared to be a disaster in the very short time. Every minister questioned the decision          back in 1992, when 25 thousand of civilians were killed.
of another one. Money was spent on different aims than planed. SDS supported the idea of federa-                 First serious peace initiative was presented in the UN on 2 January 1993. It was called Vance–Owen
tion with Yugoslavia, HDZ – a big autonomy in the framework of federation; SDA hesitated between                 plan. In the framework of this project Bosnia was to be demilitarised and divided into 10 regions.
these two proposals. It simply led to the conflict. But soon SDA and HDZ started to talk about inde-             Every minority would get 3 and the tenth would be Sarajevo – inhabited by every group and admini-
pendence.                                                                                                        strated by the UN. Furthermore, the UN forces would also control the rest of autonomies, but the
In March 1991 SDA created secret Patriotic League – a military wing of Muslim. Also the Croatians                country would stay united and ruled by a president. The negotiators could work out a final solution so
                                                                                                                 the new initiative failed soon.

123                                                                                                              126
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                      Ibidem
124                                                                                                              127                                                
125                                                                                                              128
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                            
                                                                                          Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Serbia army dominated the front what made Izetbegovic and Boban accept the Vance-Owen plan.                    Croatians got 51% of the territory, while Bosnian Serbs kept only 49%. On 26 September the Minis-
Because of the fact that agreement was giving only 43% of the territory to Serbs the Serbian Parlia-           ters of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia, Croatia and Yugoslavia gathered in New York to agree that Bosnia
ment in Pale rejected to accept it.129                                                                         would remain one country, a federation of Serbia and Croatian – Muslim republic. This decision was a
The situation of the Serbs started to deteriorate. Many troops deserted, Yugoslavia couldn‘t send new          starting – point for further negotiations.
ones because of the uncertain internal situation. On the contrary the Muslim army was enriched with            Surprisingly the Serbs stroke back again what made the NATO air force bomb their positions. And
the new soldiers and weapon supply from the Arab countries.                                                    finally on 12 October the armistice came into the force. It was 36 th armistice and this war and the
Mr Milosevic realized that they should accept the plan. He understood that after the creation of the           first one that had been obeyed. 22 October was the first day of peace. 132
autonomy Serbia region could be incorporated into Yugoslavia. Nevertheless Karadzic didn‘t share               NEGOTIATIONS IN DAYTON, PARIS TREATY AND THE END OF CONFLICT
Milosevic‘s opinion, as he wanted the creation of the independent country. This difference in opinions         The talks took place in Dayton on 23 October. One of the first issues to discuss was the future of the
influenced the future stages of the war.                                                                       war criminals like: Karadzic, Mladic, Martic and Blaskic. They were abandoned to take part in the
On 20 July 1993 new peace project called Owen–Stoltenberg plan was announced. It considered                    political life of the future country.
Bosnia and Herzegovina to be divided into Serbia, Muslim and Croatian Republic. But the initiative             Another consensus was reached between Croatia and Serbia separatists, who agreed that Kraina
failed again, as the fighting groups did not agreed. Although the war continued and the world public           would come back to Croatia after two years of the UN control.
opinion exerted the pressure on their governments, the UN and NATO did not want to interfere.
                                                                                                               Probably the most important agreement was signed on 21 November 1995. It described the future of
In 1994 the USA started to support the built of the Muslim–Croatian alliance. Finally, in February             Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main ideas were: 133 134
NATO used its F-16 for the first time. The first sign of peace appeared on 1 March when Croatia and
the Muslims worked out a solution in Washington, which resulted in building a federation in Bosnia                      one country consisting of two federations (Croatian–Muslim and Serbia);
with 2 presidents, common parliament and government.                                                                    Sarajevo – a new united capital within the Croatian–Muslim territory;
Already on 23 June the new government of Bosnia federation was created, which was also a govern-                        a collective presidency, one central bank, two–chamber Parliament, Court of Justice;
ment of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After few days the foreign ministers of the USA, Russia and the EU                      guarantee of free flow of people within the territory;
announced their peace project. In the framework of this plan 49% of territory was given to the Serbs,
                                                                                                                        every republic could have an own constitution, government, police and army;
the rest to the new federation of the Muslim and Croatians. Milosevic supported this solution but
couldn‘t make Izetbegovic accept it. In order to avoid further sanctions Milosevic broke all contacts                   civil part of the agreement was to be controlled by the special UN representative: Carl Bildt (he
with fighting Serbs and imposed Yugoslavian sanctions on Bosnia. Nevertheless sanctions, which                          was substituted by Carlos Westendorp in 1997)
previously had been imposed on Yugoslavia hadn‘t been erased.                                                           peace was to be secured by IFOR (Implementation Force) in the number of 60 thousand troops
On 1 May 1995, Croatian forces attacked the Serbs in Western Slavonia. This offensive allowed the                       including 20 thousand from America, under American leadership;
Croats to take over the region in just 4 days. But this success changed nothing in Bosnia. Moreover                     the Americans promised to train Croatian–Muslim army so that they could face Serbia soldiers.
the fights affected more innocent, including the UN forces, as Serbs started to arrest them. Fortu-
                                                                                                               Peace treaty, which repeated the conditions of agreement from Dayton, was signed in Paris on 14
nately in just a month they were fretted. That fact made the US government to increase help for
                                                                                                               December 1995. UNPROFOR finished its mission in former Yugoslavia on 20 December, being substi-
Croatia, as it perceived Croatia, as the only force strong enough to stop Serbia.130
                                                                                                               tuted by the IFOR forces subordinated to NATO.
On 4 August, Croatian army attacked Serbia position in Kraina. Milosevic could not send any addition-
                                                                                                               BOSNIA AFTER THE WAR (1995-1999)
al units, as he could be facing then more serious American sanctions. He understood that Kraina had
been lost. That made Serbia troops realize that Yugoslavia wouldn‘t help. The morale of Serbia sol-            1. 1 JANUARY – 30 JUNE 1996
diers decreased significantly. 131                                                                             Summing up the 3.5-year long war in Bosnia this conflict resulted in ca. 80-90 thousand killed (within
On 18 August, Richard Holbrooke announced his new peace project for Bosnia. The country was to                 almost 60 thousand Muslims) and at least the same number of cripples; 1.7 million citizens were
be divided into Serbia and Muslim–Croatian parts. Sanctions on Yugoslavia were to be lifted. In case           forced to leave their homes and over one million left the country itself. Moreover the whole land had
of Serbia rejection of the solution, NATO was to help the Bosnian army. Moreover, the US promised              been heavily destroyed by the military actions, soldiers and looters. There were also mines every-
the Serbia region to confederate with New Yugoslavia, if they ever would like. But just few days after         where. The next problem was a wide access to the weapon of various kinds. All of that negatively
this announcement Karadzic rejected to accept the idea as his army again won some battles against              affected the future of the country. 135
the Muslims and Bosnians. That decision made the Western countries furious and they decided to                 At the beginning of 1995 the IFOR troops began its mission to Bosnia. This powerful force amounted
attack the Serbia position till they accept Holbrooke‘s plan. NATO finally supported Muslims in Bosnia.        to 60 thousand people, was well-organized and supported by NATO air forces from Italy and Ameri-
Soon Milosevic received all the rights from Karadzic to negotiate in the name of the Bosnian Serbs.            can aircraft carriers on the Adriatic Sea.
The talks began on 1 September, without any brake in NATO attacks on Serbia position. Finally on 8             The aim of Paris treaty was to finish with the division of the country. Meanwhile none of the sides
September in Geneva the peace negotiations among the chefs of the Foreign Offices of Croatia,                  wanted the unification. The proof for that was a mass exodus of Serb civilians from Muslim districts of
Bosnia and Yugoslavia took place. Yugoslavia accepted the independence of Bosnia with the borders              Sarajevo. Moreover, there happened everywhere various bloody incidents between the ethnic groups
from 1992; the government in Sarajevo accepted the Serbia Republic in Bosnia. The Muslims and

                                                                                                                     Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
129                                                                                                            133                                                        Ibidem
130                                                                                                            134
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                          
131                                                                                                            135                    
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
and their forces.                                                                                                 was held. According to the expectations in national districts won the ethnic parties. Summing up, the
However, there were also positive changes. On 9 January the air bridge with the humanitarian aid to               unification affords of the West failed and after half a year of the peace the conflicts were still alive.
Sarajevo was closed. In the cities under the control of IFOR an ordinary live was coming back. Fur-               2. 1 JULY – 31 DECEMBER 1996
thermore, all sides began to release the captives.                                                                In July due to the beginning of the trial in the Hague and questioning of witnesses an international
Surprisingly, on 21 January Bosnian Prime Minister, Haris Silajdzic, resigned. This bright and moder-             arrest warrant for Radovan Karadzic and general Ratko Mladic was released. The both ones were
ate politician appeared to be inconvenient for conservative and more Islamic Izetbegovic and SDA.                 forced to be hiding. 141
His successor was Hasan Muratovic, supported strongly by Izetbegovic. This way the president, SDA                 The summer of 1996 in Bosnia was the time of preparation to the elections. Simultaneously it was
and the radical Islamists had strengthened their position in the country. Relations between this group            one of the calmest period for a long time. The first refuges started to come back from abroad. But at
and the opposition were very bad.                                                                                 the same time many citizens of Bosnia were leaving for the USA, Canada or Australia.
Meanwhile the difficulties with the implementation of Paris Treaty were arising. The protests followed            The Americans began also the training of the Muslim army.
each arrests of war criminals (Serbs) or new division plans of Bosnian cities (Croats in Mostar). More-
over, IFOR was still discovering and eliminating many Muslim secret military training-camps and                   With the day of the voting coming the atmosphere turned more tense. In the regions of Serbs and
arsenals. At that time it was also proved that Bosnian Muslims were supported by officers of Iranian              Croats it was peaceful, because the ethnic parties did not have any competitors. However, in the
secret service.                                                                                                   Muslim areas Izetbegovic started a violent campaign against Silajdzic‘s and Beslagic‘s opposition. The
                                                                                                                  raiding parties, the police, the authorities and also the press controlled by the radical Muslims fought
Facing that situation the Contact Group for Yugoslavia (Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Russia and               against the opponents of SDA in various ways.
the United States) called a meeting in Rome for 17-18 February. Tudjman, Milosevic and Izetbegovic
were forced there to make some concessions, concerning war criminals, Mostar case and expelling of                The elections to the Bosnian executives once more confirmed that the peace plan was unrealistic.
Iranian officers.                                                                                                 Usually the ethnic minorities were not allowed to vote and the result was as expected. In national
                                                                                                                  regions the winners were national parties: SDA, SDS and HDZ. The Bosnian presidency fell to Serb
However, the declarations did not cure the problems. Due to deadlock in Mostar the EU administra-                 Krajsnik, Croatian Kresimir Zubaka and Muslim Izetbegovic, who with the highest number of votes
tor, Hans Köschnik resigned. The paradox was that this the faster rebuilt and dynamic developing city             became the head of the presidency.
- due to the EU funds - still couldn‘t cope with the ethnic problem, and the conflict, this time between
Muslims and Serbs against Croatians, arose.                                                                       The elections to the both parts of Bosnia were also dominated by the ethnic parties. SDA and HDZ
                                                                                                                  won in Croatian-Muslim federation, and SDS won in the Serb parliament in Pale. As the president of
In March the Americans began the next stage of implementation the peace plans in Bosnia – creation                the Croatian-Muslim federation Kresimir Zubak (HDZ) was elected, and as the Serb head – Biljana
of the common Croatian-Muslim army. The USA supposed that in the future the most possible military                Plavsic.
conflict might break out between Muslims and Serbs willing to win back their territories in Kraina and
districts in Sarajevo. Therefore there was a need to reinforce the Bosnian army, especially the Muslim            After the elections the Contact Group decided that the international forces will remain in Bosnia at
troops. This investment was to be financed mainly by the USA and Arabic countries and the training                least till the end of 1997, but reduced to 25 thousand soldiers. Their name was changed to SFOR
issues fell to Turkey. 137                                                                                        (Stabilization Force). 142

The real situation in Bosnia showed that the declaration from Dayton left only on the paper. Each                 In November the main theme was the conflict among Serbs over the control of the Serb army. Hiding
ethnic group did not tolerate another one. Each one just tried to gain control over a city or a territory.        Ratko Mladic competed with the new official chief, Gen. Pero Culicia.
The return of the refuges was a fiction. Locally the two-national coalitions arose, but their only aim            There also occurred some military actions against Muslim civilians.
was the fight with the third party. Under these circumstances no solid peace was possible and the                 3. 1 JANUARY – 31 DECEMBER 1997
internal diversification had deepened.138
                                                                                                                  In 1997 we should focus on the situation in the Yugoslavia itself. Milosevic did not recognized there
In that time among Bosnian Serbs a new internal conflict was arising. The counter parts were the                  the results of the elections to regional councils which were won by the opposition. In answer people
main fraction of SDS: on the one hand, president Radovan Karadzic and Mamcilo Krajsnik (with cen-                 came out in the streets. Finally demonstrations forced him to accept the success of the opposition.
tre in Pale and Eastern Bosnia), and on the other hand, Prime Minster Rajko Kasagic and Predrag                   Moreover this conflict had weaken the international position of Belgrade and its possible influence on
Radic (the region of Banja Luka). The latter group had good relations with Milosevic in Belgrad and               the situation in Bosnia.
insisted on dismissal of Karadzic, accused of war crimes. Karadzic, alarmed by this situation, decided
                                                                                                                  Meanwhile in Bosnia Croatians and Serbs developed and tightened the contacts with their origin
to dismiss Kasagic. This step met a dissatisfaction of the West. 139 140
                                                                                                                  countries – Croatia and Yugoslavia, what indicated the plans of the future integration of those Bos-
On 13 June an international conference was held in Florence to sum up the first months of the peace               nian territories with the neighbours. 143
in Bosnia. All the conflict sides were also forced there to sign the permitted armament quotas and
                                                                                                                  In spring 1997 an official visit to Bosnia was paid by Pope Jan Paul II. The mass in Sarajevo was
accept the date of 15 September as a day of parliamentary and presidential elections in Bosnia.
                                                                                                                  unfortunately a great opportunity for catholic Croatians to manifest their nationalism. That had
On 30 June under the pressure of western countries Karadzic resigned, but before he pointed Biljana               worsen the Croatian-Muslim relations additionally.
Plavsic, his associated, as the successor. On the same day in Mostar the voting for the city council
                                                                                                                  In the same time in Washington one tried to find out an effective solution to the impasse in Bosnia
                                                                                                                  (no unification, no refuges returning home, no results in hunting for war criminals). As a main cause
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
138                                                                                                               141                                          Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
139                                                                                                               142
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                       Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
140                                                                                                               143                                               
                                                                                          Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
of this unfavourable situation the government in Pale, led de facto still by Karadzic, was seen. There-          of the president – nationalist Poplasen. Eventually, using SFOR forces Westendorp bring order to the
fore the USA decided to support the authorities in Banja Luka with president Biljana Plavsic then                republic. Dodik came back to his duties but the presidential position remained empty. Later on, the
opposing to him and to make her power real. 144                                                                  tension also arose after arrests of Serb general Momir Talic and a political leader Krajsnik by interna-
The Serb society in this conflict was divided. Most of the army, the police, the Serbs from eastern              tional forces. 149
territories and Yugoslavia itself supported Krajsnik (and Karadzic). Plavsic gained the support also             Summing up the year 1999 in Bosnia, the country was still in a deep crises, the refuges had not come
from a part of the police and the army and moreover from the Serbs from western region, and finally,             back yet and none of the ethnic groups supported the unification process. Despite the removal of
what‘s the most important, from SFOR troops. The atmosphere became even more tense as Pale                       Karadzic‘s group from the political stage, both in Serb republic and in other regions the national
group tended to gain the power by force. Eventually Plavsic maintained her position, but only due to             parties were the leaders. In that situation the integration of the whole territory seemed impossible.
the presence and active operations of the international forces. However, the involvement of SFOR                 Moreover, Serbs and Croats were willing to connect their territories with homelands150, and both of
make Karadzic‘s camp even more popular in the society.                                                           them, as well as Muslims, remembered about their lands lost for other fighting parties. The next
On 13 and 14 September in Bosnia the elections to local councils were held. And again there were                 actual problem was also a dynamic and radical Islamic movement in Bosnia. Meanwhile due to Ameri-
won by ethnic and nationalistic parties. Only in Srebrenica, Drvar and Mostar, where the refuges were            can help the Bosnian Muslims possessed the most powerful army in the republic. All of that might
allowed to vote, won the parties of the ethnic minorities. That had complicated the situation addition-          lead to possible future conflicts.
ally. 145                                                                                                        KOSOVO
On 21 September the parliamentary elections took place in Serbia. The winner was again Milosevic‘s               The most recent military conflict on the Balkans was a war in Kosovo. But to understand that war,
party, next to Seselja‘s nationalists. Milosevic couldn‘t be the Serbian president for the third time, so        one must look back into the history.
he became the president of Yugoslavia. His first step was achieving an agreement between Serbian                 In the 14th century Kosovo was the center of the Serbian empire and site of its most sacred churches
leaders in Bosnia – Krajsnik, Karadzic on one side and Ms Plavsic on another one. Actually, Plavsic‘s            and monasteries. In 1389, the Serbs lost the land to the Ottoman Turks in a decisive battle fought in
opponents had no choice facing alternatively the intervention of SFOR.                                           Kosovo Polje. Over the next 500 years, neighboring Albanians continued to leave their homeland to
However, the results of parliamentary elections in the Serb Republic in Bosnia, won by the national-             settle in the region. By the time the Serbs reclaimed Kosovo in the Balkans Wars of 1912 to 1913,
ists were an unpleasant surprise for the West.                                                                   ethnic Albanians made up a significant portion of the population. They became a majority by the
4. 1998-2000                                                                                                     1950s as their birth rate boomed and Serbs continued to migrate north. In the 90‘s 1.8 million ethnic
                                                                                                                 Albanians outnumber Serbs in Kosovo nine times – a fact that combined with events of recent history
January 1998 was a crucial moment for the whole Balkans. On 15 January Croatia took control over                 compel ethnic Albanians to proclaim the land theirs. 151
western Slavonia with Vucovar. That meant that Serbs and Croatians had no longer conflict and could
even cooperate. Moreover, in Serbia and Yugoslavia the chaos ―at the top‖ finished. The elections                Although Kosovo was granted self-rule since Tito and the Communists founded the Yugoslavian
decided that new president would be Milan Milutinovic, supported by Milosevic. The order within                  federation in 1945, the constitutional revision gave ethnic Albanians in Kosovo control over local
Serbian and Yugoslavian authorities seemed necessary in the face of two new circumstances. Firstly,              affairs and the Albanian language equal footing with Serbo-Croatian. But Tito's death in 1980 offered
in Kosovo Albanian guerrillas started an open conflict with the Yugoslavian army and the police.                 opportunity to Slobodan Milosevic, then a rising politician who became leader of the Serbian com-
Secondly, the power in Montenegro was taken over by president Milo Djukanovic, Milosevic‘s oppo-                 munist party in 1986. Capitalizing on the Serbian resentment toward ethnic Albanians and Tito, Milo-
nent and supporter the confederational concept of Yugoslavia. Therefore Milosevic facing that two                sevic used the Kosovo issue to stir nationalism. In rallies, he exhorted Serbs to fight for the province
serious internal problems was forced to make concessions in Bosnia. 146                                          that he declared they would win back. 152 153
Meanwhile in Bosnia the Serbs stayed in deadlock, not able to choose the government after the                    When Milosevic became president in 1989, he stripped Kosovo's autonomy, and later forced Albanians
elections. Finally after the treat of UN representative Westendorp that they would be given the head             from their state jobs, shut down their media and suppressed the Albanian language. He also disman-
by force they constructed a government, of course - to the wish of the West - supported by Biljana               tled the legislative assembly after ethnic Albanian legislators declared independence. 154
Plavsic‘s party. As a Prime Minster Milorad Dodik was appointed. He was rather ―west-orientated‖ and             In the early 90‘s Belgrade ―forgot‖ about the province as the federation started to break up. The
willing to implement decisions of the Dayton Treaty, to expel war criminals and to get the power back            Albanian leaders took advantage of such situation and created an underground state with the whole
from Karadzic‘s group. Moreover, he moved the Serbian capital to Banja Luka and started cooperation              administration. The ethnic majority operated a parallel government which staged its own elections.
with Muslims. 147 148                                                                                            The government collected money to fund social services from Albanians in Kosovo, Albania and
Westendorp attempted also to unify the whole Bosnia. He insisted on acceptance of a common flag,                 abroad. Ethnic Albanians also ran their own schools and universities and got their news from Alba-
one passport, a single currency. He hoped to weaken the nationalistic movements in perspective of                nian-language sources; simultaneously Serbians relied on Serbian TV and Belgrade newspapers. 155 156
parliamentary and presidential elections in September.                                                           The Albanian political leader was Ibrahim Rugova, a writer and political intellectual voted "president"
However, his affords turned out to be vain. The September voting was won by ethnic parties again.                during the 1992 shadow government elections. However, his nonviolent stance against Serbian rule
That result met a high dissatisfaction of Westendorp and he even threatened to take the power by
himself on UN behalf. Indeed he cut off a part of Serbian territory and gave it under UN control. That           149
                                                                                                                     Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
decision caused serious protests of the Serb society, a resignation of Dodik‘s cabinet and a demission           150
                                                                                                                     After the death of Croatian president Tudjman elected president Stipe Mesic announced that his country officially resigned from the
                                                                                                                 territories in Bosnia. That was a move necessary in a perspective of integration of Croatia with the EU.
                                                                                                                     A. Magdziak-Miszewska /RED./, Świat po Kosowie, Warszawa 2000.
144                                                                                                              152                                                                    A. Magdziak-Miszewska /RED./, op. cit..
145                                                                                                              153
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                    Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
146                                                                                                              154                    
147                                                                                                              155
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                    Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..
148                                                                                                              156                                            
                                                                                                       Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
irritated the formation of an armed guerrilla group who finally decided to take matters into their own                                But in the very beginning of KFOR presence in Kosovo it was almost helpless to secure
hands. 157                                                                                                                the Serbs from the Albans taking a bloody revenge on them. Even in 2000 the situation was very
In 1996, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA, established around 1991) claimed responsibility for a                           unstable, KFOR hadn‘t still managed to disarm KLA and the Serbs continued to be attacked by the
series of violent attacks and started warfare with Serbian troops, which soon forced thousands of                         Albanians.
Albanians to flee into neighboring Albania. By February 1998, a new Serbia military offensive against                     SUMMARY
the separatists was launched during which many civilians suffered from the ethnic cleansings.158                          Summing up, it can be surely said that the Balkan tragedy of the 90‘s was the largest and the most
In the months following Milosevic's renewed attacks, the Contact Group responsible for negotiating                        bloody conflict in Europe after World War II and it has highly influenced the situation of the whole
peace in the Balkans leveled sanctions against Yugoslavia. However, the Kosovo turmoil revealed                           Europe. The war made the European leaders aware that the existing security mechanisms are highly
staunch political differences among members of the international community. The USA and Western                           ineffective and a new European defence and foreign policy is a necessity. Moreover, the conflict
allies condemned repression against ethnic Albanians, but did not support the KLA's aspirations of                        deeply shocked the society of Europe because of such an inhuman brutality at the turn of the 20 th
autonomy; the Albanians supported a NATO attack and an autonomous Kosovo. Russia, which shares                            and 21st century. It also indicated the power of the media, which created some widely believed myths
religious and cultural ties to the Serbs, opposed NATO intervention and saw the conflict as Yugosla-                      on the Balkan war, like the overestimated number of victims, Serbs seen as the only guilty of mass
via's affair. Meanwhile, the West, including the Clinton administration, came under fire for inaction                     crimes, solely negative opinion on international leaders – their inactivity.167
and failing to carry out threats of military action against Milosevic. 159                                                The stability of the situation on the Balkans remains highly doubtful. The presented picture of Bosnia
After peace negotiations, sanctions, and the threat of NATO military intervention failed to halt the                      after the war indicate that nationalistic moods are still alive and what‘s more very danger. Only the
conflict, NATO renewed its threat of air strikes in October 1998, after reports that the massacre of                      countries which are rather ethnically uniform, like Croatia or Slovenia are developing peacefully.
ethnic Albanian civilians was committed by Serbian troops. On 13 October Milosevic and US envoy                           Some future problems may result also from the strong position of KLA and the situation of Albanians
Richard Holbrooke agreed to a cease-fire that required partially withdrawing government forces, and                       (Kosovo, Macedonia). Moreover, the stabilization is needed in the New Yugoslavia itself. Milosevic has
allowing 2,000 inspectors under the aegis of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe                      been caught and is being charged for the crimes against humanity in front of the International Court
(OSCE) to monitor the cease-fire and activities of both sides. The truce temporarily ended the eight-                     of Justice in the Hague. However, many war criminals, not only Serbs, are still free. Despite breaking
month offensive that killed more than 1,000 people and left over 125,000 homeless. Milosevic refused                      with Milosevic‘s regime the nationalists in Serbia are still powerful and willing to influence the political
a request for an investigation into the killings of civilians by the UN war crimes tribunal. His hard-line                stage (the recent assassination of Prime Minister Dzindzic). Furthermore the authorities of Montene-
stance against pleas to end the fighting revived the threat of NATO air strikes. 160 161                                  gro used to consider the possibility of separation from Serbia. The autonomy has become also a core
Fearing that the civil war in Kosovo could provoke a wider Balkans war that could destabilize neigh-                      aim of the Hungarian from Vojvodiana and Muslims from Sangacu.
boring Albania and Macedonia, which in turn may pull in Turkey and Greece, Western allies pushed                          In that situation no detail forecasts for the region are possible but most probably the peace will even-
Serbian officials and ethnic Albanian representatives to meet for peace talks in Rambouillet, France.                     tually visit those lands and in a long period its citizens will also profit from the benefits of the Euro-
After negotiations the ethnic Albanians signed the peace accord but Milosevic rejected to do that                         pean Integration. One should hope this positive scenario come true because the instability on the
because he opposed a provision allowing for peacekeeping troops in Yugoslavia.162                                         Balkans for ages has influenced negatively not only that very region.
As a result of Milosevic's new offensive launched in March 1999 against Kosovo Albanians, and his                          Appendix: Map 1: Ethnic groups, Map 2: 1815 to 1839: After the Congress of Vienna, Map 3: 1914: Eve of the First
rejection of peacekeeping troops as outlined in the peace accord, NATO approved punitive air strikes                        World War, Map 4: Between the Two World Wars, Map 5: Nov. 1942: Height of Axis Occupation, Map 6: 1945 to
against Yugoslavia. Faced with its gravest challenge since World War II, on 24 March the Alliance                            1990: Cold War Stability, Map 7: 1991 to 1995: Open Warfare, Map 8: Ethnic groups according to the Dayton
                                                                                                                                         agreement, Map 9: International forces in Bosnia, Map 10: Balkan states nowadays
mounted its first attack against a sovereign nation in its 50-year history. 163 164
NATO bombs pummeled Serbia and Kosovo for 78 days, while on the ground, Yugoslav troops began
expelling ethnic Albanians from the region into neighboring countries. Approximately 860,000 fled
their homeland to refugee camps in neighboring Albania and Macedonia. 165
Finally, Yugoslavian representatives met with NATO military commanders in Macedonia to work out a
peace plan that would halt NATO strikes and allow the safe return of the refugees. On 9 June Yugos-
lavia signed an agreement that allowed for the withdrawal of their forces from Kosovo and the im-
plementation of a 50,000-member international peacekeeping force into the Serbian province. The
contingent, known as KFOR, was expected to stabilize the region and made possible a massive relief
effort planned by the European Union, the United States and other countries. 166

      A. Magdziak-Miszewska /RED./, op. cit..
      A. Magdziak-Miszewska /RED./, op. cit..
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                                        Source: &
      Miroslav Hadzic, Security ranges of NATO. Intervention in Kosovo, 1999.                                                                                            srv/inatl/longterm/balkans/contents.htm
      A. Magdziak-Miszewska /RED./, op. cit..
      Andrzej Nowosad, Wojny po wojnie. Jak ułożyć Bałkany od nowa, Polityka nr 25/1999.
      Andrzej Nowosad, Bałkańskie domino. Po interwencji w Kosowie – wojna w Macedonii?, Polityka nr 15/1999.
      Miroslav Hadzic, op. cit..
166                                                                                                                       167
      Maciej Kuczyński, op. cit..                                                                                               Andrzej Nowosad, Kocioł kipi, Polityka nr 40/1999.
                                                                               Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Agata Bzyl, Marta Kowalczyk, Jakub Maczel                                                                     of superiority they didn't see why they should use a language of workmen, farmers and servants. For
                                                                                                              in 1830 they were misled. Belgium would be French-speaking or it wouldn't be at all.
                THE FLEMISH-WALOON CONFLICT IN BELGIUM                                                        The Flemish movement - that indeed was mostly a language movement - came to put a spoke in the
                                       Historical Background of the conflict                                  wheel and shattered that dream. As early as 1912, the Walloon socialist Jules Destrée, got the mes-
                                                                                                              sage: "Ils nous ont volé la Flandre... ils nous ont volé notre langue", he wrote. ("They have stolen
Long long time ago…                                                                                           Flanders from us, they have stolen our language") Rather than be obliged to learn a language of little
Belgium has existed essentially in its present form since 1830, when an uprising led to independence          influence, they chose to withdraw into their own language region172.
from The Netherlands. However, the country's name goes back to a Celtic tribe, the Belgae, whom               2nd World war and post-war period
Julius Caesar described as the most courageous tribe in all of Gaul. The Belgae were overwhelmed,
however, by Caesar's legions around 50 BC, and for 300 years the area was a Roman province. Some              Belgium was occupied by the Germans in 1940. While the cabinet and other political leaders estab-
scholars believe that the southern part of Belgium was the northernmost area of true Roman cultural           lished a government-in-exile in London, the King remained in Belgium for the entire war. The King's
penetration, beyond which Latin never really took hold. The proto-Dutch language, spoken by the               controversial behavior during the German occupation forced him, in 1951, to abdicate in favor of his
Frankish invaders who swept through the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD, took hold north of                son, Baudouin, who reigned until his death in 1993. The current King is Baudouin's brother, Albert
that line168.                                                                                                 II173.

Throughout most of the Middle Ages, life in the area centered on the quasi-independent trading and            It was during the 1950s that new economic structures were established, which initially were to favour
manufacturing towns of Ghent, Bruges, Antwerp and Liege. After centuries of war and many acci-                the Walloons. But by the end of the decade the reverse was increasingly the case. The Walloon mines
dents of dynastic succession, the area that had come to be known as the Lowlands - comprising the             began to close, related heavy industry suffered setbacks, regional development organisations were
approximate modern territories of Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg - came into the pos-               established and American industry began to get a stronger foothold on the Continent. Whilst in Flan-
session of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor in the early 1500s169.                                           ders these developments were greeted enthusiastically, as the port of Antwerp boomed, in Wallonia
                                                                                                              they mapped the beginnings of a cycle of decline174.
Religion matters
                                                                                                              In 1962-1963, a democratic majority laid down the language boundary and established unilingual
The arrival of Protestantism polarized the Lowlands into two hostile camps. Religion has been another         regions. The same democratic majority - sometimes even a two-thirds majority and a majority in
source of division in Belgium's history, with the people in the north of the country inclining towards        each language group - granted limited language facilities to the French-speaking and entrusted the
Protestantism and the teachings of Luther. In the religious wars, the split became geographic and             official guardianship to the Flemish government. The constitutional revisions of the 1970s and 1980s,
political as the Protestants succeeded in establishing the United Provinces of the Netherlands in the         and the accompanying legislation, were all designed to preserve the language, culture, lifestyle and
north. The remaining Catholic territory after these wars, which did not have the same incentive for           spiritual beliefs of the different groups within the country175.
revolt, is roughly equivalent to modern Belgium170.
                                                                                                              Belgian Model
The New Kingdom
                                                                                                              Peaceful ―conflicts‖ between Flemish and Walloon politicians are part of Belgium‘s history. They regu-
After two centuries of Spanish rule, the Austrian Hapsburgs gained control of the country after the           larly break out on various grounds and sometimes bring the government to the edge of the precipice
Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Napoleon annexed it to France in 1794. After his defeat in 1815, Belgium            but since the birth of the Belgian state, there have never been any confrontations between the popu-
was awarded to The Netherlands.                                                                               lations and not a single drop of blood has ever been shed.
However, after 15 years of chafing against Dutch administrative and economic reforms, the Belgian             All the problems involving Belgium‘s linguistic communities have always been solved through political
people revolted and declared the independent state of Belgium in 1830. A progressive, almost repub-           negotiations and compromises. Due to the complexity of the political and linguistic landscape, the
lican constitution, was created, and the state was successfully launched with Leopold I, a German             Belgian governments of the past few decades have had to show ingenuity in the elaboration of the
prince, as the first King of the Belgians.                                                                    institutional engineering and safety mechanisms meant to protect linguistic minorities against majori-
For 84 years, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran           ties at various places in the country and at different levels of the Belgian political institutions. Conflict
the country during their attack on France in 1914. King Albert, the constitutional commander-in-chief         solving mechanisms have also had to be worked out.
of the armed forces, rallied what remained of his troops and, after joining the French Army, was able         The main characteristic of the Belgian solutions to language and community problems is the concern
to retain a tiny corner of Flemish Belgium near the sea throughout the war. Some of the fiercest              for the protection of linguistic minorities. This dimension of the ―Belgian model‖ and the basic com-
battles of World War I were fought on "Flanders' Fields.                                                      ponents of the reform of the institutional architecture can certainly be a source of inspiration to solve
The inter-war period                                                                                          peacefully local conflicts between linguistic communities in other parts of the world.
The inter-war years saw an unprecedented blooming of Flemish culture in northern Belgium and a                Several reforms of the state and of the constitution have transformed Belgium into a federal state.
sharpening of ethnic rivalry between the northern Dutch-speaking Flemings and the southern French-            Territorial federalism has solved most linguistic problems. The Flemish and Walloon regions are
speaking Walloons171. In fact it weren't the Flemish but the French speaking Belgians who, in the             monolingual, Dutch-speaking and French-speaking respectively, while the Brussels-Capital Region is
1930's, insisted on unilingual regions and rejected general bilingualism.                                     bilingual176.
The reason? The French speaking bourgeoisie refused to be obliged to learn "Vlaams". From a feeling
168                                                                                                           173                                             
169                                                                                                           174                                                              History/history_since_1945.cfm.
170                                                                                                           175                                           
171                                                                                                           176                                              b_n_minorities_Introduction.html.
                                                                                                           Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                                 Background of the conflict                                                   dominant region, has been gathering speed since the late Fifties-accompanied by a crescendo of
Territorial conflict in Belgium has primarily pitted the Flemish region against the Walloon region—with                       demands from the Flemish for political gains to match their newfound economic dominance.181 Wage
a Brussels center standing in the middle, and a small, peripheral German region as bystander. Disrup-                         rates are significantly higher in Flanders. Unemployment is 10.5 per cent in Wallonia but only 6 per
tive, non-violent territorial protest was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s and it topped in the late                         cent in Flanders. Long-term unemployment is more serious in Wallonia too. Flanders has created far
1970s, but it has declined considerably since Belgian and regional identities have become more inclu-                         more jobs and lost far fewer. Health costs, often an indirect indicator of social problems, are higher
sive since the 1970s.177                                                                                                      and rising faster in Wallonia and Walloon life expectancy is lower.
Territorial conflict in Belgium has linguistic roots. Dutch (or Flemish) has always been the mother                           Taken together, there has been a complete reversal. Wallonia has lost its sense of direction and
tongue of a majority of the population, even while in the nineteenth century French was the domi-                             dynamism. Wallonia has an image of being a ‗loser‘, with a self-image of low esteem, paralysis, out-
nant official language. The origins are fairly recent. French, the court language of the Habsburg                             moded and inflexible attitudes and institutions, poor adaptability and dependency on the state and a
monarchy, became the language of the administrative and cultural elite of Flanders and Wallonia                               particracie seen as more endemic there than in Flanders. By 1970 the conflict had been transformed
during Austrian rule in the eighteenth century. This process was reinforced by the French revolution-                         from one between Dutch-speakers and French-speakers into one between the Flemish region on the
ary occupants and their Napoleonic heirs. Meanwhile the peasants of Flanders continued to speak                               one hand and the Walloon region and primarily French-speaking Brussels on the other hand.182 How-
(though less frequently read or write) a range of local Flemish dialects. Despite a shared language                           ever, territorial conflict has only occasionally given rise to disruptive protest. The conflict as such was
base, Flemings and Dutch were divided by religion; the Flemish Catholics‘ suspicion of the Protestant                         most disruptive and most mobilizing in conjunction with religious or socio-economic non-territorial
ambitions of the Dutch monarchy contributed to their initial welcome for an independent Belgian                               issues.
state. Domination by French speakers was reinforced by early-nineteenth-century industrialization;                            Next we want to focus on influence of other factors on the level of territorial conflict.
impoverished Flemish peasants flocked to Wallonia, the heartland of Belgium‘s wealth in coal, steel,                          Economic factors.
and textiles.178
                                                                                                                              Models of uneven economic development link territorial conflict to economic backwardness and ex-
So until 50s, political, economic and social power rested primarily with francophones, even in the                            ploitation of a region by the rest of a country. What is important is to specify the conditions under
northern area now contained in the Flemish Region. Economic development enhanced the power of                                 which economically backward groups are likely to become separatist as opposed to economically
the southern region known today as Wallonia. Parts of the southern region were early beneficiaries                            affluent groups. A more straightforward economic explanation links ups and downs in territorial con-
of the industrial revolution, and developed heavy industries. The social and political status of the                          flict to the business cycle. A grievances-based explanation would suggest greater conflict in times of
French language promoted a strong Francophone presence in Brussels.179                                                        economic downturn because competition for scarce resources is sharper. A resource-based explana-
Language has always been a socio-economic marker. In the 19th century, those with power, money                                tion would expect intensification of conflict during economic prosperity because there are more re-
or aspirations spoke French. The roles are reversed in contemporary Belgium. After the Second                                 sources available for the mobilization of territorial protest. Neither model provides a sufficient expla-
World War, the reversal of Walloon economic fortunes and the rapid economic growth in the Flemish                             nation for the dynamics of territorial conflict in Belgium. However, a cursory comparison of table 2
region reinforced linguistic conflict between the two regions, and this consolidated the territorializa-                      with economic indicators does not provide support for either hypothesis. Territorial conflict was high-
tion of Flemish-Francophone conflict. The tide began to turn in the 1950s. Economic success in the                            est in the 1960s—a period of unparalleled prosperity—and in the late 1970s-early 1980s—a period of
Walloon region had depended to a large extent on heavy steel and coal industries, which were rapidly                          negative or stagnant growth, high unemployment and government deficit spending. 183
losing importance. Flanders, meanwhile, has boomed. Unencumbered by old industry or an unem-                                  European integration.
ployable workforce, towns like Antwerp and Ghent have flourished with the growth of service tech-
nology and commerce.                                                                                                          Territorial conflict is usually seen primarily as a domestic matter. But the rise in regionalism and
                                                                                                                              separatism is also often connected with the erosion of national sovereignty by economic globalisation
                           Table 1: The Regional Structure of the Belgian Economy                                             and international institutions. The most tangible expression of these twin transnational developments
                                                  Flemish region     Walloon region     Brussels      Belgium                 for Belgium has been European integration. EU membership has intensified the Flemish-Walloon
                           Agriculture   1949     15.5               9.3                1.5           10.5                    conflict because it has exacerbated divergent economic developments between the regions. But we
                                         1995     1.9                2.2                0.0           1.7
                           Industry      1949     51.6               62.3               46.6          54.4                    have seen that Flemish-Walloon conflict is only partly fueled by divergent economic interests. Though
                                         1995     32.6               27.6               19.2          29.2                    it is correct that European integration as a market-making process has made the preferences of
                           Services      1949     32.9               28.4               52.1          35.1                    Flemish and Walloon actors more divergent, it has also lowered the stakes of territorial conflict. It has
                                         1995     65.5               70.2               80.8          69.1
                           GDP/capita    1949     88                 103                132           100                     eased the terrain for federal reform, and as a polity-building exercise it has increased incentives for
                                         1963     90                 93                 148           100                     cooperation among these territorial units. An independent Flemish or Walloon region will incur smaller
                                         1988     102                81                 153           100                     efficiency losses from separation within a European Union where free trade can be enforced across
                                         1995     101                80                 161           100
                                             Source: Nationaal Instituut voor Statistiek; Jones (1998a.)                      countries. That is why some have predicted that a country like Belgium is more likely to break up
                                                                                                                              when it is an integral part of a single European market.184 But the potential benefits of separatism for
In 1947 over 20 percent of the Flemish workforce was still in agriculture; today fewer than 3 percent
                                                                                                                              political actors in terms of policy autonomy are also considerably smaller than in a world of sovereign
of Dutch-speaking Belgians derive their income from the land. There are more Dutch speakers than
                                                                                                                              nation states. European regulations limit the range of policy choices at domestic level, whether that is
French speakers in the country (by a proportion of three to two), and they produce and earn more
                                                                                                                              the federal, regional or community level. At the extreme, incentives for separation may evaporate.
per capita.180 This process, whereby the Belgian north has overtaken the south as the privileged,

177                                                                                                                           181                                                            
178                                                                                                                           182                                        
179                                                                                                                           183                                                                       
180                                                                                                                           184
                                                                                                       Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
The rules of EU decision making induce Flemish and Walloon actors to search common ground in the                          there, and for the time being they wanted to take advantage of this new-recovered sense. In post-
European arena. The most important formal institutional constraint is that the European Union recog-                      colonial Belgium there is a symbolic struggle for the cherished position of the colonized, the exploited,
nizes only member states, which makes it difficult for the regions or communities to act officially.185                   the oppressed, the black person. At all price one wanted to be black.188
Membership of the European Union is a double-edged sword for territorial conflict in Belgium. On the                      Phenomenons that support stabilization and the ones supporting separatism.
one hand, EU membership provides the most powerful external discipline on territorial conflict in
Belgium. It reduces the expected benefits of separatism; it constrains policy divergences among                           In Belgium there are several factors that fuel both tendency to stabilization and separatism. We can
Belgian actors; and it induces moderate and co-operative behavior among subnational and federal                           mention economic, political, psychological, religious, social background.
actors. At the same time, it reduces the cost of separatism as the benefits of free trade vary no                         What factors will tend to hold the system in a stable balance and what factors will tend to undermine
longer with country size. Small countries such as Ireland or Luxembourg benefit as much from Euro-                        the system and perhaps push it towards separatism? First, stabilising factors:
pean integration as Germany or Spain.                                                                                     Political investment
Generations’ turnover.                                                                                                    The political parties have invested considerable political capital in the process for a long time. They
Some sociologists argue that generations‘ turnover may weaken the support base for territorial con-                       will not wish to forfeit that lightly. With the exception of the far right, all parties have at least some
flict. Survey data of the mid-1990s demonstrate that the generation younger than 40 years is dis-                         investment in the process, whether or not they are in government. Indeed the Green parties have
tinctly less interested in Flemish-Walloon conflict. However, the implications for regional nationalism                   never been in government, but they supported the St Michael‘s Day Agreement of 1993 which was
are different for Flemish and Walloons.                                                                                   the latest stone in the procces.
For Flemish citizens, there appears a still relatively weak, but growing interaction effect between age                   Flemish self-confidence
and education. Young and educated people tend to feel more Belgian (or European) than the average                         Increasing Flemish self-confidence can lead to longer-term stabilization, as it could mean that the
Flemish citizen. This seems to point to the emergence of a pro-Belgian movement among Flemish                             Flemish numerical majority would lose its dangerous psychological sense of minority status: in Bel-
intellectuals, and that while Flemish nationalism has been historically strongest among intellectuals.                    gium you have a majority with a minority complex and a minority with a majority complex. Were that
The effect of age is more pronounced in Wallonia, and it works in the other direction. Walloon re-                        to become over time established accommodation between the communities-based on some conces-
gional identity is significantly stronger among the younger than the older generation. That effect is                     sions to the Walloons going beyond their numerical rights - might become possible, creating a climate
present across all educational or occupational categories, but Walloon nationalism is much less con-                      of greater mutual confidence.
centrated in intellectual circles than it is in Flanders. Anti-unitarist sentiment is strongest among                     Regionalisation
uneducated workers and radical regionalism is powerful among self-employed. Moreover, there is a
                                                                                                                          This will permit asymmetrical coalitions and greater flexibility in policies to take account of regional
shift from moderate to radical regionalism among younger Walloons, though few regionalists are yet
                                                                                                                          differences, reducing tensions within the system - as each community can go its own way - and
willing to embrace separatism.
                                                                                                                          potentially simplifying coalition-building. 189
The fact that, in Flanders, defenders of Belgian unity are primarily found among progressive political
actors but, in the Walloon region, mainly associated with traditionalist, ethnocentric values impedes
the mobilisation of a national pro-Belgian counter movement. Some Flemish and Walloons feel                               Both communities are attached to Brussels - an 80 per cent French-speaking enclave in Flemish
strongly about maintaining Belgian unity, but they promote very different models of Belgian society.                      territory, though a Flemish city until the 19th century when it became a government city. It can not be
                                                                                                                          geographically divided like Berlin or Beirut, as there is no distinct Flemish part. In the event of sepa-
Finally, there are strong institutional incentives in the Belgian system of dual federalism that continue
                                                                                                                          ration, it would be an almost insoluble problem to decide what should happen to Brussels. Hence, it
to induce politicians to emphasise territorial conflict and de-emphasise co-operation.186
                                                                                                                          has become a separate bilingual region, with strong guarantees for the Flemish minority. The prob-
Colonialism                                                                                                               lem of Brussels requires, as it were, the parents to stay together for the child. Otherwise a ‗velvet
The roots of conflict stick also partly in experience of colonization of Congo. It aroused very specific,                 divorce‘ would be quite likely.
even strange effects and interactions in Belgian society. The shadow of blame gathered with eco-                          The paradoxical effort of the rightist Flemish nationalist party, the Vlaams Blok, to extend its appeal
nomic diversities and claims bred surprising reactions and expectations in groups of conflict. 187                        to French-speaking people in Brussels illustrates the fact that, for many, Brussels is the last nail
So we may say that to some extent the Belgian identity has been the effect of the contact with the                        holding the country together. The Vlaams Blok is trying to win support in Brussels on the basis that
Congolese, a product of the colonial adventure. As this adventure came to an end, the Belgian had                         on many key issues - such as security, immigration, education and health-Brussels people would be
to get rid of his story on someone else, and he told it to himself, that is, to an other Belgian. For the                 better off as part of an independent Flanders. To make them welcome, the VB would even perma-
Flemish this other came to be the Walloon and vice versa. Self-evidently they had told this story                         nently guarantee the existing bilingual regime in Brussels. 190
always already also to each other, but only at the decolonization of Congo they were really thrown                        There are, however, also destabilising factors:
onto each other‘s company. There were no escape routes left now. No less self-evidently one of both
                                                                                                                          External factors
had to be the colonizer, the other decolonised. Curiously enough the former colonizers, whether
Flemish or Walloon, only wanted to pass for the colonized. There was no one who in the motherland                         Before the end of the cold war, the structure of European states seemed set in stone. It seemed
wished to assume for themselves the position of the colonizer. The awareness that something had                           unlikely any new European states would be created. Membership of the EU was also an important
been wrong with colonization all this time grew strong. Actually the awareness had always been                            argument against secessionist pressures within Belgium and elsewhere. Since 1989, numerous new

185                                                                                                                       188                    http://www.africana......
186                                                                                                                       189                                                                                         
187                                                                                                                       190                                           
                                                                                    Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
states have been created in central and eastern Europe. The velvet divorce in Czechoslovakia saw                     increase alienation, with a sense that the traditional structures are out of date, out of touch and
both successor states easily assume the membership of international organizations that had been                      irrelevant. 191
held by Czechoslovakia, including association with the EU. There is now no longer any international                  Other politically-died factors contributing to regional conflict in Belgium.
taboo on splitting states, provided it happens-as it would in Belgium-in a peaceful, democratic and
consensual manner. The international dimension is no longer a significant stabilizing pressure, and                  The conflict was also significantly fueled by Flemish-nationalist movements.
indeed the example of Czechoslovakia could offer a model.                                                            Although Flemish nationalism has enjoyed a history of just over eighty years (with a short break just
Lack of national political parties                                                                                   after World War II) it has proved to be sustainable. It led the struggle toward federalism in the 1970s
                                                                                                                     and 1980s, and leads the struggle today towards Flemish independence. The Flemish movement,
Traditionally, there were only three significant parties in Belgium, representing the three traditional              backed by religious leaders and civil servants, began a cultural campaign to strengthen Flemish cul-
‗political families‘: Christian Democrat, Socialist and Liberal. These unitary, national political parties           ture and language almost immediately after independence. 192
were an important cement, holding the country together. By the mid-70s all three had split into pairs
of Flemish-and French-speaking parties, making six in all. There were of course also the community                   Flemish Movement set forth several demands. In 1898, Flemish became an official language. This
parties and, later, the Greens and the far-right Vlaams Blok. The pairs drifted wider apart and tended               recognition transformed interethnic relations, as it strengthened the tendency to see Belgium as a
to be more concerned about forming alliances or ‗fronts‘ within their own communities, rather than                   bicultural society. Francophones reacted defensively against the pressure of the Flemish. In 1912, the
ideological alliances across the community divide. Each pair of ‗sister‘ parties first diverged on com-              Congrès Wallon advocated an administrative separation of Flanders and Wallonia. In 1912, future
munity issues, but then increasingly on other issues too.                                                            Minister of State Jules Destrée, in an often-quoted ―open letter to the King‖ stated, ―Sire, there are
                                                                                                                     no Belgians. There are only Flemish and Walloons,‖ arguing that eighty years of nation building had
Increasingly, there are not only no national parties, but no political families either. There is also not            failed to produce a dominant basis of identification, while ethnoterritorial groups had gained salience.
one, but two - or, with Brussels, three - separate political systems, with different centres of gravity.             Universal suffrage for men was granted in 1893, but multiple votes allowed Francophones to retain a
Wallonia is dominated by the Parti Socialiste (PS) and, accordingly, leans to the left. Flanders is                  majority of votes. This situation proved untenable, as it signified the domination of the majority by a
dominated by the Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) and leans more to the right. In Brussels, the Liberals,              demographic minority. Each reform changed the political and cultural climate to encourage further
with their FDF allies, dominate. The growing distance between the respective members of the three                    changes, but also mitigated the levels of hostility that could have erupted into violent conflict.
political families, with additionally parties operating in one community only (the VB), will make for
distinct coalitions at regional level and eventually for asymmetrical coalitions at federal level. These             After the war, Belgians established the Research Center for the National Solution of Social, Political
structural developments are reinforced and in part caused by the absence of national media.                          and Juridical Problems in the Walloon and Flemish Regions. The Center reported that the Flemish,
                                                                                                                     although the demographic majority, had minority status in military, political, diplomatic, business and
Lack of a national civil society                                                                                     cultural circles. The Center noted a gradual spread of French in Flemish areas around Brussels and
In the reform phase, the disaggregation and decentralisation of the then national civil-society net-                 along the linguistic border. These reports provided additional incentives for mobilization along eth-
works was necessary and desirable. It was then supportive of the reform process. Such networks                       noterritorial lines.
naturally gravitate towards the most relevant and effective power centres, in terms of their areas of                The Flemish demanded that the government redress the discrepancies but Walloons countermobilized
concern, as well as adopting an instinctive subsidiarity or proximity approach. As power centres                     against the threat to their position posed by the Flemish majority.193
devolved, they devolved. Now, this process may have gone too far. It contributes to the growing
separation of the two polities. Like political parties, civil-society networks could be part of a residual           By 1969, the Flemish raised another problem. Although the territory of Brussels had been set, the
national cement, counter-balancing centrifugal tendencies, if they were able and willing to do so.                   ―oil-stain‖ of Francophones in Flanders was growing towards the University of Louvain/Leuven, which
                                                                                                                     is east of Brussels in Flemish Brabant. Flemish speakers in the university agitated for the removal of
Finance issues                                                                                                       the Francophones from the University. The division of the university, with the creation of Louvain-la-
There have always been implicit inter-regional transfers, as within any state. These have become                     Neuve, symbolized the larger divisions within the country. These changes reduced support for the
more visible, and therefore the target of criticism, as federalisation has proceeded. They have                      unitary state as the notion of a common Belgian identity lost credibility. 194
seemed to be a one-way street, with Flanders as the net contributor to Wallonia. This has become                     Economic power has shifted over the years from Wallonia to Flanders. In addition, political institutions
particularly clear in relation to the most important remaining and increasingly expensive mechanism                  have shifted, giving more power to Flemings and decentralizing decision-making. These considera-
of financial solidarity, the social security system. Federalisation of social security, and with it financial        tions are further influenced by psychocultural factors such as group identification and perceptions of
responsibility, has become a key demand of the most radical Flemish nationalists. For Wallonia, this is              outgroups and motivations. These factors are compounded by the fact that the Francophone minority
regarded as non-negotiable. Failure to reach an acceptable compromise on this issue would be re-                     long held political, economic, and social advantages, leading the Flemings to become a ―majority with
garded by some in Flanders as a signal that no more could be achieved through inter-community                        a minority complex‖. As we analyze conflicts, it is important to remember that a single approach is
dialogue. At that point some would seek to put separatism on the agenda.                                             unlikely to address the problem completely.
Political alienation                                                                                                 However, various efforts to reduce a conflict, including symbolic, institutional, and economic meas-
Increasingly , these political structures, mentalities, processes and arrangements, put in place be-                 ures may promote de-escalation. These approaches will then create additional structural change that
tween 1970 and 1993, have come under critical attack as undemocratic, elite-driven, closed, inflexi-                 will influence the choice of the parties‘ tactics. An increased understanding of structural change is
ble, outmoded and unresponsive to new challenges. In the past, public support and indeed trust was
perhaps more passive than active, but it was available, provided the political system delivered. Now,
the system is subject to two different, though related, criticisms: one is essentially substantive while
the second is more a matter of style and approach. Worse, the extreme concentration of political                     191
energy in one direction has pitted political antennae against new issues, whose emergence has been                   192
ignored with the result that they have been addressed far too late, if at all. This has only served to           
                                                                                                        Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
promoted by sensitivity to the interconnections of the various sides of the social cube. 195                               themselves and the notion of Belgium as the single entity on the European arena.
In 1994-95 a Flemish-Walloon conflict developed with the Flemish people arguing that the French                            Conclusive remarks:
community had violated autonomy of Flanders by supporting cultural organizations on its territory                          Belgium today is held together by little more than the King, the public debt-and a gnawing collective
without prior consultation with Flemish authorities. Although the nationalists supported the conflict,                     sense that things cannot continue as they have. Of course the desire for a political housecleaning,
Flemish media denied all accusations of nationalism itself as the root of the conflict.196                                 Italian-style, is quite compatible with demands for even more federalization-as radical Flemish politi-
The language border that was established in 1963 has also become a strong cultural dividing line                           cians have not failed to point out. The generation of the Sixties, now in power, continues to play the
according to Derk Jan Eppink in an article in Internationale Spectator in 1998:                                            federalist and communalist cards; but recent polls suggest that most people, even in Flanders, no
"One does not only speak two different languages, one lives in two completely different worlds. The                        longer put regional or language issues at the head of their concerns.
public opinion in the two parts is completely at odds with each other and only shows a common                              This is especially true of new Belgians: the children of immigrants from Italy, Yugoslavia, Turkey,
interest during a soccer game of the Red Devils [the national soccer team] … The knowledge of                              Morocco, or Algeria have more pressing concerns. Even those who identify strongly with Flanders (or
Walloons about Flanders is very limited, and the same way vice versa. Slowly, one starts to see each                       Wallonia) don‘t see a need to abolish Belgium, much less conjoin their fate to another country, or to
other as foreigners"197                                                                                                    „Europe.‖ Language politics, then, may have blown themselves out in Belgium.
A farsighted professor of Liege university, G. Nijples, stated in the 1830s that: ―This is the beginning                   For similar reasons, the old „pillars‖ are in decline. Younger Belgians see the world rather differently.
of a struggle and God knows where this will lead‖. And the struggle goes on.                                               They are not much moved by appeals to sectoral interest-the same prosperity that has underwritten
―The Flemish movement that grew out of concern about and protection of Flemish rights, culture and                         the „Flemish miracle‖ has defanged the politics of linguistic resentment. What is more, Belgians no
language, has become increasingly concerned with nationalistic issues such as the place and legiti-                        longer align themselves with a single party or community in every facet of their lives. Declining reli-
macy of Flanders within a Belgian federal state. Nobody is interested in maintaining Belgium as such,                      gious practice, the accessibility of higher education, and the move from countryside to town have
especially with the acceleration of European integration. What do we have in common? It used to be                         weakened Catholic and socialist parties. This is a desirable development. Without the „pillars‖ Belgian
the Belgian franc, and now it doesn‘t exist"198                                                                            politics and public life may well become more transparent and less corruption-prone. In short, they
                                                                                                                           will cease to be distinctively Belgian. But what, then, will keep the country together?202
Tastenhoye takes this argument further:
                                                                                                                           One answer is prosperity. The obvious difference between Belgium and other, less fortunate parts of
"For Flanders it doesn‘t matter whether it remains inside Belgium or operates directly within Europe.                      Europe where politicians exploit communal sensibilities and corruption flourishes, is that Belgium is
Moreover, in order to achieve new social and economical relations, it is better to perform as an inde-                     rich. Brussels may be an unappealing, seamy city and unemployment may be high in Wallonia, but
pendent federal state in the European frame than in the jammed, chaotic social-economical context                          life for most people in Belgium is materially sufficient. The country is at peace-if not with itself then at
of Belgium.‖199                                                                                                            least with everyone else. If Belgium disappeared, many Belgians might not even notice. Some ob-
Thus the Belgian society is both horizontally and vertically divided. Each language community is                           servers even hold the country acts as a postnational model for the twenty-first century: a virtually
almost self-sufficient entities in the modern welfare state. The Belgian party system is even more                         stateless society, with a self-governing, bilingual capital city whose multinational workforce services a
fragmented (in addition to six unilingual parties representing the main pillars there are some regional                    lot of transnational agencies and companies. 203
and some post-materialist or anti-system parties), yet on the federal level it shows remarkable stabil-                    As we enter the twenty-first century, and an uncertain era in which employment, security, and the
ity or at least ability to cope with the crises (though, as some would argue, mostly delaying the inevi-                   civil and cultural core of nations will all be exposed to unprecedented and unregulated pressures
table decisions).200                                                                                                       beyond local control, the advantage will surely lie with countries whose governments can offer some
The main parties have in general successfully adopted the strategies that induced the decline of the                       guarantees of protection and a sense of cohesion and common purpose compatible with the preser-
regional parties.                                                                                                          vation of civil and political liberties. So Belgium does matter, and not just to Belgians. Far from being
To form a government is difficult: it requires multi-party deals within and across regions, „symmetry‖                     a model, it may be a warning: we all know, at the end of the twentieth century, that you can have
between national, regional, community, provincial, and local party coalitions, a working majority in                       too much state. But Belgium may be a useful reminder that you can also have too little.204
both major language groups, and linguistic parity at every political and administrative level. And when                    THE CONFLICT TODAY
a government is formed, it has little initiative: even foreign policy-in theory the responsibility of the                  Belgium is known around the world for its chocolates, its French fries, its mussels but also for … its
national government-is effectively in the hands of the regions, since for Belgium it mostly means                          linguistic problems.
foreign trade agreements and these are a regional prerogative.201
                                                                                                                           Peaceful ―conflicts‖ between Flemish and Walloon politicians were and will be present in Belgium‘s
Belgium has sometimes been described as a unique example of federation in terms of two features.                           everyday life. They break out because of various reasons. Flemish and Walloon people dislike each
On the level of popular perception, the country has already been ―split‖ into two ethnic parts and the                     other, this is why it would be very difficult to end this conflict. However, a significant fact is that no
bulk of political activity is directed toward regional governments — not to the distant center with few                    one has ever been injured in clashes connected with it, blood has never been shed.
competencies left. However, contrary to the always present fears of the final split-up, the national, or
federal, dimension of politics has not entirely vanished and the central institutions still reinforce                      All the problems involved with this conflict have always been solved through political negotiations and
                                                                                                                           compromises. Belgian political and linguistic background has been very complex. That is why Belgian
                                                                                                                           government has to be flexible to work out efficient mechanisms of solving these linguistic conflicts.
196                                                                                            The main characteristic of the Belgian solutions to language and community problems is the concern
      D.J.Eppink, The divorce of the Belgians, International Spectator, 1/6/98
      C.Trueheart, Wither Belgium,
199                                                                                                                        202
      Tastenhoye, We dont have to be afraid of an independent Flanders, Gazet van Antwerpen, 14/2/98.                        http://www.thevoice.student....
200                                                                                                                        203
      http://www.thevoice.student.kuleuven.....                                                                               http://www.thevoice.student....
201                                                                                                                        204                                                                                             Ibidem
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
for the protection of linguistic minorities. This dimension of the ―Belgian model‖ and the basic com-            discrimination, bullying etc. Few years ago a problem of NMBS (Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische
ponents of the reform of the institutional architecture can certainly be a source of inspiration to solve        Spoorwegen, National Company of the Belgian Railways) was widely discussed. Flemish said, that
peacefully local conflicts between linguistic communities in other parts of the world205.                        their priorities were being constantly neglected.
For many decades, a cultural dispute had been simmering between the Flemish and Walloon (French                  In May 1996 it came to an open conflict between the NMBS on the one side and the Flemish Parlia-
speaking) factions. By 1994, the Flemish and Walloon communities formalized their district regions               ment joined by the Flemish Minister-President Luc van der Brande on the other. Luc van der Brande
(plus a third German-speaking region) in a constitutional revision.206                                           even threatened to invoke a ―conflict of interests ― at the federal government210.
It was never a love match. But through 161 years of ups and downs, Flanders and Wallonia had                     The NMBS uses the following mechanism to avoid investments in Flanders: each time a new plan for
created a marriage of convenience in the name of Belgium. Now, just as Brussels is blossoming into               ten years is launched, the investments in Flanders are planned in the second halve of those ten
the capital of Europe, rivalries between French- and Dutch-speaking Belgians have erupted with                   years, while the Walloon investments get the first five years. But usually, after five years, the plan is
untimely fervor207. While Belgium has achieved great international status, its domestic politics remain          superseded by another, new plan, after most of the Walloon investments but before Flemish invest-
turbulent.                                                                                                       ments. The result is that Flanders don‘t get much. An example of this was STAR21, that was sup-
Conflict between these two factions is a hot topic. There is even a discussion forum about it on the             posed to run from 1991 until 2000, but was called of in 1995. The new plan is supposed to run from
website: I think that the opinions found there are a good illustration of the situation.            1996 until 2005, and most of the investments in Flanders are planned after the year 2000, while most
                                                                                                                 of the Walloon investments are planned before the turn of the century. If this plan too would be
„The conflict is still alive and kicking, and for the following reasons:                                         cancelled around 2000, Flanders won't have even seen much of the promised investments 211.
Until the second world war, Belgium's official language was French, and this while 60% of the popu-              There was definitely something wrong with the recognition of main axes by NMBS. Some of the
lation was Flemish !, it was the war that finally made an end to this.                                           important railroad axes that bring thousands of passengers to their work offices each day weren't
Many do not know this, but Brussels used to be 99% Flemish, it was like Antwerp, one of the big and              recognized as main axes, while other railroads in Wallonia that hardly have any passengers at all
prosperous cities of Flanders. With the creation of Belgium, the French-speaking liked the beautiful             were. In this logic, some necessary investments in Flanders were put aside, and moreover, to its own
and well-settled city near the language border, and moved in on a massive scale, without learning its            disadvantage, a lot of potential passengers were lost. Of course, as a national holding, the NMBS
native language. And ok, Brussels is now the European capital, so it should be multilingual, shore,              should indeed guarantee transport services in scarcely populated areas too, but it cannot justify the
but it doesn't stop in Brussels ! They come and live in nearby Flemish cities, and refuse to learn the           recognition of some of those Walloon main axes.
language !, they open their own stores and voila, another Flemish city is lost.                                  Fortunately, this problem was solved somehow and till now no new conflicts between Flanders and
The Walloons are lazy, it is actually Flanders that carry the Belgian economy, without Flanders, Wal-            NMBS have occurred.
lonia wouldn't even meet the criteria to join the European Union!                                                SUMMING UP
So? Well, they enjoy the same social benefits the Flemish do, which results in cash transfer of Flan-            There has always been a conflict between "La Flandre" and "La Wallonie". Like in the UK where you
ders to Wallonia of 10 billion Euro! That's over 1666 Euro per every Fleming, I don't know the num-              have Scotland and England, however, the differences are much bigger there. In Belgium the differ-
ber, but I assume the working population of Flanders will be around 2.5 million, so it means we                  ence between these two parties is the language. Apart from that they have the same traditions and
working Fleming pay 4000 Euro every year for Walloons social security!                                           habits. They all have the same passport, like the same food and beer.
And after all that, Walloon politicians still object to everything they can, and demand more and more            This conflict has a long history and it is a common knowledge that both factions dislike each other.
and more. Just know one thing, The Republic of Flanders would be the most prosperous country on                  However, no one has ever been harmed because of it.
the face of this planet (for real). So that‘s why this country should be separated !! Belgium is killing
Flanders !‖208.                                                                                                  There have never been any real conflicts between Belgian (Walloon and Flemish) people, as opposed
                                                                                                                 to conflicts between Belgian politicians. The best illustration for this is that even during the most
This is one of the longest and mildest opinions from this forum. One can find there also statements              heated episodes, no one has ever been killed or seriously injured in clashes connected with the
like: ―Stupid Walloon!‖ or ―La Flandre rules!‖.                                                                  linguistic conflict212. It suffices to consider similar situations in other countries (e.g. Yugoslavia,
This conflict is also present in everyday newspapers. The next passage is an actual letter to the                Northern Ireland) to conclude that such peacefulness is not a common rule.
editor:                                                                                                          Another important issue is that because of this mix of cultures and languages Belgium became what
―May I remind you that those ―rights for the French-speaking community‖ were set up in the 1970s to              it is today. Belgians are tolerant and flexible. They are open to external influences and unwilling to
allow the French time to learn Dutch, which they never did. They now owe themselves the right                    engage in offensive actions because they have many contacts with various cultures. This mix, in my
never to learn Dutch.                                                                                            opinion, resulted in the fact that Belgium has, since the Middle Ages, always been one of the richest
Also, tell your readers about the parity in parliament with 60% Dutch-speaking and 40% French-                   and most developed regions in the world and Brussels has blossomed into the capital of Europe.
speaking, how come the parliament is represented 50-50?!‖209.
In everyday life conflict between Flemish and Walloon is also present. One side accuses the other of

207                                                                                                              210
    Hornblower M., Europe, in: Time International, 25.11.1991.                                               
208                                                                                                              211                                                        Ibidem.
209                                                                                                              212,400,&item_id=26545.                                         
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Marta Majda, Katarzyna Gajda, Roman Łaboda                                                                     In the second quarter of the 19th cent. a movement that combined Hungarian nationalism with con-
                                                                                                               stitutional liberalism gained strength. Among its leaders were Count Szechenyi, Louis Kossuth, Baron
                                          HUNGARY                                                              Eötvös, Sándor Petofi, and Francis Deak. Inspired by the French Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian
                                                                                                               diet passed the March Laws (1848), which established a liberal constitutional monarchy for Hungary
HISTORY                                                                                                        under the Hapsburgs. But the reforms did not deal with the national minorities problem. Several
Growth of a State                                                                                              minority groups revolted, and, after Francis Joseph replaced Ferdinand VII as emperor, the Austrians
The Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dacia, conquered under Tiberius and Trajan (1st cent. A.D.),               waged war against Hungary (Dec., 1848).
embraced part of what was to become Hungary. The Huns and later the Ostroghots and the Avars-                  In Apr., 1849, Kossuth declared Hungary an independent republic. Russian troops came to the aid of
settled there for brief periods. In the late 9th cent. the Magyars, a Finno-Ugric people from beyond           the emperor, and the republic collapsed. The Hungarian surrender at Vilagos (Aug., 1849) was fol-
the Urals, conquered all or most of Hungary and Transylvania. The semilegendary leader, Apard,                 lowed by ruthless reprisals. But after its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Austria was ob-
founded their first dynasty. The Magyars apparently merged with the earlier settlers, but they also            liged to compromise with Magyar national aspirations. The Ausgleich of 1867 (largely the work of
continued to press westward until defeated by King (later Holy Roman Emperor) Otto I, at the Lech-             Francis Deak) set up the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, in which Austria and Hungary were nearly
feld (955).                                                                                                    equal partners but the minorities problem persisted, the Serbs, Croats, and Romanians being particu-
Halted in its expansion, the Hungarian state began to solidify. Its first king, St. Stephen (reigned           larly restive under Hungarian rule.
1001–38), completed the Christianization of the Magyars and built the authority of his crown—which             Hungary was one of the most aristocratic countries in Europe. As the military position of Austria-
has remained the symbol of national existence—on the strength of the Roman Catholic Church. Under              Hungary in World War I deteriorated, the situation in Hungary grew more unstable. Hungarian natio-
Bela III (reigned 1172–1196), Hungary came into close contact with Western European, particularly              nalists wanted independence and withdrawal from the war; the political left was inspired by the 1917
French, culture. Through the favor of succeeding kings, a few very powerful nobles—the magnates—               revolutions in Russia; and the minorities were receptive to the Allies' promises of self-determination.
won ever-widening privileges at the expense of the lesser nobles, the peasants, and the towns. In              In November the emperor abdicated, and the Dual Monarchy collapsed.
1222 the lesser nobles forced the extravagant Andrew II to grant the Golden Bull (the ―Magna Carta
of Hungary‖), which limited the king's power to alienate his authority to the magnates and estab-              Independence
lished the beginnings of a parliament.                                                                         Premier Károlyi (appointed in Oct. 1918) proclaimed Hungary an independent republic. However, the
Hungary fell into anarchy, and when the royal line of Arpad died out (1301) with Andrew III, the               minorities would not deal with him, and the Allies forced upon him very unfavorable armistice terms.
magnates seized the opportunity to increase their authority.                                                   The government resigned, and the Communists under Béla Kun seized power (Mar., 1919). The
                                                                                                               subsequent Red terror was followed by a Romanian invasion and the defeat (July, 1919) of Kun's
In 1308, Charles Robert of Anjou was elected king of Hungary as Charles I, the first of the Angevin            forces. After the Romanians withdrew, Admiral Horthy de Nagybanya established a government and
line. His autocratic rule checked the magnates somewhat and furthered the growth of the towns.                 in 1920 was made regent, since there was no king. Reactionaries, known as White terrorists, con-
Under his son, Louis I (Louis the Great), Hungary reached its greatest territorial extension, with             ducted a brutal campaign of terror against the Communists and anyone associated with Károlyi or
power extending into Dalmatia, the Balkans, and Poland.                                                        Kun.
Foreign Domination                                                                                             The Treaty of Trianon, signed in 1920, reduced the size and population of Hungary by about two
In the long wars that followed in XVI century, Hungary was split into three parts: the western section,        thirds, depriving Hungary of valuable natural resources and removing virtually all non-Magyar areas,
where Ferdinand and his successor, Rudolf II, maintained a precarious rule, challenged by such                 although Budapest retained a large German-speaking population. The next twenty-five years saw
Hungarian leaders as Stephen Bocskay and Gabriel Bethlen; the central plains, which were completely            continual attempts by the Magyar government to recover the lost territories. Early endeavors were
under Turkish domination; and Transylvania, ruled by noble families (see Báthory and Rákóczy).                 frustrated by the Little Entente and France, and Hungary turned to a friendship with Fascist Italy and,
The Protestant Reformation, supported by the nobles and well-established in Transylvania, nearly               ultimately, to an alliance (1941) with Nazi Germany.
succeeded throughout Hungary. Cardinal Pázmány was a leader of the Counter Reformation in Hun-                 Between 1938 and 1944, Hungary regained, with the aid of Germany and Italy, territories from Cze-
gary. In 1557 religious freedom was proclaimed by the diet of Transylvania, and the principle of               choslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania. It declared war on the USSR (June, 1941) and on the United
toleration was generally maintained throughout the following centuries.                                        States (Dec., 1941). When the Hungarian government took steps to withdraw from the war and
Hungarian opposition to Austrian domination included such extreme efforts as the assistance Thököly            protect its Jewish population, German troops occupied the country (Mar., 1944). The Germans were
gave to the Turks during the siege of Vienna (1683). Budapest was liberated from the Turks in 1686.            driven out by Soviet forces (Oct., 1944–Apr., 1945). The Soviet campaign caused much devastation.
In 1687, Hungarian nobles recognized the Hapsburg claim to the Hungarian throne. By the Peace of               National elections were held in 1945 (in which the Communist party received less than one fifth of the
Kalowitz (1699), Turkey ceded to Austria most of Hungary proper and Transylvania. Transylvania                 vote), and a republican constitution was adopted in 1946. The peace treaty signed at Paris in 1947
continued to fight the Hapsburgs, but in 1711, with the defeat of Francis II Rákóczy (see under                restored the bulk of the Trianon boundaries and required Hungary to pay $300 million in reparations
Rákóczy, family), Austrian control was definitely established. In 1718 the Austrians took the Banat            to the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. A new coalition regime instituted long-needed land
from Turkey.                                                                                                   reforms.
Hungary and Austria                                                                                            Communist Rule
The Austrians brought in Germans and Slavs to settle the newly freed territory, destroying Hungary's           Early in 1948 the Communist party, through its control of the ministry of the interior, arrested leading
ethnic homogeneity. Hapsburg rule was uneasy. The Hungarians were loyal to Maria Theresa in her                politicians, forced the resignation of Premier Ferenc Nagy, and gained full control of the state. Hun-
wars, but many of the unpopular centralizing reforms of Joseph II, who had wanted to make German               gary was proclaimed a People's Republic in 1949, after parliamentary elections in which there was
the sole language of administration and to abolish the Hungarian counties, had to be withdrawn.                only a single slate of candidates. Radical purges in the national Communist party made it thoroughly
                                                                                                               subservient to that of the USSR. Industry was nationalized and land was collectivized. The trial of
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Cardinal Mindszenty aroused protest throughout the Western world.                                               As may be gathered from these facts, the original Hungarian people came from Asia, having long
By 1953 continuous purges of Communist leaders, constant economic difficulties, and peasant re-                 lived a nomadic life on the eastern slopes of the Urals. Forced to migrate westward between the 5th
sentment of collectivization had led to profound crisis in Hungary. Premier Mátyás Rákosi, the Stalinist        and 9th centuries A.D., they eventually reached the Danube where they settled in 896. In the more
in control since 1948, was removed in July, 1953, and Imre Nagy became premier. He slowed down                  than a thousand years that have elapsed since that time the Hungarians have become completely
collectivization and emphasized production of consumer goods, but he was removed in 1955, and the               Europeanized, with only their language serving to reveal their Asian Origins.
emphasis on farm collectivization was restored. In 1955, Hungary joined the Warsaw Treaty Organi-               The Hungarians call their language Magyar. It is considered extremely difficult for foreigners to
zation and was admitted to the United Nations.                                                                  learn, with its vocabulary largely from Asia and its grammar containing a number of complex features
On Oct. 23, 1956, a popular anti-Communist revolution, centered in Budapest, broke out in Hungary.              not to be found in other Western languages. The alphabet, however, is phonetic, with s pronounced
A new coalition government under Imre Nagy declared Hungary neutral, withdrew it from the Warsaw                sh (e.g., sör—beer), c pronounced ts (ceruza—pencil), sz pronounced 5 (szó—word), cs pronounced
Treaty, and appealed to the United Nations for aid. However, János Kádár, one of Nagy's ministers,              ch (csésze—cup), zs pronounced zh (zseb—pocket), and gy pronounced dy (nagy—big). The many
formed a counter-government and asked the USSR for military support. In severe and brutal fighting              vowel sounds in spoken Hungarian are indicated by acute accents, umlauts, and the unique double
Soviet forces suppressed the revolution. Nagy and some of his ministers were abducted and were                  acute accent which appears over o and u (bo"r— skin, fu"—grass). The stress in Hungarian is always
later executed. Some 190,000 refugees fled the country. Kádár became premier and sought to win                  on the first syllable. The most important English word of Hungarian origin is coach, after the village of
popular support for Communist rule and to improve Hungary's relations with Yugoslavia and other                 Kocs (remember cs = ch), where coaches were invented and first used. Others are goulash and
countries. He carried out a drastic purge (1962) of former Stalinists (including Mátyás Rákosi), accus-         paprika.
ing them of the harsh policies responsible for the 1956 revolt. Collectivization, which had been                CULTURE
stopped after 1956, was again resumed in 1958–59.                                                               Hungary has one of the finest folk traditions in Europe, producing excellent examples of embroidery,
Kádár's regime gained a degree of popularity as it brought increasing liberalization to Hungarian               pottery, ceiling and wall painting, and objects carved from wood or bone.
political, cultural, and economic life. Economic reforms introduced in 1968 brought a measure of                The folk art of Hungary springs from a lively tradition of creativity found in many forms in the coun-
decentralization to the economy and allowed for supply and demand factors; Hungary achieved sub-                tryside. The spontaneous desire to delight and entertain, passed on from one generation to the next,
stantial improvements in its standard of living. Hungary aided the USSR in the invasion of Czechoslo-           in music, dance, crafts and costume is at the heart of Hungary's culture. And while in some places in
vakia in 1968. The departure (1971) of Cardinal Mindszenty from Budapest after 15 years of asylum               the world you will see folk art confined only to the museum, in Hungary it is a living tradition. In
in the U.S. legation and his removal (1974) from the position of primate of Hungary improved rela-              several important areas, Hungarian folk art is admired world-wide.
tions with the Catholic church. Due to Soviet criticism, many of the economic reforms were subverted
during the mid-1970s only to be reinstituted at the end of the decade.                                          The embroidery art of Mezökövesd (north-eastern Hungary) has a past of one and a half centuries.
                                                                                                                The needle-women cover the whole surface of the material and the result of their work is the many-
During the 1980s, Hungary began to increasingly turn to the West for trade and assistance in the                colored, shiny Matyó needlework, as well as the famous Matyó costumes. Another favourite embroi-
modernization of its economic system. The economy continued to decline and the high foreign debt                dery centre is Kalocsa in the Great Plain region.
became unpayable. Premier Károly Grósz gave up the premiership in 1988, and in 1989 the Commun-
ist party congress voted to dissolve itself. That same year Hungary opened its borders with Austria,            Pottery is another widespread folk-craft. Wedding were the most important occasion when people
allowing thousands of East Germans to cross to the West.                                                        bought these attractive, decorated pottery dishes. The potters made the ornamental dishes especially
                                                                                                                wedding gifts, quite often painting the couple's name on-them.
A Democratic Hungary
                                                                                                                Hungarian art and architecture is laced with Romanesque, Gothic, Baroque and Art Nouveau influ-
By 1990, a multiparty political system with free elections had been established; legislation was passed         ences. Art Nouveau is a special local variation of the international Secession style reaching Hungary
granting new political and economic reforms such as a free press, freedom of assembly, and the right            at the turn of the century.
to own a private business. The new premier, József Antall, a member of the conservative Hungarian
Democratic Forum who was elected in 1990, vowed to continue the drive toward a free-market econ-                When most people think of Hungarian music, they think of candle-lit cafés, chicken paprikas and
omy. The Soviet military presence in Hungary ended in the summer of 1991 with the departure of the              cabbage rolls, pálinka (fruit brandy usually of plums) and a trio of musicians coming to their table
final Soviet troops. Meanwhile, the government embarked on the privatization of Hungary's state                 playing syrupy violin music just for them.
enterprises. Antall died in 1993 and was succeeded as prime minister by Péter Boross. Parliamentary             Hungarian musical contributions are very rich. Hungary was the homeland of Franz Liszt, Béla
elections in 1994 returned the Socialists (former Communists) to power. They formed a coalition                 Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, whose music was inspired by the rich national folk traditions. In the 19th
government with the liberal Free Democrats, and Socialist leader Gyula Horn became prime minister.              century Hungary produced its first important native-born composer, Ferenc Erkel, who composed the
Árpád Göncz was elected president of Hungary in 1990 and reelected in 1995. In 1998 Viktor Orbán                Hungarian national anthem and the first Hungarian opera. Hungary is a highly musical country; its
of the conservative Hungarian Civic party became prime minister as head of a coalition government.              violinists and pianists are particularly celebrated virtuosi worldwide.
Hungary became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999.                                      In fact, many of us heard a beautiful and stirring example of Hungarian Folk music from Transylvania
LANGUAGE                                                                                                        in Márta Sebestyén's virtuosity in the "English Patient" themesong, "Szerelem, Szerelem" (Love,
About 10 million people in Hungary, 1½ million in Rumania, and smaller minorities in Yugoslavia and             Love), or in her work with Peter Gabriel and Deep Forest in "Marta‘s Song." With the exception of the
Slovakia speak Hungarian. It is one of the Finno-Ugric languages, which include Finnish, Estonian,              violin, the instruments can be quite primitive. The music surprises many, even in Hungary, for both
and a number of languages spoken in the Russia. Most of these languages, however, belong to the                 its rhythmic nature and its Asian and Celtic feel.
Finnic branch of this group, while Hungarian belongs to the Ugric. The only other existing Ugric lan-           Literature has been shaped by the monumental events of the nation's history, which have given rise
guages, and thus the only other languages to which Hungarian is closely related, are the remote                 to odes, stirring poems of independence, courageous tales of realism, and strident polemic.
Ostyak and Vogul languages of Siberia, spoken in an area more than 2,000 miles from Hungary.                    The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2002 was awarded to the Hungarian writer Imre Kertész ―for writing
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history".             Paprika
Imre Kertész is a novelist, essayist, and translator, the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in             Like all capsicums, the paprika varieties are native to South America. Originally a tropical plant, it can
2002. In his semiautobiographical novels Kertész has analyzed the experience of the individual during             now grow in cooler climates. In Europe Hungary and Spain are the two main centres for growing
barbaric times, especially exemplified in the Holocaust. Kertész early prose exhibit existentialist traits        paprika peppers, though these varieties have evolved into much milder forms than their tropical
but his works are difficult to classify within any stylistic trend.                                               ancestors. Hungarian paprika is known as stronger and richer than Spanish paprika.
FAITH                                                                                                             In Hungary there as six classes ranging from Kulonleges (exquisite delicate) to Eros (hot and pun-
Hungarians tend to have a skeptical view of faith (some suggest this is why they have a high                      gent). Commercial food manufacturers use paprika in cheeses, processed meats, tomato sauces, chili
success rate in science and mathematics), but of those declaring religious affiliation, most would say            powders and soups. Its main purpose is to add colour. If a food item is coloured red, orange or red-
they are Roman Catholic, Calvinist or Lutheran. The country also has a small Greek Catholic and                   dish brown and the label lists ‗Natural Colour‘, it is likely paprika.
Orthodox population and a thriving Jewish community in Budapest.                                                  As Paprika is commonly cultivated in Hungary, it is sometimes called ―Hungarian Pepper,‖ or ―Pimen-
HUNGARIAN HABITS                                                                                                  ta‖ or ―Pimento.‖ Although it is know to be ‗not‘ spicy, there is actually a very spicy one or moderately
                                                                                                                  spicy one in Europe. It is used for tinning, stufood olive, Pimento cheese, pickles, meat source, and
Hungarians are extremely fond of foreigners.                                                                      dressing. It is also applied to make seasonings for soup, egg dish, vegetable dish, ketchup, and chilly
Most of Hungarians can't afford to travel abroad.                                                                 source for fish, beef, and chicken meat.
Hungarian name order is the same as the Japanese.                                                                        Hungarian Salami
All names of all nations in the world (except Hungary and Japan) follow this order: family and sur-               Like the best European salamis, Hungarian Salami forms a harmless white mold on the casing as it
name. For example: John Smith and not Smith John. In Hungary and Japan you write it inversely:                    ages. The mold is a sign that the salami is fully developed, at the peak of its flavor. Before serving,
Smith John.                                                                                                       simply peel away and discard the casing with the mold.
Hungarians use different addressing of people (like in Japan).                                                    Made from the cuts of pork, the meat is finely ground, aged naturally, then seasoned to be full-
Once again Japan - Hungary in the center of Europe and there are many theories why Hungarian                      flavored - spicy but not hot.
culture has so many similar characteristics with the Japanese culture.                                            Unavailable – FDA (US) is currently refusing import of this product due to high Bacteria levels!
We can address people formally, informally, in a gentle form etc.                                                 HUNGARIAN WINES
Hungarians aren't hungry....                                                                                      The Romans brought the first vine-shoots to this fertile land of the Carpathian Basin, and they estab-
It is considered very rude referring to a Hungarian with the word joke: Hungry. But it is no funny...             lished the first vineyards in Szerémség, Baranya, Tolna, the Buda Hills and Lake.
Hungarians generally understand Russian, however they deny that knowledge.                                        The cities of Sopron, Pozsony, Kőszeg, and of course Buda passed severe regulations in protection of
                                                                                                                  their own wines, banning the import and selling of foreign wines. Before the 150-year occupation of
Russian language was compulsory in all type of schools throughout 40 years. No other choice was
                                                                                                                  the Turks many varieties of Italian and French grapes were brought in, as well as the custom of
possible. This process is called the language colonization.
                                                                                                                  producing so-called ürmös csemegebor, or vermouth. The Turks brought the Kadarka grape, later
HUNGARIAN CUSINE                                                                                                  widely grown, to the Szekszárd region by the Serbs persecuted. The Turks also destroyed the famous
The Hungarians are hospitable people, always ready to offer guests delicious food and excellent                   Szerémség vineyards. In the Turkish era the Eger white grapes were replaced by red types and in
wines. The country's unique cuisine has influences from the Central Asian Magyar founders of the                  time the Hungarians learnt how to make red wines from the Serbs.
nation, Turks, Germans, French, Austrians, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbians, and Croatians. The simple                   Hungarian wines have earned a reputation for high quality, garnering first prizes in a number of
agrarian and shepherd lifestyles of the Great Hungarian Plain and mountains have also helped to                   international competitions. Wine connoisseurs are familiar with the most famous of Hungary's wines -
shape the country's unique dishes. While many popular restaurants in Hungary have adapted their                   the sweet white Tokaji Aszú and strong red Bull's Blood (Egri Bikavér). Hungary boasts 20 wine-
cooking to today's lighter style of eating, traditional Hungarian cuisine is for those with hearty appe-          producing districts which make a wide range of wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris,
tites.                                                                                                            Merlot, Riesling, Chardonnay, sparkling, rosé and other unique Hungarian varieties.
The traditional Hungarian dishes abound in piquant flavours and aromas. Dishes are flavourful,                    Tokaj-What's in a name
spicy and often rather heavy. Flavours of Hungarian dishes are based on centuries old traditions in
                                                                                                                  A lot of people ask for the correct spelling and pronunciation of Tokaj and some people use a y in-
spicing and preparation methods. Paprika and garlic is to be found everywhere. In the autumn, a
                                                                                                                  stead of j. Here is the final word:
fascinating view is the strings of red paprika hung on the white walls of the houses in the neighbour-
hood of Kalocsa, a town along the Danube.                                                                         Tokaj - Hegyalja - tok-eye hedge-alya is the wine region.
A Hungarian style of cooking is very particular. Generally, basic dishes consist of fatty meat (pork is           Tokaj - pronounced - tok-eye is the main town of the region
generally preferred) or fish. These include: pörkölt (stew, and what everyone calls 'goulash' abroad);            When you say Tokaji (pronounced tok-eye-ee) actually means 'of Tokaj'. So you would not use it
gulyás (a thickish beef soup); and halászlé (spicy fish soup cooked with paprika). To the famous                  alone but with the grape variety or type of wine eg. Tokaji Furmint ,Tokaji Harslevelu or the botyrised
Hungarian specialities belong: jokai bableves (bean soup), hideg gyumolcsleves (cold fruit soup made              wine which is known as Tokaji Aszu.
from sour cherry) or palacsinta (stuffed crepes) All these dishes perfectly match various types of                With the accession of Hungary into the EU the Tokaji name will be exclusively the right of Tokaji
Hungarian wines.                                                                                                  winemakers as from 2007. But as the Hungarian wine industry is slowly exposed to the demands of a
Paprica, Salami, Goulash...                                                                                       market economy the traditional protection of the Tokaj trading house is being lifted.

                                                                                                    Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                                                                                                       of their growing importance and also in consideration of their ethnic minorities or separatist tenden-
                                                                                                                       cies. These are approved in February 1948 4 autonomous, special regions: Valle d‘Aosta, Trentino-
                                                                ITALY                                                  Alto Adige, Sicily and Sardinia plus established only in 1963 Friuli-Venezia Giulia. They all have their
                                                                                                                       statute agreed by the constitution and this way they are more independent in their decisions from
History and Regionalism                                                                                                Rome government.216 The regions are divided into 104 provinces and then in 10.122 communities.
Italian Republic in its present shape of parliamentary democracy is a very young entity created on                     There are also some historical regions created thru the centuries that are not included in the admin-
the base of the constitution elaborated in 1947 and formally introduced on 1st January 1948. The past                  istrative division but still they have their place in the consciousness of Italians i.e. Brianza in Lom-
of Italy is very complex and as a united nation and country it exists only from 1820. Before, since                    bardy, le Langhe and il Monferrato in Piedmont, la Garfagana and la Maremma in Tuscany, la Cioci-
the fall of Western Roman Empire the Italian peninsula was scattered into small pieces, and was                        aria in Lazio and il Cilento in Campania217.
under the huge influence of Church State and very often dominated by French, Austria, Spain and                        Regionalism and Economy Today
even Arabs.
                                                                                                                       Conspicuous and increasing regional differences are possibly the major feature of the Italian economy
Beginning from 1200 some of the cities of centre-north lived great economic development and were                       and of its employment pattern. During the 1980s the unemployment rate in the south climbed from
able to refuse the authority of pope and emperor that then competed on European political scene.                       twice to three times that of north-central regions. In 1991 the south accounted for 37 per cent of the
From that time a new form of independent local governance has taken its beginning and was named                        country‘s population but only for one quarter of its GDP and had an unemployment rate close to 20
―Comune‖. The very first cities that ruled by themselves were Venice, Pisa and Genoa. These cities                     per cent as opposed to about 9.6 per cent in the centre and 5.1 per cent in the north.218
participated in vivid marine trade with other countries of Mediterranean and of East and because of
that they were called marine republics. Also Milan, Florence, Bologna became important centres                         At the time of Italian unification in 1861, the north already had already had a fairly developed agricul-
thanks to trade. Some of those republics stayed independent till the end of XVIII century.                             ture, communications infrastructure and network of linkages with western European markets, and a
                                                                                                                       tradition of independent enterprises that enabled it to join the Industrial Revolution. The south was
After the Vienna congress Italy was divided into many principalities and Holy See lands213 but already                 removed from the main commercial axes and had been subjected for centuries to an exploitative
in 1820 the unification move was started to finish finally the dependence of Italy from other powers.                  foreign occupation that had left it with impoverished land, a patchwork of large estates and tiny plots,
The aphevals take place in Turin, Milan, Naples and Palermo against the occupants but being not                        a feudal-type social set-up and a population understandably suspicious of change, foreigners and the
coordinated and they did not bring expected results until the diplomatic efforts of Camillo Cavour and                 legal order. Post war reconstruction saw resources channelled disproportionally to the north, although
military actions of Giuseppe Garibaldi that put together brought finally the unification of Italy under                about 5 per cent of its industry had been destroyed, as opposed to one-third in the south) in order to
the reign of first Italian king Vittorio Emmanuele II di Savoia. The process of unification was com-                   get industrial apparatus back into operation, in the expectation that it could become the engine of
pleted in 1870 when last but not least, great Italian city, Rome was incorporated into new state. At                   growth of the whole country. The results were disappointing though, as the gap between northern
this time, the Italian Government was faced with the dilemma of administrative centralisation or                       and southern regions kept widening in terms of all relevant economic indicators: per capita income,
decentralisation. In those days 'Piedmontisation', i.e., the hurried extension of Piedmont legislation to              share of employment in industry and services (as opposed to agriculture), productivity and employ-
the newly annexed Italian regions, was resented in the North as well as in the South, although per-                    ment opportunities were all markedly lower in the south. Only its population growth was considerably
haps not to the same degree. The Piedmontese and the Lombards were different peoples with very                         higher. A survey organized in 1951-52 to ascertain the level of poverty in Italy (measured by con-
different political-historical experiences, and so were the Tuscans, Emilians, Sicilians, Neapolitans etc.             sumption and hygiene) found that in the south 20 per cent of the people were living in destitution
Only 2.5% of the population knew Italian at the time of Unification, a figure that includes the Tus-                   and 20 per cent in hardship, while in the north these percentages were, respectively, 1.5 and 4.3.
cans, upon whose dialect (toscano-fiorentino) the national language was based.214 Despite growing
resentment in the country against Piedmontisation and Cavour view of the intensive centralisation as                   Since 1975, even the partial gains of earlier years in terms of reduced disparities between219 north
illiberal, expensive and inefficient for the Italian ruling class at the time was of great worth to 'har-              and south have been eroded. At the turn of the 1990s, the productivity gap between northern and
monise' regional differences to avoid the danger that Italy might fall apart if a uniform administrative               southern firms was striking. In industry, the latter needed to invest about 40 per cent more to pro-
system was not quickly imposed on the whole kingdom. Finally the Italian government passed a Law                       duce the equivalent output, partly due to a labour productivity 75-80 per cent lower than the north
in 1865 (Law N. 2248) which introduced a rigid prefectorial system along Napoleonic lines.                             and a mere 5 per cent of the national R&D effort concentrated in the south, partly to less efficient
                                                                                                                       public administration and partly to markedly less developed economic infrastructures. Law productiv-
Italy stayed a united kingdom until second world war. In 1943 in the middle of the war south of Italy                  ity expectations in turn discourage local and external investments and entrepreneurship, producing a
was administrated by Americans and north of the country became Republic of Salò governed by                            vicious circle that is hard to break.
fascist allies of Germany. Finally on 25th April 1945 Italy was liberated and in 1946 in referendum
Italians have chosen republic for the political system (12.700.000 for republic, 10.600.000 for monar-                 Table below shows that the proportion of employment in agriculture has been rapidly declining in the
chy)215. King Umberto di Savoia was sent to exile to Portugal accused of cooperation with Germans                      country, but remains considerably higher and is declining less rapidly in the south. However, within
and to the power came the anti-fascists parties which supported the idea of a very democratic admin-                   the south itself there exist multiple economic and employment gaps. That occurs not only in agricul-
istrative decentralisation. However, in need of compromise with The Socialist and Communist Parties                    ture, but also in other sectors. The Bari commune, for instance, constitutes a remarkable pole of
which were in particular suspicious of any form of federalism, the mentioned 1947 Constitution estab-                  dynamism and is home, among others, to a cluster of some 20 high-technology enterprises specializ-
lished the regions as administrative entities with limited legislative powers. Most of these 20 adminis-               ing in research and innovation, which some are already calling the Italian ―Silicon Valley‖; in that
trative regions are based on traditional borders of former principalities and independent cities to-
gether with the Napoleon division. Some of the regions though have been created due to recognition                     216
                                                                                                                           Please see the statute of region Friuli-Venezia Giulia attached.
                                                                                                                           R. Belford, Południowe Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal 1993
                                                                                                                           L. de Luca, M. Bruni , ―Unemployment and labour market flexibility: Italy‖, International Labour Office,
       As shown on the map 1 taken from ―In Italia‖, red. Picot Cassidy, Chancerel International.                      Geneva 1993.
214                                                                                                                    219
       Bull, A., ―Regionalism in Italy‖, EUROPA no2 art 4, 1996.                                                           L. de Luca, M. Bruni , ―Unemployment and labour market flexibility: Italy‖, International Labour Office,
      ―In Italia‖, red. Picot Cassidy, Chancerel International Publishers Ltd., London, 1996.                          Geneva 1993.
                                                                                                        Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
same region, however, there are communes in deep recession, such as Brindisi and Taranto , where                           integration. Some of them feel more European than Italian (but always and first of all they are at-
large steel and chemical plants are concentrated.220                                                                       tached to their region). For example Umberto Bossi stated in his autobiography: 'What is the meaning
Employment share by sector, north/centre and south Italy, 1951-91 (percentages)                                            of having frontiers between Piedmont and Savoie, or South Tyrol and Austria? Their ethnicity is sub-
                                                                                                                           stantially identical, from a naturalistic point of view. From a socio-cultural point of view [...] nothing
                             1951                     1981                      1991                                       unites Trentino or Lombardy with Calabria or Campania. Therefore I say: why not replace the fixed
sector         north/centre south north/centre south north/centre south                                                    frontiers and the centralism typical of unitary States with a more articulated system, characterised by
Agriculture            37.6         56.6        9.2          22.5        5.8           14.6                                a plurality of institutional centres each with specific and limited responsibilities? Why not eliminate, in
                                                                                                                           other words, the rigid frontiers between very similar realities, as for example Lombardy and Baviera,
Industry              33.9        20.1         41.6          27.3       35.6           23.5
                                                                                                                           while introducing separate decision-making centres, each with real autonomy, in different realities
Services               28.3         23.1       49.2          50.1        58.5          61.9                                which were arbitrarily unified, such as the North and South of Italy?'224 However, this still seems to be
The first regional distinction concerns demographic trends. A clear population decline emerged in                          an utopia, as European Union‘s regional policy that aimes not only at interregional but also at tradi-
almost all northern regions between 1980 and 1990, while in the centre and south the trend was still                       tional cooperation which may be perceived as a step backward.
upward. Italy has now the lowest fertility rate and one of the longest life expectancies in the world –                    Italy does benefit form EU structural funds (as a relatively rich country it is excluded from the Cohe-
the number of children under 14 has been declining while that of elderly people (aged 70 and above)                        sion Fund) but the streams of EU assistance do not flow equally in all the regions.225 Despite all the
has been increasing. Both phenomena are more evident in the centre-north than in the south.                                efforts, the south, being the biggest beneficent of EU funds, remains underdeveloped when compar-
As regards unemployment221, although it increased nationwide until the end of the 1980s, that trend                        ing to EU averages. One of the possible reasons of this situation may be a fact that mafia structures
was much more pronounced in southern regions, where between 1980 and 1990 it increased by 94.2                             attract substantial amount of EU money (about 20% of the whole amount sent to Italy)226.
per cent, against 17.5 per cent in the north. Since the late 1980s geography has become the most                           La Mafia
incisive divide in the segmented Italian labour market, dominating the two other traditional divides of
                                                                                                                           In fact it said that you cannot understand Italy if you do not understand mafia. 227 Mafia, N‘dranghetta
sex and age.222
                                                                                                                           and Camorra – whatever we name organized crime in Sicily, Calabria and Naples – is one of very few
Italy has made a substantial change in its economic policy in the 1990‘s. The previous decade was                          phenomena so often misunderstood and misinterpreted. The atmosphere of secret around mafia
characterized by the constant privatisation, beginning in 1992, when prime minister G. Amato was                           results partly from the promise of silence, omerta, obligatory to all, who had any, even incidental,
forced to suspend Italy‘s participation in the European Monetary System (so called currency snake)                         contact with mafia.
and devaluate the lire deeply. The crisis of 1992 profoundly undermined the rules of Italian economic
                                                                                                                           Mafia as an object, as a noun does not exist. According to mafia expert, Pino Artacchi, to behave in a
policy. It proved that one cannot increase public debt continuously and limitations in public expendi-
                                                                                                                           ‗mafia way‘ means to be respected, to be a man of honour. There are two basic cultural features
ture and privatisation of state owned enterprises are crucial for economic development. The liberali-
                                                                                                                           explaining why mafia was born in the south of Italy. Firstly, this culture pays great attention to re-
zation process was accompanied by the administration reform. Central government authorities began
                                                                                                                           spect, aggression and domination.228 Silent, calm, naive people may become saint after death, but in
to delegate their powers to local governments. Despite the fact that the whole process was initiated
                                                                                                                           the present life they are regarded as fools. The second important feature is attitude towards the state
as early as in the 1970s, practical delegation of powers to lower levels of governments began in the
                                                                                                                           – people do not trust the government and find it limitates their independence and the autonomy of
middle of the 1990s, partly because of new guidelines of European Union‘s regional policy. Neverthe-
                                                                                                                           the family, which may result from frequent invasions in the past. Etymology of the word mafia itself
less, in the OECD Trade Committee Report of 2001 Italian bureaucracy is thoroughly criticized. Ineffi-
                                                                                                                           leaves many uncertainities, but it is believed from Arabic mu‘afah – security. It can be found first in
cient institutions and complicated, time-consuming legal procedures were mentioned among the most
                                                                                                                           the documents dating from the reunification period, which plays important role in the analysis of
important disincentives for foreign investors.223
                                                                                                                           Italian state.
Recognizing the persistant differentiation effects of neglecting and destructive influence of Arabs and
                                                                                                                           Initially, mafia acted as a mediator in social conflicts. By the end of the ninetieth century it has al-
Spaniards rules in the South contrasting with entrepreneurship and state of law spirit left by French
                                                                                                                           ready developed ethic code and a semi-formal organizational structure, which are still valid. Each
and Austrians in the North the first serious governmental attempt to promote economic and social
                                                                                                                           mafia family owes the name of the village where originates from, or the name of the city which rules.
development in the region occurred already in the first decade of the twentieth century. The plan
                                                                                                                           Above all the families stands the so called commission, grouping representatives of all major mafia
failed and the next attempt was made in the 50‘s by establishing Cassa per Opere Straordinarie di
Pubblico Interesse nell'Italia Meridionale , better known as the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno. This meant
not only the land reform but then also a shift in regional policy from promoting agriculture to promot-                    According to Francis Fukuyama229 Italian mafia is the example of an ―amoral familiaralism‖ character-
ing industrial development. Unfortunately the State has decided to rely on public sector, capital inten-                   istic for the societies with very law social capital that means with very law level of trust. He believes
sive and heavy industrial, which together with the energy crisis in 1970‘s and steel over production                       that Italy as the country that is characterised by highly developed family bounds that take place of
throughout Europe resulted in a failure which only underlined the gap between two parts of the                             the medium level administration and reduce the tendency to creating the local organizations and
country. In 1984 the Cassa was abolished after being widely criticized and the new law left to the                         social movements. He recognizes though regional differences and so he promotes the idea of Terza
regions to formulate and implement their own development plans as the intervention was to be this                          Italia i.e. Emilia Romagna together with Tuscany, Umbria, Marche, Venetto, Friuli and Trentino as
way more effective as the regions were more familiar with local conditions, needs and resources.                           opposed to rich triangle Milan, Turin, Genua and mafia‘s Mezzogiorno. And so he claims that South of
At the same time the policy of EU was slowly implemented. In fact Italians are quite keen on UE and
                                                                                                                                 U.Bossi, , ―Vento dal Nord. La mia Lega la mia vita‖ , Milan, Sperling and Kupfer,1992, pp. 161-62
                                                                                                                                 Please see Map 4 taken from ―Second Progress Report on Cohesion‖, EU Regional Policy, January 2003
220                                                                                                                        226
      Ibidem.                                                                                                                    Lecture by prof. Jacek Szlachta at Warsaw School of Economic: EU structural policy.
221                                                                                                                        227
      Please refer also to map 3 taken from―Second Progress Report on Cohesion‖, EU Regional Policy, January 2003                R. Belford, Południowe Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal 1993
222                                                                                                                        228
      T. Bartoszewicz, ―Italy in the eyes of OECD‖, IKiCHZ, Warszawa 2001                                                        Ibidem.
223                                                                                                                        229                                                                                                               Francis Fukuyama ―Trust: social capital and road to prosperity‖, Wyd. Naukowe PWN, 1997 Warszawa
                                                                                                        Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Italy is dominated by mentioned pathological familiarism where an individual is worth as much as his                                     that Italian is now prevailing, although the dialects have not disappeared at all. Most people can
or hers family and the good of the family is the most important value. There are little local organiza-                                  speak both Italian and a dialect, and the percentage of people who speak only or mainly Italian is
tions, clubs, associations etc. and people has very low belief in law obedience of their neighbours.                                     constantly growing (some may say that it is thanks mainly to Italian TV). But only in the 1950‘s in
The society is bond by religion and competition among families not by solidarity between entities,                                       most of the regions only dialects were spoken. There are more dialects than regions, in fact some-
families and local governments.230 Fukuyama believes this is due to three historical reasons. First is                                   times in every city different dialect is spoken. And this way for example in Tuscany different is lan-
supposed to be the influence of quite long lasting Kingdom of Sicily and Naples ruled by Normans in                                      guage spoken in Pisa, Florence, Massa, Livorno, Viareggio, Lucca, Siena235 as slightly different sauces
autocratic and feudalistic way, especially in times of Frederic II. Then it was the role of Church that                                  are made in different regions to be eaten with famous pasta.
profound these feudalistic tendencies and finally is the way region was unified i.e by forced centrali-                                  Regional Cuisine
zation as opposed to slow unification of decentralized republics and principalities of North. Fukuyama
even says that South Italy and Sicily are the examples of delinquent economy as isolated and criminal                                    Italian cuisine belongs to most popular ones in the world. Although regional differences have become
in its kind as for example Russia or big cities‘ ghettos in USA.                                                                         less visible, they have not disappeared completely. French influence is particularly strong in Piedmont,
                                                                                                                                         the Austrian in Alto-Adige and the Greek in Calabria. Nevertheless, Italians managed to defend from
***                                                                                                                                      cuisine globalisation and they find exotic in the differences between the regions. Every Italian be-
Although very critical about Mezzogiorno, Fukuyama praises Terza Italia as a region of close familiar                                    lieves Italian cuisine is the best in the world and his ‗mamma‘ is the best chef (‗mamma‘ is the most
cooperation but not connected with criminal practices, rather creating small elastic enterprises (that                                   important person in the world for many men in Italy and thus she is always right), many restaurants
gather themselves in extremely effective networks and clusters!)231, export oriented, and eager to use                                   are small family enterprises. The most distinctive pattern of Italian cuisine is its celebration. Dinner,
new technologies.232 Terza Italia and North familiarism is based on healthy society values and tradi-                                    for instance, begins with antipasto, which is followed by risotto or pasta, than fish or meat, cheese
tions developed during times of republics but make Italians unable to create spontaneously really big                                    and finally fruits or coffee. Even food shopping is treated seriously and little shops or street markets
companies. (Familarism also determiantes some of business behaviours like dinning and wining with                                        are preferred to big department stores. Therefore bread, cold cuts and cheese are still produced
clients, need of good and warm relation with partners based very much on trust, and hierarchy and                                        mostly by small manufacturers. The rule is that the more south you go the heavier, crispier and more
title satutus meaning through society). These are usually based in North and almost always are state                                     salty the bread is although in all regions it ‗pane senza sale‘ (no salt bread) is often served with salty
owned, controlled or at least influenced (FIAT, Enel, Banca di Lavoro, Emichem, Banca Commerciale                                        salami, cold cuts and cheese.236
Italiana, Olivetti). It is amazing that Italy having GDP 4 times greater than for example Switzerland,                                   Regional Italian cuisines237:
Sweden or Netherlands has the same number of big companies!
                                                                                                                                                                                            Abruzzo and Molise
As we can see the socio-economic development remains uneven. The North/South divide is, as we
can see, highly relevant, but there are also differences between the other regions. Back in the 1970                                     The most commonly served pasta in this region is maccaroni alla difarre, long serpentines with toma-
'three Italies' were identified in terms of social and economic structures: the industrial, urban-centred                                toes or pecorino sauce or with lamb meat. Abruzzo cusine is characteristic for spicy and strong tastes
and large-firms-dominated North-West; the newly developed, still semi-rural, small-firms-dominated                                       – spaghetti al‘aglio, olio e peperoncini are the favorite dishes.
North-Eastern and Central regions; and the under-developed South233. Only to give some more data                                                                                            Umbria and Marche
we can quote a study promoted by the Regional Council of the Veneto Region shows that between                                            Important elements of Umbrian cuisine are mushrooms, wild meat and birds but above all pork meat
1985 and 1990 four Northern regions, Lombardy, Piedmont, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna paid 45% of                                           in the form of ham, sausages, salami and the famous porchetta. Perugia city is well known for Bis-
national taxes, 62% of VAT, and 63.5% of local taxes. They were given by the State 33.9% of the                                          cuits and chocolate.
funds redistributed to local and regional governments.234
From these, indeed huge, differences, highly unfair, especially in the eyes of the inhabitants and tax
                                                                                                                                         Original pizza, baked in wood-heated ovens was born in Naples but there is no pizza Napoletana. The
payers of rich North, came the federalism of the Italian Northern League Party ( Lega Nord). The
                                                                                                                                         most typical one is called Marinara and includes tomatoes, garlic, basil but no sea food as you could
League's secessionist aspirations and its openly-held conviction that Northern and Southern Italy
                                                                                                                                         juge by the name. Street restaurants offer also calzone – pizza filled with ham, cheese and vegeta-
represent two distinct and non-converging societies which ought to be free to go it alone. The
                                                                                                                                         bles. Pasta with tomato sauce was also invented in Naples but in typical Naples sauces garlic, onion
League's position presupposes the total rejection of the Italian Fathers' aspirations to achieve com-
                                                                                                                                         and parmesan do not go together. Northern Campania and Naples region traditionally produce other
plete unity through the creation of a common people. What League wants is the Federal State that
                                                                                                                                         Italian speciality, mozzarella. Among the most delicious desserts Naples offer sfogliatelle filled with
would be responsible only for foreign affairs, defence, justice, general finance and higher education.
                                                                                                                                         orange skin and ricotte as well as Easter pastiera.
The emphasis was on the creation of a Northern Republic made up of Lombardy, Piedmont, Venetia,
Liguria, Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany, represented in the party literature as the most socially ad-                                                                                        Calabria and Basilicata
vanced part of Italy, governed and 'oppressed' by the Southern-dominated State bureaucracy and                                           Calabrian cuisine is very similar to Campanian one. Greek influence can be recognized through auber-
party system.                                                                                                                            gine use and sweets containing figs, almonds and honey. Basilicata, a very poor region with little
Paradoxically, the revival of federalist/ethnic sentiments has taken place at a time when Italy has                                      population, attracts with simple cheap products, pasta, tomatoes, bread, olives and pork meat. Pep-
reached a high degree of cultural homogeneity, not least from a linguistic point of view. Apart from                                     pers and ginger that cannot be found anywhere else in the country are their flag products.
minority ethnic groups, linguistic unification is now an accomplished reality. Census results indicate                                                                                               Apulia

      This idea in fact was taken from work of Robert Putman ―Making Democracy Work: Civic traditions in modern Italy‖.
231                                                                                                                                      235
      Lecture of dr hab T. Dolegowski: Globalizacja i regionalizacja w gospodarce swiatowej.                                                I know from my own experience –Maria Zgondek.
232                                                                                                                                      236
      Interesting idea in comparison with map 5 taken from―Second Progress Report on Cohesion‖, EU Regional Policy, January 2003.           R. Belford,Południowe Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal 1993
233                                                                                                                                      237
      Bagnasco, A., Tre Italie. La problematica territoriale dello sviluppo italiano , Bologna, Il Mulino, 1977.                            R. Belford, Południowe Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal 1993 & R. Belford, Połnocne Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal
      Bull A., Regionalism in Italy, EUROPA no2 art 4, 1996.                                                                             1993
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Apulia is described as a land of grapes and a lake of wine. Regional wines and olive oil are highly             Tuscany
valued. The typical products are breads, pasta and sea food. People in Apulia love pasteurizing vege-           This cuisine has influenced whole Italy with its simplicity. Meat in here is often prepared with almost
tables, for instance tomatoes are dried, salted or boiled and bottled, while mushrooms and auber-               no spices. Pasta is often served only with Parmigiano and butter (al bianco). Plenty of spinach, ricotta
gines are poured with oil and aceto. Pork meat is the most preferred there while seaside towns Bari,            and Italian peas is eaten as well as fresh prepared pasta. The most typical dish is minestre, very
Tarento and Brindizio tempt with excellent seafood.                                                             dense soup and sweet panforte from Siena. Tuscany next to Sicily is known for best olive oil.
                                                Sicilia                                                                                                                         Lazio
One can distinguish numerous foreign influences in Sicilian Cusine: Greek, Arab, Spanish, Norman.               Lazio is dominated by Rome also in cuisine and is as simple as in Tuscany. Most commonly served is
Cassate ice cream and delicious sweet pasta with sweet ricotta poured with chocolate made Sicilia               penne pasta with huge variety of sauces: all‘amatricana (bacon, pork meat, tomatoes), all‘arabiata
famous for sweet tastes. Foreign elements can be found in kuskus salad with oranges. Also wonderful             (tomatoes and little spicy chillies), alla carbonara (cream, egg, bacon). From vegetables aubergines,
Sicilian cheese cannot be forgotten; provolone, ricotta, pecorino.                                              zucchini, carcioffi should be mentioned and from cheese ricotta, pecorino romano and provetura.
                                              Piedmont                                                          Coffee in Italy, no matter what region, is drunken at any time as tea in Great Britain. Italian start
In this region connections with France are clearly visible. We may try there fondutta that is almost            their morning and their evenings with espresso coffee, usually in numerous bars (the coffee is always
the same as French fondue and in general butter and cream are added to any dish. As in the whole                good!) and by the counter (al banco). Having a coffee is also a way of socializing, having a chat with
North Italy olives and tomatoes are rarely known and its is only in big cities where the Southern               neighbours or colleagues form work. At home also everybody has a coffee maker, at least one that
cuisines and recipes can be tried as they were brought there by many southern immigrants. The                   makes mocca coffee. Capuccino, another famous Italian coffee drink is also given to children for
Piedmont speciality are the truffles, especially from Alba city. As they are awfully expensive, only few        example for mentioned merenda.
thin plasters of them are added to traditional pasta or risotto.                                                Wine is served to every meal in Italy. Drinking in Italy doesn‘t have bad meaning. In fact people do
                                                Liguria                                                         not go out to drink something but to meet friends and show off their ‖bella figura‖. To get drunk
Geographically this region belongs to North but its climate and long sea side aboundant in fishes and           would be thought as something unfortunate and a silly accident. In reality there is even no such a
sea food make it much Mediterrenian in tastes to encounter. The symbol of Genoa is pesto, green                 word in Italian that directly means hang-over. People drink most of all mineral water and wine, more
sauce made of garlic, basil, pine nuts, pecorino and parmegiano that can be eaten with pasta or                 and more popular is becoming beer and soft drinks and as always fruit juices.238
anything else you wish. The cheese in that sauce comes from Sicily and indicates the old connections            There are plenty of sorts of wine in Italy. Italians Created DOC system – Denominazione d‘Orgine
between those regions. Other Ligurian favourite food is farinata, something between cake and pizza              Controllata which guarantees that the wine is produced in a certain region and according to the
made from Italian peas. Also very widespread in Italy bread foccacia and sweet bread pandolce come              traditional regional standards. Nevertheless, it is not a system of quality standards and is meant to
from Liguria.                                                                                                   promote regional wines. However, DOC introduction did contribute to quality improvement.
                                              Lombardy                                                          Piedmont is regarded to be the best together with Tuscany, wine producer. The most famous wines
Lomabrdy‘s cuisine is not homegenous. Everywhere a lot of rice and polenta is eaten (Lombardy and               are Barolo, Barbaresco, Barbera (the most expensive) but the most commonly drunk wines are made
Italy produces greatest amounts of rice in Europe) but the sub-Alps areas have heavier cuisine that             of sweet delicate grapes, particular young and lightly chilled Dolcetto d‘Alba. The most famous one is
Milan and Pad valley. Milan is known for its great veal recipes and for sweets. In fact, panettone and          the sparkling Asti Spumante (sparkling). The three north-eastern regions Alto Adige, Venetia-Frulia
biscotti are the most popular eaten sweets in Italy that first one usually is served during Christmas.          and Veneto developed production of typical French and German wine e.g. Merlot, Cabernet, Pinot
Most famous cheeses come also from Lombardy, only to mention Gorgonzola, Mascarpone, Bel Paese                  Grigio, Rieslieng. Wine sorts in Europe: Bandolino, Valpolicelle come from Verona neighbourhood and
or Grana Padano (similar to Parmegiano).                                                                        taste the better, the closer to the region they were produced. Tuscany though leads in wine industry
                                                                                                                with its flag (and export) product– Chianti. The two other famous red wines from Tuscany - Brunello
                                       Friuli – Venezia Giulia                                                  di Montalciano and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano belong to the most expensive wines in Italy. The
This region competes with Lombardy for a name of risotto specialist but Veneti itself can attract with          two popular white ones are Vernaccia di San Geminiano and the refreshing Galestro. Tuscany is also
unique and exotic fish dishes where raisins, almonds and other sweet fruits are added. From this part           known for Vin Santo, sweet strong wine, drunk together with biscuits for the ‗merenda‘ that is Italian
of Italy takes its origin raddichio - red salad and wonderful dessert called tiramisu. Some influence of        ‗five o‘clock‘. Lazio, Umbria and Marche are excellent in production of white dry wines. Wine from
Yugoslavian cuisines can be recognized as well.                                                                 Lazio is produced mainlu on the hills surrounding Rome. In the South, apart form few sorts, wine do
                                         Trident –Alto Adige                                                    not hold a good image. The typical southern region is Apulia that ‗exports‘ grapes north to strengthen
                                                                                                                regional wines. What is interesting the best wines in Italy are not exported but consumed with pleas-
As name indicates this region consists of different ones that have also two diverse cuisines. Alto
                                                                                                                ure and care in Italy.
Adige is widely influenced by Austrian cooking style and offers German sounding food like speck (kind
of dried ham), knodel, sauerkraut while in Trident reigns more Italian style. The best thing to try in          Culture
Trident are gnocchi (type of fresh pasta with addition of cheese) and typical north polenta.                    There are not so many national holidays in Italy, but there are lots of local celebrations that tighten
                                          Emilia –Romagna                                                       together local and regional communities. Days of saints are usually a perfect excuse for having a lot
                                                                                                                of fun . All cities, towns and villages have their local saint and organize musical and artistic events for
Cuisine of Emilia –Romagna is considered to be the best and the richest one in Italy. Parmigiano,
                                                                                                                his or hers holiday which are rather a reminiscence of theatre plays than en religious events. Every
Aceto Balsamico di Modena, Prosciuto di Parma are only few flag products of this area that became
                                                                                                                reason is good for festa, anniversaries of historical events, legendary miracles, presentation of works
flag products of Italian export. From this region also come, so popular abroad, dishes like lasagna,
                                                                                                                of local artist, etc. Most of them take place during Easter, May, September and about Ferragosto (15th
pasta alla Bolognese, tortellini, ravioli, etc. The dishes are always rich, aboundant in meat, tomatoes
and olive but not too aromatic.
                                                                                                                      ―Spirits and Liquors in Europe‖, Consumer Goods Intelligence, Market Research by MINTEL, 2002.
                                                                                                         Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
August). The most famous is the carnival in Venezia or Livorno which is competing with great Sicilian                                                                  THE SCANDINAVIAN NATIONS
The most common local traditions in Italy are, sometimes very spectacular, religious processions.                                                    THE LINKS. THE SPLIT. EGALITARIAN APPROACH.
Majority of them dates back from non-Christian times when they were the celebrations of important
dates in astronomic calendar and then they were modified and accepted by Church. A well-known                                                                                         INTRODUCTION
example of such a procession is organized in Cocullo in Abruzia mountains on 6 th May – Sante                                               Instead of the introduction-part we would like to enumerate in twenty points the most characteristic
Domenica Abate when the statue surrounded by snakes id carried in the town. Obviously the Good                                              features of the Scandinavians. We consider it the best way to summarize and gather all pieces of
Friday is also a day of numerous processions. In many towns and villages figures of crucified Christ                                        information that we came across while preparing the paper. What is more it is a good way to find out
are carried in the streets, followed by people singing religious songs. Other ritual feast are of less                                      if it is high time to leave Scandinavia. Because you know you have been there too long when:
religious character. In Gubbio on May 5th , there is a crazy race around San Ubaldo church with 8
                                                                                                                                            1. You pass a grocery store and think ―Wow, it is open; I had better go in and buy something!‖
meter long wooden sticks. Around 22nd June in Nola next to Naples 8 enormous lilies are carried with
little lit lamps along the streets.239                                                                                                      2. You start to think that having a sauna in the nude with a bunch of strangers is a necessary part of
                                                                                                                                                 daily life ... and a necessary part of business.
The number of Catholics in Italy decreases but there is still a great interest in all the holidays and
feast like that and particularly in food festivals (Città delle Pieve in Umbria, or Orvietto) and pilgrim-                                  3. Your old habit of being ―fashionably late‖ is no longer acceptable. You are always on time.
ages. The last ones are not only religious but also social events. Some of them are more important to                                       4. You hear loud-talking passengers on the train. You immediately assume:
Italians than to Christians in general. For example the Sanctuary of Madonna di Polsi in Aspromonte                                              a: they are drunk
Mountains in Calabria is visited in September by almost million pilgrims yearly.240
                                                                                                                                                 b: they are Finnish
Besides food, wine and fun Italians have three more passions. Cars, football and women.
                                                                                                                                                 c: they are American
When it comes to women Italians bad reputation concerning their attitude towards women does
reflect reality. On the whole, the more to the south we move, the worse it is.241 A woman that is                                                d: they are Turks
alone or travelling on her own or in the company of other women may expect to be picked up by                                                    e: all of the above
men. Or at least whistled off and called bambola (doll, baby) on the street. However, a woman is not                                        5. You get extremely annoyed when the bus is two minutes late.
and object but a subject in Italian culture. Judging by the role of Saint Mary the Virgin in religion,
women are regarded to be predistinated to be mothers. Strict rules which used to be obeyed in the                                           6. You think women are more than equal than men and deserve to have better positions in the work
North still are obeyed in the South. Marriage and motherhood are treated as synonyms. The level of                                               place.
emancipation depends on the region. The highest is in North and in Milan (which is in fact the eco-                                         7. Your wife watches TV while you look after the kids.
nomic capital of Italy) where it is similar to Western Europe standards while in Calabria, Basilicata and                                   8. Silence is fun.
Sicily it is the lowest. Rome is said to be still more south orientated in this aspect than North.
                                                                                                                                            9. You start to differentiate between types of snow!
Football is believed to keep modern Italian family together besides being the most controversial and
emotional subject of Italian conversations. Some say that if not the favourite soccer team fathers and                                      10. You think it entirely reasonable to pay $40 for a five minute chat with the doctor.
sons wouldn‘t talk much with each other any more242. And so on Sunday everybody is following the                                            11. You think it is normal everything is regulated and you obey the rules voluntarily.
matches or going to the game or watching TV or at least listening to the radio (there are some men                                          12. You mutter ―oy,oy,oy‖ continually to yourself even though you are the only one in the room.
going round with little radios on the street) to be up to date on Monday morning when everybody will
                                                                                                                                            13. When someone asks you for ―sex‖ you assume they mean half-a-dozen.
discuss it.
                                                                                                                                            14. You expect to find the glove you dropped in February hanging on a post in June
The other thing is, that talkative Italians love to argue about are cars. As Italy itself produces only the
best (Ferrari, Maserati) and worst cars (FIAT) the discussions are usually really hot. Lastly one of the                                    15. ―It‘s 20 degrees outside‖ does not necessarily mean plus 20, it could mean minus 20.
most popular Sunday entertainments is F1 Grand Prix where Ferrari team is lately winning.                                                   16. You pay the TV-license because you think you‘re getting your money‘s worth watching SVT.
Italy is considered to be on of the most beautiful and interesting countries in Europe and in the world                                     17. You take two hour naps at work and the idea of losing your job never crosses your mind.
being also on of the world strongest economies. It is a country of variety, fashion, wonderful food
                                                                                                                                            18. You think nothing of spending all day at IKEA looking for a piece of furniture and then spending
and cheerful people but also a country with many economic issues to solve. And all that fascinating
                                                                                                                                                 the whole next day putting it together!
matters come from its deeply historical, social and structural regionalism that is not good and not bad
but certainly troublesome and opportunity offering one.                                                                                     19. You can‘t throw a plastic bottle away with out having a guilty conscience
Iwona Dolecka, Aneta Filipowicz, Maja Sontag, Tomasz Rakowski (the Editor)                                                                  20. You find that you can‘t spell in English anymore. You now replace C with K. Like panik, automatik,
                                                                                                                                                 seasik, arithmatik.... and you try to remember does papper/paper have one or two p‘s in Eng-
                                                                                                                                            That is how it looks like in a nutshell. Now let‘s move to the next part of our papper (ups!) of course:
    R. Belford, Północne Włochy. Praktyczny przewodnik, Pascal 1993                                                                         paper, which is…
    It is reflected also by women unemployement rate
    The streotype of Italian family that spend evenings together with children and grandchildren on feasts is not so true anymore
especially in North. In reality to stay on the weekend night home with parents is a shame for most of young Italians. But even adult
                                                                                                                                                                                         II. HISTORY
men often live with their parents under the careful eye of their mamma.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Nordic history comprises more than 10,000 years and starts after the last glacial period. After the             and his men were defeated at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in England.
melting of the inland ice, the climate became warmer, and settlers seem to have arrived to the north-           Christianity was introduced into Norway, as well as in other Nordic countries, over a lengthy period of
ern parts of the Europe from the east as well as from the south. They lived from hunting, fishing and           time, possibly two hundred years. It was a natural result of the Norwegians‘ contact with Christian
collecting. To make a long story short, agriculture was introduced during the Stone Age, and there              Europe, through trading connections and Viking raids. Missions from the churches of England and
was a subsequent Bronze Age followed by an Iron Age (500 B.C. – 800 A.D.).                                      Germany had also contributed to a weakening of traditional belief in the Nordic gods. From the mid-
The first time Scandinavia was mentioned in written documents was 79 A.C. by the Roman citizen                  dle of the 11th century the legislation that was enacted, the songs that were sung, and the monu-
Plinius Senior. He was a civil servant in the Roman Empire. He writes in his paper ―Naturalis Historia‖         ments that were erected demonstrated the firm establishment of Christianity.
about an Island in the north called Scandinavia, populated by people living in 500 villages scattered           From the Viking Age onwards, the Nordics have fought each other, formed unions with each other
over the island. He also mentions that the land of ―svionerna‖ is at the end of the world and that the          and ruled over each other. Sweden ruled over Finland for over 600 years, Denmark ruled over south-
people there can see the horses that pulled the cart by which the sun was taken across the sky.                 ern Sweden also for over 600 years (or, alternatively, Sweden has ruled over eastern Denmark for
Perhaps the best known period of Nordic history (internationally), is the time of the Vikings which             the past 300 years) and over Norway for nearly 500 years, while Iceland was ruled from Norway for
starts at the beginning of the 10th century. This era marks the termination of the prehistoric period in        some 200 years and then from Denmark yet another 500 years, and the list goes on (but Finland
the region. There were still hardly any written sources of knowledge, and what is known about this              hasn't ruled over anybody, and is very envious because of that). Unavoidably, this has caused some
period is largely based on archaeological remains. Nevertheless, the Sagas shed some light on these             anti-pathies, but it has also made the Nordic cultures more uniform.
times. Although they were written down later, the Sagas were based on word of mouth tales passed                Plots, counter plots and assassinations within the monarchies marked the medieval period of the
down from one generation to the next. Despite this they reveal that the Viking Age must without                 region. By the late 14th century, upstart dynasties intermarried, eventually forming the Kalmar Union.
comparison have been the richest of all the prehistoric periods in the north.                                   It was a union of three Nordic kingdoms formed in 1389, when Queen Margrete – already regent in
The stereotype Viking is a tall ginger haired figure with bushy beard possessed with a raging fury              Norway and Denmark – was elected regent in Sweden. The entity was referred to as the Kalmar
which he releases upon other countries. Surprising though it may sound, the Vikings have never worn             Union because Margrete's grand nephew, Erik of Pomerania, was soon crowned king of Norway at
even the tiniest little horns in their helmets. Viking helmets did sometimes have neat figures and all          Kalmar. The union treaty stated that the countries were to act as a single kingdom vis-à-vis other
kinds of decorations, but not horns.                                                                            countries and states and assists one another in the event of war. The union functioned in practice up
Although this period was short (900 A.D. – 10500 A.D.) compared to the rest of the long history of              to 1521, when Gustavus Vasa was elected king of Sweden. Norway, however, was to remain under
Sweden, Norway and Denmark, it is one of the most widely known. Foreigners have never stopped                   Danish rule for another three centuries.
wondering about and being fascinated by the Vikings. They have been called the Giants from the                  In the 16th century the Reformation swept through the region, leaving burnt churches and civil war-
North, ―heathens‖, ―savages‖, ―the first knights‖ and so on. They have been described as barbarians             fare in its wake. The fighting ended in 1536 with the ousting of the powerful Catholic Church and the
who from birth were taught how to fight well (and encouraged by their religion to do it).                       establishment of a Danish Lutheran church headed by the monarchy.
This is what an anonymous author described the Viking‘s attack: ―The same year the heathens ar-                 The question of Yes or No to the Nordic union became relevant when Gustavus Vasa was elected king
rived from the north to Brittany with a fleet of ships. They were like stinging wasps, and they spread          of Sweden, because the owners of large tracts of land in Sweden and Norway disliked the union.
in all directions like horrible wolves, wrecking, robbing, shattering and killing not only animals but          At this period of history, Denmark was the largest and richest of the Nordic countries. The Norwegian
also priests, monks and nuns. They came to the church of Lindesfarne, slayed everything alive, dug              and Swedish landowners – along with the German members of the Hanseatic League – were of the
up the altars and took all the treasures of the holy church‖. The attack came as a shock to the rulers          opinion that Denmark dominated the decision-making process. This period also marks the emergence
of Brittany and the rumors about the fearless Nordic men spread over Europe.                                    of Sweden as a major power, when King Gustavus Vasa proved capable of exploiting the discontent
The Swear Vikings (from Sweden) founded kingdoms in Russia and built trade stations along the                   amongst the landowners. The Nordic region was split. Sweden and Finland formed one alliance, while
rivers all the way down to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. They went to Constantinople and                   Demark, Norway, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands formed a counter alliance. The Great
Baghdad, they even came into contact with Byzantium and they formed a feared elite regiment for                 Nordic War in the early part of the 18th century brought an end to Sweden's period as a major pow-
the East Roman Emperor, a guard which existed for some hundred years. The Danes conquered                       er. The main events in the remaining years of the 18th century are the Enlightenment and the start
London, besieged Lisbon, burnt Santiago, assaulted Seville, attacked Mallorca, and sold European                of the Industrial Revolution.
slaves in North Africa. They terrorized Paris (on numerous occasions) and burnt Hamburg and many                The French Revolution in 1789 changes the face of Europe. The Nordic countries increase their ex-
other German cities. They even went to Jerusalem and possibly also to Alexandria. The Norwegians,               ports of timber, grain and tar to war-torn Europe – at good prices. In 1807, two of Europe's most
however, traveled to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Irland and Scotland. Like the Danes they kept trade            powerful men met: Czar Alexander of Russia and Emperor Napoleon of France. They agreed to cut off
contacts with the cities of the Mediterranean Sea.                                                              England from the rest of Europe, and from the Nordic countries. The Faroese, Greenlanders and
Their activities left traces for eternity. Over 900 of the most common English words come from the              Icelanders had good trading connections with England so the embargo led to new wars, higher pric-
Vikings (sky, skin, scrape, skirt, husband and window are some examples). In Russia, which was                  es, bank crises, bankruptcies and starvation in Norway.
founded by the people from Rus (the Swedish Roslagen County), millions of people still hold the                 Russia attacked and occupied Finland. The Czar became Grand Duke of Finland following a meeting
name Oleg, Olga and Igor – from the names of the Viking gods Helge, Helga and Ingvar. When                      of the parliamentary assembly at Borgĺ in 1809. Russia guaranteed Finland's security, and the Finns
Russians politely address each other as ―gentlemen‖, the word comes from the Viking word ―husbon-               retained their legislative powers, on condition that they accepted Alexander as their sovereign. Swe-
den‖. For their many expeditions the Vikings needed fast and seaworthy ships, and men with the skill            den's defeat led to a change of course in Swedish politics, and parliament was granted more exten-
to navigate them over open seas. Many believe that these courageous men repeatedly voyaged to                   sive powers. Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, a Frenchman, better known as Karl Johan, was elected crown
America and back. The Sagas relate that it was Leif Eriksson who discovered ―Wineland the Good‖ in              prince and later (1810) king of Sweden. During his reign, Sweden joined forces with England in wag-
the year 1001, but present day archeologists claim that it is possible that other Vikings had reached           ing war against the French and the Danish-Norwegian union. France and Denmark lost, and Frederik
America before him. The Viking Age culminated in 1066 when the Norwegian King Harald Hardruler
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
VI, king of Denmark, was forced to cede Norway to Sweden (the Peace of Kiel). But King Frederik VI               present egalitarism is associated with the equality of chances, which includes e.g. an easy access to
appointed Kristian Frederik vice-regent, and later the Norwegians elected him king of Norway. For a              the public education and the guarantee of a minimum wage as well as with the equality of all citizens
short period in 1814, Norway was independent, with its own king, Kristian Frederik. A new constitu-              regardless of social background, ethnic origins, religion and sex.
tion was adopted on 17th May at Eidsvoll and today it is the National Day of celebration in Norway.              The Scandinavian welfare model is often used as a general term for the way in which Denmark,
Norway a free and independent nation, after having been a part of the Danish autocracy for 400                   Sweden and Norway have chosen to organize and finance their social security systems, health servic-
years, was joined into a loose union with Sweden. The Norwegian constitution was the most modern                 es and education. The Scandinavian countries are clearly distinguished from other European countries
in Europe at the time but was rejected by Karl Johan. Sweden attacked and won the war against                    in these areas.
Norway. Karl Johan became king of the new union between Sweden and Norway, which lasted until
1905.                                                                                                            Equality of chances

King Karl Johan had a government in Stockholm, and another in Oslo to govern Norway. The coun-                   In many respects Scandinavian region is a land of relatively small class differences. Many people even
tries were united under one king – a form of union also referred to as ―a personal union‖. Moreover,             consider the very concept of social class outdated, since it has become notoriously hard to define. A
in the 19th century Norwegians felt a growing desire to achieve independence. Freedom to conduct                 Nordic manual worker may well earn as much as a lower official, and his children can choose to study
trade was introduced in the 1840s, and in 1848 – the year of the revolution in European history –                at the same university as those of the company president. All in all, the principle of equal opportunity
new perspectives emerged, finally leading to the introduction of parliamentarism in 1884. But foreign            has had a strong position in Scandinavian society, much due to the long predominance of the Social
policy was not a matter for decision by parliament, and for Norway – as a seafaring nation which                 Democratic Party in Swedish political life. Some even think this principle has gone to far, limiting
maintained cultural links with England – this posed serious problems. In 1905, the system suffered a             pluralism and individual freedom on the legal as well the personal level.
total collapse. The Norwegian government resigned, and the king failed to persuade other Norwe-                  Norway is a rich and smoothly functioning society where few people fall outside the safety net of
gians to serve as ministers. The outcome was that the parliament had to inform the king that he no               national insurance and pension schemes when they find they are unable to provide for themselves.
longer serve as Norway's monarch. Some Swedes wanted to resort to military intervention but in                   Workers have their rights in the workplace that many people in other countries no doubt envy, with
negotiations at Karlstad it was agreed that Norway should become independent and have its own                    respect to protection against dismissal, the opportunity to take care of children and the opportunity to
king. The choice fell upon Haakon VII, a Dane.                                                                   divide the workload between men and women.
Towards the end of the 19th century, trade increased as a result of the developments in railway                  In practical terms there is also a true cradle-to-the-grave welfare state in Sweden as well. Services
traffic and shipping. With a view to facilitating trade, it was decided to introduce a Nordic currency in        are provided to everyone not because they are poor, but because they are human. So a pregnant
Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The governments decided to use a common unit of currency – the                       mother would be provided with excellent prenatal care and be given extremely generous maternity
krone – applying the decimal system.                                                                             leave (and nowadays, paternity leave for the papas). A child will obtain a place in a day care center
When the union with Sweden was dissolved Norway was enjoying a period of economic growth,                        and kindergarten when the parents return to work and excellent free education through university.
which lasted right up to I World War in 1914. During WWI Norway remained neutral, but the Norwe-                 Extremely generous vacations for all workers, unemployment insurance and job training, lifelong free
gian merchant fleet suffered heavy losses on account of the submarine war.                                       medical care, state provided pensions and even money to pay for a funeral and burial results that
                                                                                                                 Sweden has a remarkably egalitarian distribution of income and low rate of poverty. The living stan-
Neutral in WWI, Denmark reaffirmed its neutrality at the outbreak of WWII; but, on 9 April 1940,                 dards of the poor are closer to those of median citizens than in other advanced countries. It is there-
with German warplanes flying over Copenhagen, Denmark surrendered to Germany. Also Norway's                      fore because of the system of income determination not because of the homogeneity of the popula-
declaration of neutrality was of little significance. German forces attacked Norway, which after a two-          tion that Sweden is considered a highly egalitarian country.
month struggle was subdued, despite some military assistance from Great Britain and France. The
royal family and the government left for Great Britain. During the war the Norwegian government                  In Denmark, the basic assumption of equality is a major principle in all spheres of Danish law. Fun-
carried out its work in exile.                                                                                   damental human rights are protected by the Danish Constitution. The protection covers civil, political,
                                                                                                                 economic, cultural and social rights. Danish government prides itself on a simply stated social welfare
In 1946 the Danish, Swedish and Norwegian ministers of justice decided to appoint a committee to                 system as well. The century-old, deep-rooted egalitarian beliefs of the society intermixed with the
draw up proposals on co-operation in the future on legislation in the Nordic region. On February                 growth of the public sector shaping a state where everyone has a right to social security when meet-
1953, the Nordic Council became a reality. Finland joined the council in 1956. The formation of the              ing certain economic conditions. Thus, acts on social security offer a very wide protection to the
council made it possible for Nordic parliamentarians to play a larger role in the process of developing          unemployed, pensioners, single parents, students and other economically strained groups. Everyone
co-operation on legislation.                                                                                     with a permanent address in Denmark has the right to profit from the public health insurance system,
Let‘s stop here with this short overview of the history of the Scandinavian region. The next point is…           which is to a high degree free of charge. All parents receive an annual contribution to the upbringing
                                              III. EGALITARISM                                                   of their children.
In sociological theory as well as in empirical research, values and norms have been and still are a              When you fall ill
major topic. In this part of the paper, we would like to focus on an area of values, which is surely             Persons who fall ill in Norway are guaranteed medical treatment. As a basic principle, health services
among the most important for the political and social organization of societies: attitudes towards               are to be distributed according to need – not according to ability to pay. Treatment provided during
inequality and distribution. The issue of egalitarism – that is our aim. But firstly, let‘s check in the         hospitalization is free of charge.
encyclopedia what it is?                                                                                         There is unique waiting list system for hospital treatment in Norway. All who make an appointment
Egalitarism (French égalitaire – aiming at the equality of rights) is a socio-political theory demand-           for an examination or treatment at a public hospital – with the exception of those in need of imme-
ing the equality of rights for the citizens as far as social, political and economic dimensions are con-         diate treatment – are placed on the waiting list. Acutely ill patients are given immediate treatment.
cerned. Egalitarism is based on the belief that all people are equal. It was under the banner of equali-         Second priority patients – those who are seriously ill – are guaranteed treatment within three months.
ty that the French revolution broke out as well as the utopian socialists advocated their views. At              All other patients have to wait for an opening. The length of the deferment varies from county to
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
county and from medical field to field.                                                                          ones who cannot really take care of themselves and have not gone to the social service agencies. A
Denmark has a national health care that allows individuals who have been in the country for as little            variety of facilities for alcoholics is being provided, including clinics, half-way houses, and emergency
as six weeks completely free medical care. This is possible in Denmark because the Danes pay 50%                 housing open twenty-four hours a day.
of their income in taxes to support this economic system. Individuals have the right to choose their             Similar to other European countries, Denmark experienced a rising number of drug-abusers among
own general practitioner. If the medical situation cannot be treated by the general practitioner then            the younger population in the 60s. As these people became older, the drug-abuse spread to encom-
the patient will receive written permission to see a specialist or be admitted into the hospital.                pass the older generations. The government has increased the funds set aside to help the growing
If you are out of work                                                                                           number of drug-abusers.
All who have been previously employed and earned a certain minimum income in Norway have                         Education
earned the right to unemployment benefits from the National Insurance. Benefits amount to a certain              Since the end of the Second World War, Norwegian governments‘ policy has been strongly characte-
share of prior earnings.                                                                                         rized by efforts to achieve equal opportunities for all citizens, particularly with regard to access to
When it comes to unemployment, also the importance of the Swedish welfare state is particularly                  education. This led to the establishment of a unitary primary and lower secondary school system for
meaningful. Unemployment in Sweden is not considered as the failure of a lazy or incapable person,               the first 10 school years and upper secondary schools. The same principle was applied in expanding
but as the inability of the society to provide a job to a skilled and useful individual. So, the state is        the higher education sector (three of the four Norwegian universities were founded after 1945.
spending 3.3% of the annual GNP (1985 figures) to tackle labor market issues, 80% of which is used               In Sweden school resources are also equally distributed. Private schools are rare; and public re-
to actively fight unemployment and only the remaining 20% are paid as unemployment benefits,                     sources are allocated so that „the size of the parent‘s wallet hall not influences the school quality of
which are nonetheless relatively high.                                                                           the child‖. Special resources are geared toward the least able pupils.
In Denmark, to remedy the immediate effects of becoming unemployed, maintenance is paid through                  Danish state also has to provide free education for all children and teenagers, from elementary school
an unemployment insurance system which provides a benefit during unemployment (called ar-                        to master‘s degrees at university level. Education is compulsory through the age of 16. There is an
bejdsløshedsdagpenge). This is paid through private Unemployment Insurance Funds which are                       average for Folkeskole, i.e. elementary schools of 300 children per school and 18 per class. As a
organized in the form of associations and in most cases administered by a trade union.                           result illiteracy in Denmark is virtually non- existent.
When you have children                                                                                           Gender equality
When pregnant, women who have been employed for at least six of the last ten months are entitled                 In the Norwegian culture women have a prominent position. The general attitude there is that noth-
to a maternity leave with full pay, limited upwards to six times the basic national insurance sum.               ing that is possible for a man is impossible for a woman. Other cultures may even find Norwegian
Statistics show that Norway is a world leader in work participation among women. In 1999, 74 per                 women somewhat mannish due to their open and direct way of dealing with others.
cent of women aged 15–64 were in paid employment compared with 53 per cent in the EU countries.                  The goal of Norwegian gender equality policy is to give men and women the same possibilities, rights
Norway has a unique combination of high female participation in the work force and a high fertility              and obligations within all sectors of society. Women must be protected from sexual violence and
rate (1.85 children on average). Many mothers of small children work. Women with small children                  power and influence are to be equally divided between the sexes. This implies that men and women
also want to continue working: 86 per cent of women with children between three and six years of                 are given the same potential for economic independence and the same terms and conditions on the
age have a job and an increasing number of them are in full time employment. Among young couples                 labor market. Furthermore, men and women are to share responsibility for the day-to-day care of the
there is a trend towards increased sharing of responsibility for child care. The fathers' quota has led          home and children. It may appear on the surface that full equality has been achieved and the fact
80 per cent of fathers to exercise their right to take time off for child care.                                  that in politics women are particularly well represented is seen as an indication of this. But much
Transfer programs for families with children in Sweden are extensive. They are designed to stimulate             remains to be done. For example, only 6 per cent of board members in listed companies are women
work by both parents. Parents pay a fee for the child, but 80–90 percent of the costs are subsidized.            and female representation is equally low in the top echelons of Norwegian business and industry.
Most local authorities set lower fees for the second and third child of the same family, and for single          There is still a wage gap of 20 per cent between men and women in full time employment.
parents. This is designed to facilitate parents combining work and parenting.                                    The search for fairness has helped the Swedish society to achieve a relatively high level of sexual
Maternity leave in Denmark lasts 4 weeks prior to the birth and up to 24 weeks after. The father is              equality. About 78% of the women are working; they are much represented in the political institu-
entitled to paternity leave of two weeks after the birth. From the fifteenth week after the birth the            tions and laws have been passed to help men and women attain the same status in the society. For
mother can transfer all or a portion of her remaining maternity leave to the father.                             example, men can take leave of absence from work to look after the children. However, as the Swe-
Children’s own minister                                                                                          dish society has its rigidities, some laws or ideas are difficult to enforce: bosses are still very reluctant
                                                                                                                 to let their male employees take holidays to take care of the children and despite the efforts toward
The Norwegian Government has a special minister to attend to issues concerning children and fami-                sexual equality, nearly 50% of the working women only have a part-time job.
lies. The minister‘s sphere of responsibility embraces child care, day care institutions and sexual
equality. Norway was the first country in the world to appoint a special ombud for children.                     Equality between men and women is a major goal in Danish society, and the foundation for the work
                                                                                                                 of fulfilling this aim is an understanding of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political,
Substance abusers                                                                                                economic, social, cultural and civil or any other field as privileges to be enjoyed by all citizens, be
Social service is also required to help substance abusers, e.g. by finding placements for them at                they male or female. In terms of numbers of workers (total employed and unemployed) there were
treatment institutions. The law allows for the commitment of persons with serious alcohol or drug                89 women for every 100 men in 2001 (80 in 1982).
abuse problems. A substance abuser can be committed to an institution for a maximum of three                     Efforts to combat bullying and racism
                                                                                                                 Norway is steadily becoming a multicultural society. In Oslo about one in five young people has a
Basically only a small number of alcoholics and drug addicts in Sweden live in misery. These are the             minority background. Cultural diversity is both enriching and positive for the community but it also
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
poses challenges with regard to integration. Racism and discrimination conflict with basic Norwegian              it may be, to anonymously and without giving any reason, immediately and on the spot read public
values. The Ministry of Children and Family Affairs subsidizes special measures to enhance the condi-             papers in courts and agencies of the municipalities and the state, and to get copies, and publish
tions under which young people grow up in urban communities in general and to stimulate integra-                  them, irrespective of the wishes of the original author. The offentlighetsprincipen is part of the consti-
tion and combat racism in particular. As mobbing is a major problem among children and young                      tution of the Kingdom of Sweden. It has been since 1766; thus the offentlighetsprincipen for public
people regardless of their cultural background, money has been set aside for the wide range of                    papers is 22 years older than the US constitution. There are of course also elaborate rules, a thick
measures including the introduction of a special program against bullying in the primary schools,                 law, when public papers must be classified. But the basic principles from 1766 have never been
starting this year.                                                                                               changed. And when the computers came, data information became as public as information on pa-
In Sweden more than 10% of the population is non-Swedish these days. They have had a very open                    per.
immigration policy since the 60s, although not quite as many have been allowed in recent years.                   The offenlighetsprincipen is truly revered. When Sweden applied for membership in the European
With respect to the aim of eliminating all forms of racial discrimination or similar types of discrimina-         Union, the government said Sweden was prepared to negotiate about exactly everything. Except for
tion or less favorable treatment Denmark has adopted the Act on the Prohibition of Differential                   the offentlighetsprincipen. If the Union didn‘t accept that as a precondition, Sweden wouldn‘t apply
Treatment on the Grounds of Race soon in 1971. The act prohibits any differential treatment on the                for a membership.
ground of race, color, national or ethnic origin, religion or sexual orientation in the performance of            And why is the offentlighetsprincipen revered by even the poorest citizens? Because in other coun-
commercial or public activity. The protection against discrimination at work is left to the parties of the        tries the journalists are depending on leaks, but when a whole group of politicians, judges or bureau-
labor market. According to a general rule of the Act on Private Registers of 1987 business entities               crats all are corrupt, there aren‘t any. But in Sweden all journalists, it‘s a part of their professional
may not register information about private matters of individuals concerning race, color, religion and            pride, dig up the facts nevertheless. Their mud digging achievements the last twenty years are im-
sexual orientation.                                                                                               pressive: one Prime Minister elect, three Ministers of Justice, half a dozen Regional Governors, half a
Co-habitant, spouse or partner                                                                                    dozen of the highest Police Commanding Officers, at least one parliamentary member a year, and
                                                                                                                  several dozens of local municipal mayors and managers. All sacked. In most cases they hadn‘t been
After WWII family patterns in Norway underwent major changes. The first decades were marked by                    more corrupt than e.g. using their official tax paid VISA cards for small private expenses, but that
the total predominance of marriage, but as the 70s advanced the status of marriage declined. By the               didn‘t calm the public outrage, and they got sacked nevertheless. With such effectiveness, the offen-
end of the 70s the word co-habitant began to appear frequently. Three trends in particular emerged                tlighetsprincipen is of course hated among politicians and bureaucrats, but they can‘t even show the
when family patterns started to change. People were older when they married, more children were                   slightest hint of that opinion, because in that case, they won‘t be reelected. It would be a political
born outside marriage and divorce increased. About 50 per cent of children are now born outside                   suicide.
marriage, most of them to cohabiting parents. Around 60, 000 children are born every year in Nor-
way. In 1999 the parents of 9, 015 children under 18 years of age divorced. Under the law parents                 Janteloven
who are married or have been married have joint parental responsibility.                                          The word "Janteloven‖ occasionally pops up, often with no hint given as to what it is supposed to
Gay and lesbian                                                                                                   mean since apparently it‘s common knowledge in most Nordic countries. It derives from the novel "En
                                                                                                                  flygtning krysser sitt spor" (―A refugee crosses his tracks‖) by the Norwegian/Danish author Aksel
In Norway homosexual persons of the same sex can register their partnership which is then legally on              Sandemose. The book takes place in an imaginary Danish small town called Jante. The book is about
a par with marriage, with the exception of the church ceremony and the right to adopt. The govern-                the ugly sides of Scandinavian small-town mentality, and the term "Janteloven" meaning ―the Jante
ment has now proposed a legal right to the adoption of stepchildren whereby the one partner in a                  Law‖ means the unspoken rules and jealousy of such communities in general. This law tells you,
registered partnership may adopt the other‘s child. A White Paper has also been submitted on the                  among others: ―do not think you are anything special‖ and ―do not think you are better than anybody
subject of life circumstances for homosexuals and lesbians, which includes measures to help combat                else‖.
                                                                                                                  The “Allemansret”
Sweden is one of the world‘s most progressive countries when it comes to Gay Rights. Since 1988,
government legislation has granted gay relationships the same status as heterosexual marriages and                The ―Everyman‘s Right‖ (i.e. the right to walk freely in the nature) is sometimes said to be a Scandi-
the state has given financial support to gay organizations.                                                       navian specialty. That might be wrong or correct – in any case it‘s an important part of life taken for
                                                                                                                  granted by the people in Norway, Sweden and Finland. It‘s maybe also an explanation why the envi-
Following the introduction of ―registered partnership‖ legislation in Denmark in 1989, the statistics             ronment protection has become such an important issue in contemporary Scandinavian politics,
showing the popularity of gay marriage are soaring. According to the government 2,083 lesbian and                 despite these countries not at all being more polluted than for instance Germany or Poland. The
gay couples (nearly twice as many male as female) had taken advantage of the law which gives them                 ―Everyman‘s Rights‖ give a lot of freedom – and at the same time the responsibility for protecting the
all the rights of heterosexual marriage except the right to adopt children and to have artificial insemi-         land and environment also when it is someone else's property. The main rule is that one can walk, ski
nation and a church wedding.                                                                                      or cycle everywhere as long as nothing is harmed and nobody disturbed. Then, there are refinements
Legal system                                                                                                      and exceptions to this, of course.
When thinking of the Swiss legal system, you have heard of their oddity: the bank secrecy. But few                How close to houses can one dare to come? No definite rule exists, but in Sweden it‘s often said that
have heard about Nordic: the ―offentlighetsprincipen‖, the principle of publicly. It‘s juridical oddity,          the privacy area around a dwelling is to be understood as at least 200 meters (in Norway 150 me-
and it is very peculiar. The US equivalence is the Freedom of Information Act, but it's better not to             ters). This does of course depend on the landscape and other conditions. An alternative wording of
use that parallel, because all US citizens will only get the wrong impression.                                    the rule is that if you hear or see other people, then you are too close to them.
The offentlighetsprincipen is divided in two parts: the right for whoever it may be, to be present as             The historic background was the great uninhabited forests around the Nordic villages. These weren‘t
listener at court and other public proceedings. The rule is at least from the 15th century, and is of             anyone's property, but were seen as a common good to which not only the inhabitants in the nearest
course no oddity at all. Most legal systems state the same. But the other part is: the right, whomever            village had access, but instead also travelers, who had the right to collect what one need for survival

                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
and tour through the sparsely populated country. The tradition dates back to Viking time, or longer,            The Nordic peoples were converted to Catholicism in the 10th to 12th centuries, but the Lutheran
including the right to take grass for horses and timber for reparations of carriages, as regulated in           reformation embraced in all Nordic countries wiped out most of the Catholic customs and memories
medieval laws.                                                                                                  in the course of the 16th century. Having become a stronghold of Protestantism against Catholics in
The rules are not exactly identical in Norway, Sweden and Finland, but in practice the following                the south and Greek Orthodox in the east had some unifying effect on Scandinavia even though wars
should apply to all three countries: In Denmark most of the land is in use and owned by somebody,               between the countries kept raging on; religion was, after all, the most important basis of one‘s identi-
either a private person or the state (in earlier times this was the king). With regard to the state             ty well into the 18th century. The Lutheran ideal was to require the common people to be able to
owned land, everyone is allowed to walk there, collect berries, mushrooms or whatever. But you are              read the Bible on their own, which had an enormous educating effect on the Nordic peoples. This,
not allowed to make camps, light fires, take firewood and so on.                                                along with the protestant work ethic, had a significant role in the forming of the Scandinavian socie-
                                                                                                                ties, enabling their economic and cultural growth and the pioneering work that the Nordics have
Other Issues                                                                                                    played in decreasing social inequality.
The ideal that each and everybody have the same value is manifested in the Swedish forms of ad-                 Even today, all five Nordic countries have a Lutheran state church to which a vast majority of the
dress. Just as in Anglo-Saxon countries, Swedes use only one form when speaking to a single person:             population belongs (there is of course full freedom of religion granted by the constitutions of the five
du (―you‖). Irrespective of the sex, age or social class of an addressee, du can always be used. For-           countries). Paradoxically, this is probably the reason why Scandinavians are among the most secular
merly there was a more polite form, Ni (corresponding to German Sie) which was to be used, for                  peoples on the face of the earth. Despite its seemingly all-pervasive presence in various state institu-
instance, between strangers and by children who were addressing adults. Today it is only rarely used            tions and the ceremonies guiding the life of the average Scandinavian, Lutheranism has in most parts
and most of all by elderly people. Note, however, that it is still the form employed when talking to            of Scandinavia retreated to the fringes of culture and has little meaning to the average person.
more than one person.                                                                                           Church attendance is record-low, the liberal morals hardly reflect specifically Lutheran ideals, religion
Another characteristic of Swedish mentality is the urge to agree on things. Heated discussions are              is no major issue in politics, etc. The official, institutionalized religion offered by the state churches
rare, and the best way to convince somebody in a matter is not to put maximum emotional energy                  has to a large extent vaccinated the Nordics against Christian fundamentalism of the American kind.
into the discussion, but to give some good arguments. For this reason, foreigners sometimes think               …Language
Swedish people undercooled and formal. They probably have a point there, but it should be remem-
bered that the tendency towards rationality and objectivity most of all is seen in public and profes-           Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese are all North-Germanic languages developed from
sional life. Swedish people can be very emotional, too, especially after 2 a.m. in a bar.                       the Old Norse spoken in Viking age Scandinavia. A Swede, a Dane and a Norwegian can understand
                                                                                                                each other with varying degrees of difficulties, but none of them will fully understand Icelandic or
Conclusions                                                                                                     Faroese without studying the languages. Finnish is an entirely different case, it‘s a Finno-Ugric lan-
A key challenge in the field of domestic policy is reconciling the demands of the Norwegian welfare             guage related to Estonian and Hungarian. There is, however, a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland,
state and egalitarian social model on the one hand with those of the offshore economy and globaliza-            which ties it linguistically to Scandinavia. Also, Finnish is related to the Sámi languages spoken in
tion on the other. Norway‘s egalitarian model for cradle-to-grave social security is coming under ever-         Norway, Sweden and Finland by the Sámi or Lapps, the aborigines of northern Scandinavia.
greater pressure to adapt to the process of globalization, which is forcing the nation to enhance the           The languages sound more like three (very) different dialects of the same language than three sepa-
efficiency of its economy.                                                                                      rate languages. The language situation has made communication between the countries much easier,
When it comes to the Swedish society, it is also built on a foundation of egalitarianism and social             and has laid the foundation for a close cooperation between the countries.
awareness and has managed to become one of the most successful capitalist economies of this cen-                The late Einar Haugen, one of the leading authorities on the Scandinavian languages, once characte-
tury. Low power-distance, teamwork, concern for the common well-being and a strong international                rized Norwegian as ―Danish spoken with a Swedish accent‖. The essential difference between the
orientation have helped Swedish managers create leading multinational firms while the left-wing                 three Scandinavian languages is that Danish and Norwegian have a long history of shared culture and
governments were establishing an advanced welfare state that still allowed liberal economics to                 vocabulary which Swedish lacks, while Norwegian and Swedish have many shared features of pro-
prevail. Denmark also is well-developed welfare society, which provides high-quality childcare; train-          nunciation, which Danish lacks. Actually, the truth is somewhat more complex, since Norwegian and
ing and education; elderly care as well as health care. But people‘s needs will continue to change,             Danish have radically simplified their pronunciation and grammar in a way that Swedish has not, but
and the demand for quality welfare services is not about to decrease – on the contrary. To secure               the pronunciation of Danish has subsequently been influenced by that of German, while Swedish and
welfare society, Danes must create a basis for allowing families and businesses to enjoy decent public          Norwegian have not.
services in an affluent society – also five or ten years ahead. A proper physical framework that allows
the country to meet the demands of the future shall be established. Moreover, there is a need for               English is a mandatory subject and is taught in school from 3rd or 4th grade up to completion of high
making the public sector as efficient as possible, providing people with the best possible services. The        school. Much of the communication with other countries is in English and most people born in the
public sector will have to invest in areas that can strengthen Denmark's position and boost the econ-           1940s and later can communicate well in English.
omy to the benefit of society in general. Public investment in such areas could include projects to             …Culture
better prepare people and businesses for the challenges of the future.                                          Scandinavian culture today could be described as a potpourri of ―original Viking culture‖, medieval
                                 IV. THE SCANDINAVIAN NATIONS AND…                                              German influence, French influence in the centuries that followed, and several other smaller sources,
…Religion                                                                                                       not forgetting local development and national romantic inventiveness, of course.
The Germanic pagan religion has left its mark on customs and festivals; celebrations with bonfires              The Nordics are rather heavy drinkers, the ―vodkabelt‖ goes right through Finland, Sweden and
and maypoles mark the Finnish and Swedish midsummer, and the Nordic Christmas bears many                        Norway; the Danes are more of a beer-drinking nation, but don‘t say no to a glass of akvavit either.
similarities to the midwinter feast of the Vikings. Trolls and gnomes still inhabit Nordic households,          Smörgĺsbord with pickled herrings and open-faced sandwiches is no rare sight. Women are emanci-
although the once revered and feared mythical beings have been reduced to the lowly caste of soft               pated. Towns are clean and well-functioning enough to make a Swiss clocksmith feel at home. And
toys.                                                                                                           so forth; myths and stereotypes about Scandinavia are many. Some of them are, of course, less true
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
than others, but their very existence illustrates the fact that we do have quite a lot in common.                 Many point out how Scandinavians never get invited to neighbors or colleagues. This is interpreted as
…Alcohol                                                                                                          a suppressed hostility, i.e. as xenophobia or discrimination, but it could be easy explained by the
                                                                                                                  social pattern among the Swedes. Also Nordeners can be good colleagues – year after year – without
There are a few facts which often tend to be forgotten when discussing the alcohol habits of North-               this making them meeting privately. They tend to draw a clear border between their private life on
Europeans.                                                                                                        one side with a few close friends and a bunch of relatives, and on the other side social contacts with
The maybe most important explanation for the Nordic behavior is the very long tradition of mead and               others. A consequence is that it‘s rather hard for newcomers to a town or a village to break into such
beer drinking. At least since the Stone Age Germanians have left traces of brewing intoxicating beve-             a narrow circle, particularly for aliens. This feature is enforced by the strong tendency among Swedes
rages from grain. Wine was grown by Germans first at the time of Charlemagne, when the Nordics                    to achieve socio-cultural homogeneity. Another typical Nordic feature contributes to this tendency:
since long had established our own cultural identity, and still today it‘s almost impossible to grow              the wish for conflict free encounters in the private life.
wine in Scandinavia. Mead can however not be stored. Mead has to be prepared for each time there                  Swedes are particularly prone to achieve consensus in attitudes and opinions, and avoid socializing
is a need for it, as at festivals, and then all of the mead has to be consumed or it will be wasted. The          with others than like–minded people. Confrontations are regarded as particularly unpleasant. Nor-
Nordic all-or-nothing attitude to alcohol has a plausible explanation in our historic and geographic              therners are not curious enough to balance for this fear for the different. They do also not believe
conditions.                                                                                                       ourselves to be interesting enough to wake the curiousness of others, and to compensate for this
Secondly beer and mead are made from grain, which otherwise would be used as food. Richness and                   there must be food and beverages, and maybe particular activities, when meeting others.
power made it possible to afford brewing; poverty, failure of the crops and starving meant ―no booze              Another feature worth to note is shyness, which is particularly prevalent among Finns and Scandina-
or you‘ll die!‖ To be able to serve ones guests a plenty of alcohol is a deeply rooted signal of richness,        vians. People feel inhibited around others one doesn‘t know well, and one is very observant on one‘s
authority and good times worthy lords and magnates. The holiday behavior of Finns staggering off                  own behavior since it is regarded as very important to control which impression others get of one.
and on their ferries in Tallin, Sundsvall and Stockholm, and the Swedes reeling off and on the ferries            Among less well known people, one gets extra careful since it is harder to anticipate their perceptions
in Helsingřr, Fredrikshavn and Copenhagen, is nothing but the traditional way of celebration for a                and reactions.
people not used to wine. Parallels are seen in the traditions on Ireland and in Scotland.
                                                                                                                  A sign of the borderline between the private sphere and work is the Nordic resistance against small
…European Enlargement                                                                                             talk about private matters with strangers, which has been reported to be a great hinder in business
Norway, Iceland, Greenland and the Faeroes are not members of the EU. Denmark joined in                           contacts in foreign countries. The lack of passions strangers might perceive in Nordics is surely both
1972, but Sweden and Finland didn‘t join until in 1992. Today Finland is regarded as the most                     reflecting a genuine trait and the fact that most strangers don‘t meet Nordics in a context the Nordics
pro-EU country in Scandinavia – and the Finns have been the only to adopt the new Euro-                           would regard as private and unrestrained. Rational reasons have a strong precedence over for emo-
pean currency, the euro.                                                                                          tional reasons. Emotions are not at all disapproved in all contexts, but they are regarded as ―pure‖
There are several important reasons why Norway has not joined the European Union. The Scandina-                   emotions of no further value than to signal one‘s general unhappiness with life or fate.
vian country has applied twice to join the community, but has failed in its bid due to two national               Quietness is regarded as the commonly accepted norm, and noisy fellows are strongly disapproved.
referendums, held in 1972, and again in 1994. Norway is a nation which has been dominated by                      Vociferous stubbornness is deemed as very ill-mannered. As is interrupting and talking in the mouth
foreign powers for centuries, and holds its independence as of primary importance. Further, Norway‘s              of others. The Nordic ideal is to think twice before one speaks, and to utter only one‘s most firm
geographical position at the northern extreme of Europe has had a large impact on their reluctance to             beliefs, and only when there is a considered intention. What one says is remembered for ages, and if
join the European Economic Community (EEC). The Norwegians have always been in closer contact                     one says something stupid or ―wrong‖ it will be proof of one‘s stupidness and general incompetence.
with the other Scandinavian countries and Great Britain, and as such have been more likely to coope-              To be kind and good-natured is important. One prefers to be quiet or agreeable instead of uttering
rate with those nations as opposed to continental Europe. Historical and geographical reasons have                an opposing opinion, unless one really aims at hurting.
not been the only factors, however, which led Norway to oppose membership. Issues such as North                   It is easy to note how the Norwegians and the Finns, who gained independence first in the 20 th
Sea oil, the fishing industry and the incapability of the Norwegian government to present the EEC                 century, tend to be much more nationalistic than Danes or Swedes. Norwegians are generally strong-
debate effectively have all played a role. As the EU has expanded and more nations have become                    ly affected by their own culture. Norwegian national romanticism has of course its roots in the inde-
members, Norway has twice bided to join and twice failed in national referendums; choosing to                     pendence movements from Denmark, Sweden, and German occupants, and is much more accepted
remain outside of the European Union.                                                                             and appreciated by Norwegians themselves, than by outsiders. Because nationalism often (in Germa-
Norway‘s history also seemed to have an impact on the outcome of the referendum. Traditionally,                   ny, Sweden, USA etc) has been a political taboo, later to be picked up by anti-establishment semi-
Norway had international links with their fellow Scandinavian countries, as well as Great Britain and             nazi groups, citizens of these places might find the Norwegian national pride hard to swallow.
the United States – much more so than continental Europe. The Norwegian people often considered                   Northerners usually think they are very good at upbringing children, condemning the ―cold‖ and
themselves to very different from other Europeans, and Union with the rest of Europe was almost                   unfriendly attitudes to children in for instance France or the UK. Spanking of children is not accepta-
unnatural.                                                                                                        ble anymore, and actually unlawful in most countries.
As far as Denmark is concerned, Danish voters rejected the adoption of the euro in a referendum.                  And now for something completely different…
This was not the first time Denmark‘s citizens expressed their resistance to integration into the Euro-
pean Union. In 1992, they initially rejected the Maastricht Treaty, only to adopt it later with small                                                            V. INTERVIEWS
changes (similar to those granted to Britain, namely being allowed to stay out of the single currency             Instead of a summary which is always one of the most difficult parts of a paper we decided to end
indefinitely as well as to refrain from further integration in defense, justice, and home affairs). Then,         our work with something completely different but perhaps much more interesting. How you can learn
in 1993, Denmark threatened to destroy the entire treaty by rescinding the ratification that each                 about Scandinavia as much as possible in the easiest and nicest way? The answer is: ask Scandina-
member state must give. They eventually overcame that hurdle as well.                                             vians! We have made a couple of interviews with our friends from Nordic countries and we would like
…Nordic character                                                                                                 to present the results here.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Michael (Sweden)                                                                                                you are provided with everything.
How would you describe people from your country?                                                                Corporate life is highly dominated by men. And there is a stir around disproportions alike. We are an
People in Sweden have different dialects, but most of them suit the general idea of a Swede, so to              aging society. Women prefer to have children after they are 30. Often, this is put of even more.
speak. I mean, only ―mountaineers‖ – dwelling in the upper part of Sweden are different. Not only is            What do Swedes thing about other Nordic nations?
their manner of speaking hardly understandable, but also they refuse to conform to common stan-                 Norwegians are perceived as mountain people, who ski, do mountain trekking, take care about their
dards of living. Many even do without television, radio and some other latest inventions, so as to life         landscapes and generally live in the nature.
– they live in a crude, traditional manner.
                                                                                                                Danish people are more ―European‖, more modern, up-to-date, and chilled out. The trade is free, for
There is also a region inhabited by ―Danes‖, that once was a part of Denmark. They too have a very              example. In Sweden you can only buy alcohol on weekdays, within a strict time frame, in special
distinct accent, which arouses laugh or derisory comments at times.                                             shops.
We are a law-abiding nation. Swedish law regulations and all other rules are awfully stringent. In fact,        Finnish people are a far-off eastern tribe, in common perception. We go there to buy cheap spirits.
a Swede on an empty highway will drive 50 if that is the speed limit. However, this may be justified            The stereotype says that the Finns are simple, retarded, and dirty. Well, who cares about Finland
by the extent to which people are surveyed by our ever-present police. Social contacts, as well, are            anyway? They don‘t even speak similar language.
subject to discipline. When planning a coffee-visit, you need to make arrangement with the prospec-
tive host two weeks in advance. People generally stay at home and limit their intimate mates to                 Beata (Southern Norway)
family; friends are rather acquaintances, met seldom. Property is sacred, also property of views,               Do you like your Royal Family?
feelings. We are a bit ―inward‖.                                                                                Royals are doing a good job. Their only function is that of representation and they handle it well.
Order, no traffic jams, clean streets and pavements. We do not attempt actively to make any altera-             They, actually, lift some weigh off the shoulders of Prime Minister.
tions to that style, although we do find it tedious.                                                            Do you consider Norwegians as an egalitarian society?
We see ourselves as Europeans, 100% Europeans, one of those better. We price quality and we are,                Everything and everyone is supposed to be equal. So women are in no way treated differently. But
sort of ―of quality‖.                                                                                           why should we be treated as different? Bosses nowadays look to admitting lots of women into teams
Young Swedes tend to be lazy, older are boring and like to stick to what they already know; appre-              at work places. Good proportions make better work environment. Managerial posts, indeed, are
hensive towards inventions or changes.                                                                          dominated by male gender. But there are lots of women on the way up the corporate ladder. The
Holiday tradition? Normally, we go skiing during Easter break. Not much beyond that.                            problem crops up when a woman decides to become a mother, as later on she will not eagerly work
                                                                                                                full time, but she‘ll do 50% or 80% instead. Children will, of course, go to daycare. But in general, we
What do you think about European Union?                                                                         do have great variety of opportunities as women, and we are not limited by our gender itself.
The European Union is surely good to be in. I would like Poland to join EU. As to Sweden, we always             We are social-democratic country. We usually earn the average. But it is not that important. I
managed to preserve our curiosities, our traits, even our regulations. Like the Euro, which we did not          just want to afford decent life.
accept, or like prices of alcohol, that dropped everywhere but for Sweden. Sweden stays Swedish
where we want it to. All in all, The European Union is far from being the top issue of our everyday             Should Norway join the EU?
lives; it is just ―there‖ and does not affect us too forcefully.                                                We should join the EU. At the moment we are a small community in the north, we do have enough
I would like Euro to be introduced, though. Simply, for matters of consumer comfort, eliminating the            money to live comfortably on our own. However, in time, we will become increasingly dependant on
currency exchange problems.                                                                                     the EU. Hence, we should adhere already.

How does a typical Swedish Family look like?                                                                    I think it is important and right that people stick together and work together for greater benefits. I
                                                                                                                wouldn‘t mind foreigners settling in Norway. It would just have to be proceeding slowly – to allow the
Typical Swedish Family: Volvo, a dog, about two children and a property house. Everybody works,                 country handle the burden of integration costs. But I would never mind.
one cannot earn too much, compared to the average salary – since we are a socialistic society
(people who stick out with wealth are perceived as thieves of a kind; also, the tax is so high, that it         Describe your people in a few words…
never pays to earn too much). Family life is concentrated usual after work routine. Days tend to be             We are conservative. We have rules for everything and we generally obey them, well, as long as they
boring and monotonous. Churches are no longer attended. Empty relicts they‘ve become.                           are just. We are modest. One is not supposed to show off. We are a bit nationalistic, xenophobic. I
Kids are taken care of by Day-Mums – women who take care of a couple of children daily, till 4p.m.              don‘t like it but it is so. We are one of the safest countries. Life is really steady and peaceful, not one
when work is usually over. Grandparents do not do any housework or baby-sitting. They do not even               of the most exciting.
live with their children. They stay, as a rule, in elderly-care houses. Importantly enough, these hous-         Everybody has got some blue-blooded ancestors, hehe! It is very common to have a genealogical
es are almost luxurious.                                                                                        tree drawn – people, in general, have these things done.
Are Scandinavians an egalitarian society?                                                                       When a teenager has their confirmation, they buy a national traditional outfit. Then, these clothes are
We are equal. Or, we are supposed to be so. The spirit has been imposed yet in times of communism               worn during national feast, on 17th May, sometimes also during weddings.
rule. Hence, everybody is supposed to fit in this egalitarian society, earn equal wages, have equal             Anrde and Bernt (Norway)
chances, and behave as all do. As an example, private hospitals do exist, but the government is doing           Are you in favor of your Royal Family?
everything that is possible to eliminate them. The only four private schools do not have easy lives
                                                                                                                Bernt: Norwegian society is far from working out a common opinion on the sense or the non-sense
either. Differences are ―naturalized‖. In terms of entrepreneurism, a citizen gets all help they might
                                                                                                                of maintaining the time-honored royal system. People, regardless of their age, present various points
need to set up a business, so long as it is a small or medium firm. If you watch not to overdo things,
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
of view – although elderly part of the population is obviously more inclined to the traditional mo-               Bernt: Yes. People tend to work full-time. Children are usually in nursery schools and elderly people
narchy, young supporters of royal family constitute a strong group among their peers.                             are well taken care of by specially created institutions.
Andre: I am confident and firm as to the monarchy in Norway. I am against prolonging the royal                    Andre: This is the way things have been for a long time and it is generally accepted. There is now
system, of course. Although younger citizens could, logically, neglect the issue, I take it quite serious-        even a debate on possibilities of providing single rooms for all seniors.
ly. I am basically against the concept of giving power to people only because of their hereditary                 Bernt: Senior houses and nurseries emerged as a response to needs of working class in the free-
rights. Power should be earned through effort and work – instead of being taken after previous mo-                market society.
narchs by heirs, since that denies justice, in a way.
                                                                                                                  Andre: Our economic goodwill requires these solutions. The percentage of working population is
Let‘s take the example of our young prince. He has recently married a woman who had been married                  shrinking due to aging society, so we have to make best possible use of those in the working age.
before and had had a child from her first relationship. Their final engagement was precedented by
incredible hype, full of accusations, allegations and gossips. Not only had the prince that unpleasant            How does egalitarian approach influence man’s attitude towards woman? Do you for
attention upon him without any previous request. He didn‘t do anything at all to gain power or fame               example: let women pass first through the door? Or do you help them sit by the table?
– yet he has got both in full scope.                                                                              Andre: No, of course not. We don‘t have such strange things as letting women get in first through
Bernt: I would agree on this one. It is not truly fair, indeed, that one bears every inconvenience a              the door, or helping them to sit by the table
celebrity has to deal with, even though they never pursued that gloss. However, I suppose we need                 Bernt: Why should we? These are probably some of the obsolete customs Poles and French still
our royal family as they are now; firstly, for the sake of tradition. They somehow portray a part of our          cultivate. However, if women want to be treated equally, we deliver that.
culture, some of our national identity. And they do no harm, peacefully existing. Their roles are only            So you ceased somewhere to show any respect towards the fragile gender?
representational, whatsoever. They possess no real power. Finally, they are not considerable a load
                                                                                                                  Bernt: Come on, equality means equality. Women are just as privileged as men are.
for the country‘s budget. So why shouldn‘t they continue their functions? I think the royal system
shouldn‘t be changed for the time being.                                                                          Andre: Well, we might in the end show some respect for women. If a woman wanted to get on a
                                                                                                                  bus with a heavy pram, I suppose we might help her, hehe!
Andre: You‘re boring. In the end, if the king still wore his crown, I would still like him. But the royal
family wears casual clothes, as every other Norwegian. That does not even look special. Why should                What are your unique characteristics and reasons for national pride?
they be powerful and renowned, then?                                                                              Bernt: Norwegians are by nationality supposed to be close to nature, at least closer than an average
Bernt: That‘s not true! They do wear their royal ribbons from time to time hehe! But seriously, I‘m               foreigner.
not bothered. I reckon no better alternatives to the system we have at present.                                   Andre: We do have and maintain that direct contact with natural environment. There are beautiful
Andre: Another important thing is the reason why many Norwegians still hugely appreciate the king                 landscapes and truly amazing natural sites all over the country. Also, all our wealth comes from the
and his relatives. That is, during World War II the ruler strongly opposed to German supremacy.                   nature: Norway thrives on fishing, gas and oil. We are often proud of our artists that are present on
Hitler wanted to take advantage of a submissive Norway – but royal family firmly and consistently                 world scenes, but are not always recognized by foreigners. We like to remind people: ―they are from
objected, despite pressure being exerted on them. Thus they gained strong support of the nation,                  Norway‖! But I guess we feel small somehow. We feel much smaller a country compared to Poland.
which has lasted ever since. Nonetheless, power should be earned – not given away for nothing.                    Moreover, we are outside the EU.
Bernt: Yet the king is smart and amicable. Lots of people would like him to take real power and                   Bernt: In this regard we are outsiders. To say more, we have a strong notion of independence. We
would probably support him as a potential Prime Minister.                                                         are firmly convinced that we can get by on our own.
What do you think: should men and women share housework on 50:50 basis? Who                                       So you oppose Norway joining the EU?
should take care of children?                                                                                     Andre: I would like Norway to join EU. And I think lots of people share my point of view. But we do
Bernt: Well, children should be in nursery schools from the day they are 1 year old.                              feel we can manage ourselves.
Andre: And as to taking care of infants, both sexes may both obtain long maternity/paternity paid                 Bernt: In my opinion we shouldn‘t join EU yet. We‘ll probably have to in a couple of years but for the
leaves. Social policy encourages procreation, so it becomes easier and easier for both men and wom-               moment we are better off outside. Our economy is so specific and disparate that nowadays a world
en to stay at home for some months to bring up their offspring.                                                   recession is to our benefit. Furthermore, we have substantial influence on our economy. Joining the
                                                                                                                  EU means giving that up. Brussels is so far – and we would speak such a quiet voice in the Union –
Bernt: This works out well for couples. But I am not yet able to say whether I would take a paternity
                                                                                                                  that we would hardly have any impact on our own economic condition.
leave myself. Anyway – egalitarian approach is the basis of life of our society. Both sexes can do any
job they may fancy (girls in the military service are nothing out of ordinary), both men and women                Andre: I am a very, very much in favour of common currency! I used to travel to Sweden via Den-
are treated exactly in the same way, retire at the same age and so on.                                            mark; then I had to carry three different currencies, which was highly inconvenient. One single cur-
                                                                                                                  rency makes life much easier, prices become transparent across countries, and, by the way, I am not
And what about for example: toys? Do parents buy the same for boys and girls?
                                                                                                                  a huge fan of our bills with the king in the crown.
Andre: No, this hasn‘t gotten that far yet, hehe! Boys still get cars and girls go on playing with dolls.
                                                                                                                  Bernt: I would be pro as an economist, but I‘m against as a person. I like the image of our king on
Bernt: Although more and more universal toys are available – such as pokemon creatures which                      the bills. I would say this personal attachment to currency is common in Norway.
serve boys and girls identically.
                                                                                                                  Andre: I am an integration freak. I want Europe to be one country, economically unified. This will
Andre: And it‘s also true, that there are quite some housewives while house-husbands do not really                happen one day anyway, so we should support the process. We will soon have to join the EU because
exist.                                                                                                            Iceland will wand to be a member. Due to fishing industry, which is their strong point and which we,
People in general rarely stay at home, don’t they?                                                                too, count on largely, we cannot let ourselves lag behind after they have become part of common
                                                                                    Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
European economy.                                                                                          
Bernt: I like differences. Variety is the spice of life. I very much appreciate diversified cultures of    
Europe. Hence, I don‘t really want to accelerate the integration. I think we should leave things as        
they are and let them develop at their own pace.                                                           
What is the perception of Danes and Swedes by Norwegians?
Bernt: Danish people are very relaxed and easygoing. They seem to like going to bars and partying –        
that‘s their way. They are well perceived in Norway. They are not really dangerous as competitors in       
sports, so we do not mind them in general. Danes are pragmatic. We are much more concerned                 
about order. The thing with Swedes is quite disparate, though.                                             
Andre: Norway used to be under Swedish rule for a long time. Actually, throughout our history we           
have been subject either to Denmark or to Sweden for most of the time. Norway used to be poorer            
and worse developed than Sweden. But then oil fields were discovered on our territory and since that       
time we have been doing even slightly better than our Swedish brothers. Norway is, first of all, very      
costly compared to Denmark or Sweden. We are not a member state of EU – and that would entail              
banning most of the taxes. Anyway, the taxes are high and we go to Sweden to do cheap shopping.            
Bernt: We compete with Swedes in many sport disciplines. That‘s where many slightly offensive              
phrases derive from. In fact, we do not hate each other, we are just rivals.                               
Andre: There are plenty of jokes with three regular characters: a Dane, a Norwegian and a Swede.
The Swede somehow always turns out to be the stupid one, hehe. There are also huge cultural dif-           
ferences between Norwegians from the north and those from the south. The nation is varying strong-         
ly along regions.
What do you think about political life in your country?
                                                                                                                     Appendix 2:
Andre: Lately the Labor Party has lost most of their supporters. That seems strange, since this politi-
cal option is still on top in Sweden. Amongst students, the most popular policies are those of reinforc-             The Norwegian, the Danish and the Finn were stranded on an island, when they found a bottle.
ing free market mechanisms and implementing other liberal ideas. This basically stands for center-                   Inside the bottle there was a spirit who told them that they could have one wish each. The Norwe-
right.                                                                                                               gian wished that he was home again, the same with the Danish. Then the Finn got lonely and wished
                                                                                                                     them back.
Bernt: Well, I support far right. I think that in order to achieve any of political goals like privatization,
free market or individual economic freedom, we must give power to those who aim furthest. Thus,                      Do you know why the Danes bring sandpaper when they are in the desert? Because they think it is a
we stand good chances of realizing the goals, as the extreme postulates would never even be consi-                   map
dered as feasible.                                                                                                   Do you know what an A4 sheet divided in two is? A puzzle for Swedes
Andre: Are you really in favor of them? In this case I will not sleep with you any more! (hehe) I                    What do you call an intelligent man in Norway? A tourist.
support moderate liberalists.
What is the situation of Church in Norway?                                                                           Aleksandra Łukasiewicz, Malwina Nowakowska (ed.), Weronika Zwolińska
Andre: Church is no longer important part of life of society. We only attend a mess on the occasions
of baptism and marriage.                                                                                                                 SWITZERLAND - SWISS CONFEDERATION
And what about other cultural issues?                                                                                           Suisse - Confédération Suisse,Schweiz - Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft,
Bernt: Bills, for example. When it comes to paying, we normally split every bill. It is rare to pay for                              Svizzera - Confederazione Svizzera, Helvetia - Confederazium Svizera.
one‘s friends in a bar.
                                                                                                                     The main goal of this paper is to present main facts concerning Switzerland. The main emphasis has
Andre: It sometimes happens, though. A working girlfriend obviously pays for her non-working                         been put on the issue of federalism.
                                                                                                                                                              CHAPTER I. General information
Bernt: We don‘t go out too often, anyway. Twice a week is quite a lot, compared to approximate
numbers. Entertainment is expensive. That‘s why a couple would rather go to a café or to a cinema –                  Basic facts
and seldom to a restaurant.                                                                                          There are about 30 countries in the world with a federal structure. Switzerland is the smallest federal
Andre: But in our restaurants we always have thick and soft napkins, unlike in Polish ones. And we                   state. However, its 26 cantons (regions) and four different languages make it one of the most com-
don‘t have any metal detectors in Norwegian discotheques, but I guess that is not the thing you                      plex.The capital city is Bern, which at the same time isn‘t the largest city of Switzerland. (Question:
asked… hehe!                                                                                                         which is? Answer: Zurich)
                                             VI. LITERATURE                                                          Languages

                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
There are three official languages in Switzerland: German, most commonly the dialect known as                   The Swiss people as a whole are mainly of Alpine, Nordic, and Slavic or Dinaric descent.
Schwyzertütsch (more commonly called Swiss German) is spoken by about 66% of the population                     The population of Switzerland is over 7 million people- exactly 7.261.210, 20% of which are foreign-
and is totally different form both written German and all spoken dialects found in Germany; French is           ers. If you want to estimate the overall number of inhabitants in Switzerland, you should add more
spoken by 18% of the population, and Italian by 10%243. A fourth language, Romansch, or Rhaeto-                 than 25.000 seasonal workers, more than 20.000 short-time residents and almost 66.000 asylum
Romanic, is spoken by 1% of the population, mainly in the canton of Graubünden. Derived from                    seekers. (as for 2001) Source:
Latin, it's a linguistic relic that's survived only in the isolation of mountain valleys. Here are some
examples of common phrases:244                                                                                  Many foreigners- people without Swiss pasport, are actually born in Switzerland, or live there for
                                                                                                                more than 15 years. They are sometimes called ―foreign nationals‖. Naturalization- getting the Swiss
EN: Hi * DE: Grüezi * FR: Salue * IT: Ciao * RO: Tga                                                            nationality- isn‘t easy at all. One of ways of doing it is to marry a Swiss, have children with him or
EN: Thanks * DE: Danke * FR: Merci * IT: Grazie * RO: Engraziel                                                 her, and live there for more than 15 years. In fact Switzerland is getting more and more ‖foreign
E: I am hungry. * D: Ich bin hungrig. * FR: J'ai faim. * IT: Ho fame. * RO: Jeu hai fom.                        national‖- the foreign population is young, with a ratio of only 8 The Federal Insurance Law of 1911
                                                                                                                regulates accident and sickness insurance. Accident insurance is compulsory for most officials and
E: What time is it ? * D: Wieviel Uhr ist es ? * FR: Quelle heure est-il ? * IT: Che ora è ? * RO: Tgei         employees. Old-age and survivor‘s insurance, persons of retirement age to every 100 persons of
uras eis ei ?                                                                                                   working age (among Swiss, the figure is 30). Source:
E: HELP ! * D: HILFE ! * FR: AIDE ! * IT: AIUTO ! * RO: AGID !                                                  This also has to do with the fact that 27% of children born in Switzerland in 2000 were ―foreign
E: I love you. * D: Ich liebe Dich. * FR: Je t'aime. * IT: Ti amo. * RO: Jeu carezel tei.                       nationals‖. Births ratio is 10,1 per 1000 inhabitants, and there are 105 boys per 100 girls. What is
History245                                                                                                      interesting, 11,4 % 247of all children born are those of unmarried women- Swiss are extremly tolerant
                                                                                                                to unmarried ( or divorced) mothers.
The first inhabitants of the region were a Celtic tribe, the Helvetia. The Romans appeared on the
scene in 107 BC by way of the St Bernard Pass, but owing to the difficulty of the terrain their con-            People marry relatively late; they concentrate on their training and career before they start a family.
quest of the area was never decisive. In the 5th century Germanic Allemani started to settle down on            The majority of couples have only 1 or 2 children.248
the territory of present Switzerland. The territory was united under the Holy Roman Empire in 1032              Average life expectancy in Switzerland is 77 years for men and 83 years for women (2002). which
but central control was never very tight. It was all changed by Rudolph I, the emperor of Habsburg              also includes disability benefits, is compulsory and is financed by a payroll tax on both employers and
family, who conquested and fully united the territory. After his death in 1291 the local tribes‘ leadres        employees. Unemployment insurance became compulsory under a 1976 law.
saw their chance and announced the Pact of Mutuall Assistance, which now can be described as the                The population is unevenly distributed, with the principal concentrations occurring in the Swiss pla-
beginning of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss struggles against the Habsburgs is idealised in the             teau. Approximately 68 per cent of the population is classified as urban, but most live in small towns.
leghend of Wilhelm Tell. In 1499 they succeeded and gained independence from the Holy Roman
Emperor Maximilian I. They started to conquer the neighbouring teritorries, but in 1515 they over-              There are enormous regional differences between the Swiss people. Visitors may sense variations in
reached themselves when loosing the battle with French and Venetians. It was when they realised                 attitude in different areas of Switzerland. Perhaps a bit more relaxed and jovial in the south (Lugano
they are no longer the military power, and after renouncing the expansionist policy they declared               and Locarno), more urbane and volatile in the west (Geneva and Lausanne), more businesslike and
neutrality.                                                                                                     officious in the east (Zurich, Bern, Basel and Lucerne), where most banks are located.
During the Reformation Switzerland remained neutral, and kept out of Thirty Years' War. When the                Religion
war ended in 1648, in the Treaty of Westphalia Switrezland was described as a neutral state. Never-             In Switzerland we can observe an almost equilibrium of Catholics (46%) and Protestants (40%). The
theless, the French Republic invaded Switzerland in 1798 and established the Helvetic Republic. Swiss           remaining 14 % are other or none249. The high amount of atheists is connected with a church tax.
patiently waited till Napoleon‘s defeated at Waterloo, and the Congress of Vienna guaranteed Switzer-           Anyone declaring being catholic or protestant has to pay, so some part of the population simply
land's independence and permanent neutrality in 1815.                                                           spares the money.
The Swiss have carefully guarded their neutrality in the 20th century. Their only WW I involvement              The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland started in 1518, when a country pastor named Huldreich
lay in the organising of Red Cross units. In WW II, however, Switzerland played a more insidious role           Zwingli began to denounce the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church.
as money launderer for Nazi Germany. Switzerland's quiet anti-Semitism included shutting its borders            Subsequently, under Zwingli‘s leadership, the city of Zurich revolted against church dogma by burning
to Jewish refugees and forcibly repatriating many of those who escaped Nazi-occupied Europe, pre-               relics, banning the adoration of saints, and releasing clerics from their vows of celibacy.
cisely knowing what will happen to them. After the end of WW II, Switzerland was afraid that its
neutrality would dissapear, and declined to become a member of the United Nations (though it cur-               Now Switzerland has strictly divided religion from the state. You can even find a record in a constitu-
rently has an 'observer' status) or NATO. It did, however, join EFTA. Facing the fact that other EFTA           tion that nobody is allowed to express his confession in public on penalty of fine or prison. According
nations applied for EU membership, Switzerland finally made its own application in 1992. As a prelude           to that record, no priest is allowed to wear SUTANNA. Of course this record is not strictly obeyed, but
to full EU membership Switzerland was to join the EEA (European Economic Area), yet the govern-                 the fact is that there are a few priests in SUTANNA walking the Swiss street.
ment's strategy wa destroyed by national referendum in December 1992, when most citizens voted                  Currency and banking
―no‖. The same ―no‖ was voted for Switzerland's EU application.                                                 The monetary unit of Switzerland is the Swiss franc, of 100 centimes. The semi-private Swiss National
Population246                                                                                                   Bank is the bank of issue, in which shares are held by the cantons, other banks, and the public.
                                                                                                                Switzerland is a major international financial centre; its banks are favoured by international deposi-
      Encarta Encyclopaedia
244                                                                                                             247                                    
245                                                                                                             248
      all chapter is based on Norma Davies‘ Europe                                                          
246                                                                                                             249
      all chapter based on http://                                          
                                                                                                     Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
tors and financiers because of Swiss political and financial stability and traditional secrecy in banking               such as Voltaire, Byron, Shelley, James Joyce and Charlie Chaplin have resided or settled in the coun-
transactions. Private banking is one of the country‘s principal sources of income. Zurich is the main                   try. On the contrary, many creative Swiss such as Charles Le Corbusier, Paul Klee, Albert Giacometti
banking centre; leading commercial banks are the Union Bank of Switzerland, the Swiss Bank Corpo-                       and Jean-Luc Godard left the country to become famous abroad
ration, the Swiss Credit Bank, and Bank Leu. There are six stock exchanges; the Zurich Stock Ex-                        Hermann Hesse is the most famous naturalized Swiss writer. His novel Siddartha used to be a Bible
change is one of the largest in Europe, and the city is also a major trade centre for gold.                             for every Westerner heading on the hippy trail to India. German-Swiss dramatist and novelist Max
Education250                                                                                                            Frisch was one of Europe's most respected authors in the 1950s, and his best novel was Homo Faber,
Switzerland has exerted a deep influence on European and international education for centuries. The                     later filmed by Volker Schlondorff under the title Voyager. The 18th-century writings of Rousseau,
academic excellence of Swiss universities, including those at Basel (founded in 1460), Lausanne                         who lived in Geneva, played an important part in the development of democracy, and Carl Jung,
(1537), Zurich (1833), and Geneva (1599), as well as the Federal Institute of Technology (1855) in                      based in Zürich, was instrumental in developing modern psychoanalysis.
Zurich, has attracted numerous foreign students. Education, particularly religious education, has been                  Festivals and events252
inspired in part by the French theologian John Calvin, who settled in Switzerland in 1536. Modern                       Cartier Polo Cup on Snow takes place every year in St. Moritz resort in January. In 1985 the idea
education has been largely influenced by the 18th-century Geneva-born philosopher Jean-Jacques                          to play polo on the frozen St. Moritz Lake celebrated its world premiere; since then, the Cartier Polo
Rousseau. The theories of Johann Pestalozzi, the 18th-century educational reformer who advocated                        World Cup, sponsored by watchmaking company Cartier, on Snow has become an indispensible event
that children should learn from their own experiences, have contributed to the development of educa-                    on the Engadine calendar.
tion throughout the world. In more recent times, the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget became widely
recognized for his insights into the learning abilities and habits of children; and many of the early                   Montreux Jazz Festival takes place in Auditorium Stravinski from 2nd to 17th July every year.
studies of Albert Einstein into relativity were carried out in Zurich.                                                  Since its beginnings as a three-day event in 1967, the Montreux Jazz Festival has become a stupen-
                                                                                                                        dous 16-day affair, headlined by jazz, blues, rock, world-music and soul luminaries such as George
The Swiss constitution of 1848 provided for free and compulsory education. Under the constitution of                    Benson, Maria Bethania, Ray Charles, Eric Clapton, Miles Davis, Ella Fitzgerald, Roberta Flack, Aretha
1874, as amended in 1902, the federal government confined its efforts to higher education; the                          Franklin, Herbie Hancock, Etta James, Quincy Jones, B. B. King, Oscar Peterson and Sting. Annually
cantons and half-cantons were required to establish free, compulsory elementary schools with subsi-                     more than 200 000 visitors come to enjoy this unique and eclectic music.
dies, but without control, from the federal government. These schools are taught in the local official
language, but students may also study the other national languages as well.                                             Rado Swiss Open takes place in Gstaad, a week after the Wimbledon Championships end. One of
                                                                                                                        the reasons to attend the tournament is not only the spectacular setting, but the real challenge for
Most cantons provide secondary schools for students aged 12 to 15, gymnasiums (college-                                 the players of dealing at over 3000 feet with much faster balls and courts than those they normally
preparatory schools), and teacher-training institutes, in addition to various institutions of higher                    face. Every year more than 44 000 fans come to enjoy the games and to see their idols live. Among
learning and special schools. Illiteracy is negligible. In 1998-1999 primary schools in Switzerland had                 recent winners of the tournament are excellent Albert Costa, Yevgeny Kafelnikov, Sergi Bruguera and
a total enrolment of 529,610 pupils; secondary schools had a combined attendance of some 544,433                        Stefan Edberg.
students; and institutions of higher learning had an aggregate enrolment of 156,390 students.
                                                                                                                        International del film takes place every year in Locarno, from 4th to 14th August. The statistics
Cuisine251                                                                                                              are striking, with an average of almost 1000 press and media, and over 4000 film-professionals from
When you think of Switzerland, you probably think of yodeling. But traditional Swiss folk culture                       more than 30 countries attending. With its 7000 seats, state of the art technical facilities, and its
includes also playing the alp horn and Swiss wrestling. You may also think of Milka chocolate, which                    giant screen (26 x 14 m), the Piazza Grande has been, since its transformation in 1971 into a summer
is partly correct. Swiss chocolate is excellent by itself, and moreover is often used in desserts and                   outdoor theatre, one of the world's largest and most attractive open-air cinemas.
cakes. But in fact Milka is a German chocolate! Typically Swiss ones are Toblerone, Maestrani and                       International Festival of Music takes place in Lucerne from 14th August to 11th September, It
Holls.                                                                                                                  includes dramatised music in the series of "Weltruf" ("World culture") performances, theatre projects
When mentioning cuisine, it so worth mentioning that Switzerland doesn't have a great indigenous                        originating in Europe and from elsewhere around the world as part of our "Musical theatre" pro-
gastronomic tradition - instead, Swiss dishes borrow from the best of German and French cuisine.                        gramme, performances by Evelyn Glennie (percussion) in the "Artiste étoile" cycle, and "Children's
Moreover, Switzerland hasn‘t always been that rich. In the past ages Swiss people were mostly ex-                       corner" performances geared to young audiences.
tremely poor. That‘s why the ―national dishes‖ aren‘t that sophisticated as originally French ones.                                                                        CHAPTER II. Federalism
Rosti (crispy, fried, shredded potatoes) is German Switzerland's national dish. Fondue is French one,
made of melted Emmenthaler or Gruyère combined with white wine, garlic and pepper . Fondue is                           General information
served up in a vast pot and eaten with bread cubes. There is a certain culture of eating fondue: first                  The Eidgenossenschaft (confederation) consists of Bundesversammlung ("federal assembly"), legisla-
of all, you put your bread on the fork and stir with it in the pot with fondue, making in the cheese the                tive authority; Bundesrat, executive authority and Bundesgericht ("federal court"), judicial authority.
shape of 8. There can be only one fork in the pot at one time! Secondly, when your bread falls into                     Federal Assembly
fondue while dipping, you have to give something to the people you eat fondue with. Today, when
                                                                                                                        The Federal Assembly or Parliament meets in the Bundeshaus in Bern and consists of two houses or
most Swiss are affluent, you can find many more sophisticated versions of fondue, like chocolate or
kirsch one.
                                                                                                                        Kammern (chambers): Ständerat also called the kleine Kammer ("small chamber") with two represen-
                                                                                                                        tatives of each canton, or one representative of each split-canton, regardless of the size of the popu-
Culture                                                                                                                 lation of the canton and Nationalrat also called the grosse Kammer ("large chamber") with 200 repre-
Switzerland does not have a strong artistic heritage, even though many foreign writers and artists,                     sentatives, the number of representatives is proportional to the population of the cantons, but there
                                                                                                                        is at least one representative of a canton.
      all chapter based on and Norman Davies‘ Europa
251                                                                                                                     252
      all chapter based on: Mark Honan, Lonely Planet Guide, Switzerland, July 2000                                           all charter based on: Mark Honan, Lonely Planet Guide, Switzerland, July 2000
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Bundesrat                                                                                                       Switzerland consists of 23 Kantone (singular Kanton, cantons or states), 3 of them are divided into
Seven members, elected by the Vereinigte Bundesversammlung, a combined assembly of both cham-                   Halb-Kantone ("split states"):
bers, constitute the Bundesrat. The Bundesräte / Bundesrätinnen head the following departments):                Cantons have the following authorities: Grosser Rat, Kantonsrat or Landesrat(the name varies be-
Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, Justice and Police, Defence, Civil Protection and Sports, Finance, Eco-          tween the cantons), legislative authority; Kantonsregierung, executive authority and Kantonsgericht,
nomic Affairs, Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications. Elections take place every four               judicial authority. The cantons Appenzell, Glarus and Unterwalden do not perform elections and
years.253 However, according to the political tradition members‘ term is practically unlimited as they          voting, but a so called Landsgemeinde, an out door assembly of all its citizens. The attendees raise
are elected again. It is finished when a member dies, retires or commits a serious offence or crime.            their hands to show if they agree with or deny a particular request. The duties of the cantons are
The average term lasts 10 years, but the longest lasted for 28 years. 254                                       defined in their Kantonsverfassung ("cantonal constitution") and include education, transportation
In theory any Swiss citizen can stand for the post; in practice the new councillor is chosen from a list        (Kantonsstrassen, "cantonal roads") and social institutions.259 There are also areas where confedera-
put forward by the outgoing councillor's party. Members of the Federal Council are not members of               tion has legislative and cantons executive power: standard weights and measures, traffic, organiza-
parliament. Until the constitution was amended on January 1 2000, no two councillors could come                 tion if the army, labour law, social insurance or civil and criminal law. Legislative authority is mixed in
from the same canton. Although this rule has been dropped, efforts are made to try to ensure that all           case of taxes, building of roads, hunting, fishery, insurances and education.260
areas of the country are represented. In recent years there has also been a move to put forward                 Districts
more female candidates. The Federal Council is assisted and advised on the running of its business by           Each canton consists of a number of Bezirke (districts) with the following authorities: people be
the Federal Chancellery. The Chancellor attends weekly cabinet meetings in a consultative capacity,             voting and elections, legislative authority; Bezirksrat, executive authority and Bezirksgericht, judicial
and is sometimes referred to unofficially as "the 8th councillor.255 Each year, a different member              authority. The duties of the district include education and judicature.
becomes Federal President (Bundespräsident/Bundespräsidentin). The post confers no special powers
or privileges, and the president continues to administer his or her own department. They welcome                Municipalities
heads of states visiting Switzerland and accepts credentials of ambassadors.256 At the moment the               Each district consists of Gemeinden (singular Gemeinde, municipalities). There are a 2929 municipali-
chief of state and the head of government are President Pascal Couchepin (since 1 January 2003)                 ties in Switzerland. A municipality with more than 10'000 citizens is considered a Stadt ("town"),
and Vice President Ruth Metzler (since 1 January 2003).257                                                      smaller municipalities are called a Dorf ("village"). However, some smaller villages have the status of
The four strongest parties are represented in the council: Free Democrats (2 members), Social De-               a town for historical reasons. Municipalities have the following authorities: Gemeindeversammlung, an
mocrats (2 members), Christian Democrats (2 members) and Swiss People‘s Party (1 member).                       assembly of all citizens, or people by voting and elections, legislative authority; Gemeinderat or Stad-
                                                                                                                trat, executive authority and Friedensrichter ("lay magistrate"), judicial authoritity. The duties of the
                                                      “Magic formula”                                           municipalities include, local services (electricity, water, fire brigade, police etc.), transportation (Ge-
The system, known as the "magic formula" was worked out by members of parliament in 1959. All                   meindestrassen, "local roads"), schools and taxes.
members of the Federal Council take collective responsibility for decisions. Some analysts see the                                                                    Who is responsible?
system as a way to tame dissent, bringing potential opposition into government. Since it is not part of
                                                                                                                                                                   Confederation       Canton           Commune
the constitution, its existence is not set in stone and its future is the source of debate, although at
present it is not under serious threat. If the Federal Councilor wants to change the law, he or she has                                        Schooling                   x                    x                  x
to convince the other Federal Council members. They might object that it would be pointless, since it                                          Health                      x                    x                  x
would certainly have no chance in parliament. Various relevant lobbies are consulted and a draft                                               Police force                x                    x                  x
compromise is formulated. That draft goes to one of the two chambers of the Swiss Federal Assem-                                               Money                       x
bly. The first chamber discusses it in committee, then as a body. Once the proposal has passed the                                             Customs                     x
hurdle of the first chamber, it moves on to the other one where the procedure is repeated. The order
                                                                                                                                               Army                        x
in which the chambers examine any particular proposal is decided by their speakers. No proposal can
                                                                                                                                               Road traffic                x                    x                  x
become law unless it is accepted by both chambers of Federal Assembly.258 People can take direct
influence by two means. 100'000 citizens can request a voting about a change or extension of the                                               Postal system               x                                       x
Bundesverfassung ("constitution") or the Bundesgesetzt ("federal law") and it is an initiative. If the                                         Foreign policy              x
Bundesrat wants to change or extend the Bundesverfassung ("constitution") or the Bundesgesetz                                                  Welfare                                          x                  x
("federal law"), 50'000 citizens can request a voting about, which is called referendum.                                                       Taxation                    x                    x                  x
Confederation and cantons                                                                                                                      x =only limited

The duties of the confederation are defined in the Bundesverfassung ("federal constitution") and                                                          Source:
include: protection of the country and its citizens, postal services, telephone and telecommunications          The rule of subsidarity
(PTT), monetary system (Nationalbank, "national bank"), transportation (Nationalstrassen (motor
                                                                                                                Subsidarität is the rule that has determined Swiss policy for ages. It reflects the idea that if the low-
ways, railway), military, customs, diplomatic relations with other countries.
                                                                                                                est level of authority is to govern successfully it should have the freedom of activities.261
253                                                                                                             Differences within Switzerland
      Shlomo Papirblat, Szwajcaria, Wydawnictwo EUROPA, Wrocłąw 1997/1998, p. 26
256                                                                                                             259
      Shlomo Papirblat, op. cit.                                                                            
257                                                                                                             260                                                      Stanisław Bańbuła, O Szwajcarii…prawie wszystko, Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa 1998, p. 18-19.
258                                                                                                             261                                                                  Mark Honan, Szwajcaria, Wydawnictwo Pascal, Bielsko Biała, 1998, p. 30.
                                                                                                      Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Differences from canton to canton and from commune to commune are quite big. The tax and educa-                          mental matters, and cultural relations, etc. The representatives both on the bilateral and multilateral
tional system is a typical example. Teachers, doctors or lawyers who move from one canton to an-                         level work for achieving the objectives of FDA by participating in international negotiations, confering
other must obtain official recognition of their qualification in their new home, since schooling, justice                with foreign governments and serving as contacts for the Foreign Embassies in Switzerland.
and health are the responsibility of the cantons, not of central government. However, economic and                       Neutrality
political developments in recent years mean that many of these local variations are now felt as a
hindrance. Workers are more mobile and companies are doing business over wider areas. For this                           Origins of neutrality
reason, and in line with the regionalisation policy of the European Union - although Switzerland is not                  Neutrality is the basic concept of Swiss foreign policy and this is a reason for my decision to begin
a member - the federal authorities in 1999 grouped the cantons into seven macro regions, each                            presenting Switzerland‘s place on the global scene by discussing this important issue first.
focussed on a specific urban center. The regions will be encouraged to harmonise their activities in                     Swiss neutrality originates from three hundred years of history of a small mulitinational state in the
such fields as government, the media, transport and communication, trade, culture and sport. Today                       middle of European wars. The cantons were almost torn apart by the religious conflicts in the XVI
more and more responsibilities are being transferred to the confederation. The problems and tasks of                     century, which seemed to be a good reason for the Swiss to opt for neutrality. The Swiss neutrality
a modern society (environmental protection, traffic, social security) can no longer be dealt with in any                 was recognized at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and was reaffirmed at the Congress of Vienna in
other way. The cantons in western Switzerland are uneasy about this, since they are afraid of having                     1815. Other states taking part in the Congress claimed that the Swiss neutrality is in the interest of all
to adapt even more to the Swiss-German majority. Voting patterns in referenda have revealed wide                         European nations.
differences between attitudes of French speakers - and to some extent Italian speakers, who support
                                                                                                                         This concept allowed Switzerland to stay neutral during both world wars.
joining the European Economic Area and European Union, provision of maternity benefits and lower-
ing the retirement age - on the one hand, and German speakers on the other.262                                           Law of neutrality
                                     CHAPTER III. Switzerland’s foreign policy                                           There arises a question of the meaning of neutrality. The common definition is as follows: ―Neutrality
                                               263                                                                       is the non participation of a State in an armed conflict among other States‖265.
The origins of a sovereign state
                                                                                                                         There exist two types of neutrality: occasional which is declared by a state according to the circum-
The independence of Switzerland was recognized at Peace of Basil in 1499. At the very beginning of
                                                                                                                         stances and permanent one, which prevents the country from taking part in any sort of conflict.
the XVI century the territory of it spread significantly. At the beginning of the XVI century Switzerland
                                                                                                                         Switzerland‘s neutrality is of the second type, which means that it will never take part in any conflict.
spread in terms of its area. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 reconfirmed the sovereignity and made
it independent from Germany. In 1798 French army took contol over the country and the Republic of                        The basis for neutrality law was laid down in Hague in 1907 ( The Hague Convention) Participation in
Helvetia was created. After the battle of Leipzig in 1813 Switzerland declared to be neutral.                            a conflict is forbidden to the neutral state. Therefore Switzerland must not support a warring party
                                                                                                                         with its own armed forces. Its territory cannot be used for any military actions.
Today’s creation of Swiss foreign policy
                                                                                                                         The sovereignty of Switzerland must be respected by the warring parties. What is very
Constitutional background for Swiss foreign policy
                                                                                                                         important - and profitable as well - is the fact that it is allowed to maintain free econom-
The Federal Constitution states that Swiss foreign policy shall "contribute to alleviate need and pov-                   ic and trade relations with warring parties. Let me quote the part taken from the Hague
erty in the world and to promote respect for human rights, democracy, the peaceful coexistence of                        Convention: ”The export of armament and ammunition by neutral states and their citi-
nations and the preservation of natural resources 264." The Swiss foreign policy includes development                    zens is expressly allowed. Should these be reduced with regard to any particular warring
co-operation and foreign economic & trade policy, both bilateral and multilateral, with i.a. following                   party, the neutral state is then obliged to reduce its armament exports with all other
actors:                                                                                                                  states at war in the same measure”.
Federal Department of Foreign Affairs                                                                                    The concept of neutrality has changed over time, but lives its evolution with certain regu-
Directorate for Political Affairs, Directorate for International Law, Swiss Agency for Development Co-                   larity: it is always more restrictive when the times and less peaceful and global tensions
operation, State Secretariat for Economic Affairs                                                                        arise.
The role of Federal Department of Foreign Affairs                                                                        Defense and security policy
In order to present the wide perspective of goals set ahead of the Swiss existence on the interna-                       Military – “Zivilschutz”
tional scene let me concentrate on the role of the main actor on this scene from the Swiss party – the                   Due to its traditional neutrality, discussed wider above, Switzerland does not have its own army. The
Federal Department of Foreign Affairs.                                                                                   only troops that Switzerland possesses are the ―Zivilschutz‖ – formations of civil defense, which are in
The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) is responsible for representing Switzerland's inter-                     fact organized as a regular army, well-trained and fully equipped. The military (or rather ―civil‖)
ests abroad, in particular its relations with other countries. It is supported by a network of foreign                   service is obligatory and organized on a very interesting basis: each young man man has to be
missions, which are obliged to protect interests of the Swiss abroad and maintain godd polictical and                    trained militarily and afterwards commit one month a year to the civil service as long as a 20 years
economic relations with other countries. The Swiss Federal Council and Parliament delegate responsi-                     old man turns 52. This allows the ―Zivilschutz‖ to be ready to intervene at any time required. These
bilities to them.                                                                                                        include crisis situations, accidents and other dangers. Switzerland is currently undergoing a military
In the process of creation of Swiss foreign policy the FDA deals with all issues of a cross-border                       reform aimed at personnel and equipment reduction.           To quote some curiosity let me remind,
nature. These include questions of security, trade and industry, development cooperation, environ-                       that these are the Swiss that protect Vatican and the Pope.
                                                                                                                         Security issues and international cooperation
                                                                                                                         With regards to the policy of nonalignment Switzerland tried to defend its neutral position but as
      ―Almanach państw świata 2003‖, Andrzej Bińkowski, Książka i Wiedza, Warszawa 2003, pp.394-396
264                                                                                                                      265
      the Swiss Constitution                                                                                                   Góralczyk W., Prawo międzynarodowe publiczne, Wydawnictwo Prawnicze NexisLexis, Warszawa 2001
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
some dangers such as drug trade, terrorism and organized crime do not respect the borders and are                 many years. Although Switzerland was a member of the Nations‘ League, some of the UN member
a threat of the transnational scope, Switzerland understands that it it for its own good to cooperate             country obligations made it resistent towards joining. Nevertheless Switzerland was a party to many
internationally to prevent these. That is why Switzerland is committed to security based on interna-              of the UN agendas which did correspond to its values267.
tional efforts at co-operation, and is actively engaged in promoting peace. The Confederation pursues             In 1948 Switzerland became an observer to the UN and lived this status till 2002 when it was admit-
its objectives through various institutions and organisations, the most prominent of which include the            ted to membership in the United Nations on 10 September and became the 190th member. Since
Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Partnership for Peace, and the Euro-                 then there is no country outside the UN system. Membership allows Switzerland to strengthen its
Atlantic Partnership Council.                                                                                     position on the global scene and fully protect its interests.
Switzerland’s position in the contemporary world                                                                  The policy of non-alignment defended so courageously for so many years is now gone. Switzerland
Swiss/EU relations                                                                                                understood that it is for its own good to keep in touch with the world and have the right to vote and
History of Swiss/EU relations                                                                                     create the international affairs.
Although Switzerland is not a member of the European Union, the relationship between Switzerland                  International Geneva
and the EU is of key importance; it is part of a national political debate.                                       Switzerland is also a party to many international treaties and organizations 268 such as: Organization
To characterise the EU/Switzerland cooperation two words should be used: long-lasting                             for Security and Economic Cooperation, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development,
and intensive. Switzerland is geographically located in the middle of the EU and shares                           European Free Trade Association and Council of Europe. It plays also an important role as an interna-
culture, language and economic integration with its neighbouring countries.                                       tional centre in Geneva. It is the home of many different types of organizations which are active in
                                                                                                                  fields as varied as humanitarian aid, trade, human rights, the environment and sustainable develop-
The very beginning of the these relations dates back as far as the creation of the European Coal and              ment, training and education, peace-keeping and security, meteorology, intellectual property, nuclear
Steel Community in 1956. But the act of even greater importance is the Free Trade Agreement of                    research, health, telecommunications and labour. The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) is the
1972.                                                                                                             most active centre for multilateral diplomacy in the world and has been the setting of many historic
On 2 May 1992, Switzerland signed the EEA Agreement. To deepen the cooperation Switzerland‘s                      negotiations. Switzerland is a host to 28 international organizations. 20 international organizations
government applied for accession to the EEC in 1992, but the referendum held on the 6 th December                 with are based in Geneva. These are for example: the European Organization for Nuclear Research
1992, rejected the ratification of the EEA agreement.                                                             (CERN) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Among these 20 organizations, eight are United
Nevertheless Swiss policy is still open towards integration with the EU.                                          Nations agencies, for example: the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the International
                                                                                                                  Telecommunication Union (ITU), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and others. But it is
Current EU – Swiss relations
                                                                                                                  also a place where more than 150 NGOs (non-governmental organizations) have their seats. These
There is no structured framework between EU and Switzerland. The Swiss have a permanent mission                   include the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the World Council of Churches (WCC), the Interna-
to the European Communities in Brussels as many other countries do, but the European Commission                   tional Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardisation (ISO) and
hasn‘t opened its Delegate Office in Bern. The rejection of Swiss membership in the EU by means of                many others.
referendum still does matter in these relations and has its negative impact. But in order to minimise
                                                                                                                                       Chapter IV. SWITZERLAND – BOTH TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE
these consequences several agreement between EU and Switzerland were negotiated and signed on
21 June 1999. These include seven crucial: sectors Free Movement of Persons, Trade in Agricultural                Having regard to the Swiss long tradition of neutrality, strong economy and protection of natural
Products, Public Procurement, Conformity Assessments, Air Transport, Transport by Road and Rail,                  environment it must be stressed that this gave the country the unique position in the world. It is a
Swiss Participation in the 5th Framework Programme for Research. After ratification by the Swiss in               host to many organization and also a party to it, always within the frames of non-engagement. This
referendum entered intro force in 2002. Other questions still wait for their solutions and agreements             brings objectiveness to the Swiss foreign policy. Switzerland develops itself internationally and does
e.g EUROPOL, savings taxation, liberalisation of serices.                                                         not close itself to the global matters by staying outside which may be comfortable in the short run, as
                                                                                                                  the Swiss neutrality is being respected globally. But the Swiss seem to know it perfectly well that
EU is Switzerland‘s main trading partner. 61% of Swiss exports and 79% of its imports constitue tight
                                                                                                                  without engagement in the world‘s largest issues such as humanitarian aid, security and defense
economic relations. Also to the EU Switzerland is one of the most important trading partners.
                                                                                                                  policy, research and development strategies it is not possible to maintain its position and role in the
Some of the agreements will have to be updated as the admission of ten new member countries will                  world. This brings Switzerland towards cooperation with other countries without forgetting its tradi-
require new arrangements for them. For this purpose a new round of negotiations is to be held and                 tion.
concluded in 2003.
                                                                                                                  To visualise this Swiss vision of the future of international relations let me quote sentence by Joseph
Swiss/United Nations relations                                                                                    Deiss, the Head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs told in Geneva, on 7 of June 2002:
Having discussed the main issues of Switzerland‘s foreign policy it will be quite easy to describe the            ‖In order to meet the challenges of globalisation today, a commitment is needed at a new level of
reasons for which it joined the United Nations.                                                                   international co-operation… Economic globalisation must go hand-in-hand with more and deeper
As the organization deals essentially with questions concerning security, peace, human rights, pro-               political dialogue… States must meet global challenges together.‖
moting prosperity, social cohesion, humanitarian aid and environmental protection and these corre-
spond with the goals set by the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs266 and ―Swiss Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                  Paweł Jakubowski, Bartosz Kędzia, Łukasz Wasilewski
Report 2000‖ Switzerland can therefore support the UN in achieving its objectives even though the
traditional neutrality was the basis of Swiss being no party to any international affairs and treaties for
                                                                                                                        Jan Sochaczewski, „Szwajcaria 190. członkiem ONZ‖, Stosunki Międzynarodowe, 12.09.2002
266                                                                                                               268
      for details see point 3.2 of this report                                                                          Kissinger H., Dyplomacja, Philip Wilson, Warszawa 2002
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                           RELIGIONS IN EUROPE                                                At this time Palestine was under the rule of the Greek and many Jews fought the Greek influence,
                                                                                                              which destroyed their tradition. After fighting back the Greeks, Judea enjoyed 80 years of
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF RELIGIONS IN EUROPE                                                                  independence until it was conquered again, this time by Romans. Under the Roman rule many Jews
The present religious situation in Europe is difficult to characterise and understand without a brief         left Judea and settled all over the empire. 275
introduction to its history. Additionally many of the primitive beliefs strongly influenced present           The land north of the Mediterranean was dominated by two main groups of Northern peoples, the
cultures and are even still alive among many groups in society. Very often the specific features of           Celtic and the Germanic. At the beginning they lived in the middle Europe since 600 BC. They started
present religions result from their beginnings. The following text presents a brief summary of                to move west and south, and settled as farmers. They traded with their neighbours (Romans, Greek,
religious history of Europe in chronological order. The names of the periods do not come from any             and other Mediterranean countries) but remained immune to their cultural influence. In France they
official classification, but were worked out for the purpose of this paper.                                   were called Gals and were conquered by Cesar. Most of the Celtic culture in Great Britain disappeared
Pre-civilised period                                                                                          under the rule of Romans, but it remained strong in the North England, Whales, Scotland and Ireland.

At the very, very beginning the primitive tribes all over the world worshipped the Mother Earth – Gaia
and the gods of their surroundings – animals, places, rivers, trees, thunders, etc. The development of        The Germanic peoples were essentially polytheistic, and many names of deities are recorded.
civilisations triggered the evolution of more complicated, widespread religions.                              However, four names occur so frequently that they can be assumed to be of greatest importance -
                                                                                                              these are Woden/Odin, Thor, Frey and Freyja. These deities were not regarded as immortal, for it
The first more developed civilisations were these of Mesopotamia and Sumer and Egypt. In Europe it            was believed that the day of Ragnorak, the doom of the gods, would one day come, causing the gods
was the time of Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments. It is not completely clear if there had            to die in mortal combat and that the earth and humans would perish with them. After this, the
any religious functions, but they could serve as places of sacrifices or praying.269                          Germanic peoples believed a new heaven and earth would arise as Yggradsil, the world tree, renewed
The Hebraic tribe settled in Palestine around 2000 BC. According to the Bible, the first of them was          itself.
Abraham. When the famine stroke Palestine, his son, Jacob moved to Egypt with his people, where               The most widely used symbols were the runes, which the Germanic peoples believed were discovered
they became slaves. Yahweh – their one God – rescued them under the leadership of Moses from                  by Odin. The runic symbols were thought to be embodiments of truth, and were used for divination,
slavery and oppression in Egypt, and led them through the wilderness of Sinai to a land he promised           magic, and decoration to honour the gods.277
would be their own.270 They fought the Filistines to create the kingdom of Israel, which they ruled
until they were conquered around 700 BC. They believed that the one god established a special                 When Jesus Christ was born, Judea was ruled by Romans. He was born in Bethlehem probably in the
relationship with them known as the "covenant".                                                               year 5 BC. He was brought up in Nazareth, as a carpenter. When he was 27 he started to teach and
                                                                                                              heal people. He criticised official religions and claimed to be God‘s Son, which was perceived as a
Greek and Roman world                                                                                         heresy. Put on trial for sedition, he was executed by crucifixion. Jesus' death did not represent the
The year 1100 BC marks the beginning of Archaic Greek civilisation – the first serious one on the             end of the new movement. His disciples, believing that God had risen Jesus from the dead,
European continent.271 Religion in Greece changed with time, but it was always polytheistic,                  proclaimed the resurrection and the beginning of a new age It created a basis for a new religion,
embracing a multitude of gods and goddesses. The Greeks tended to look to Egypt for learning and              strongly connected with Judaism. The most important early convert, Paul of Tarsus, carried the
culture rather than to their own forebears (the Minoans of Crete), until at the end of the 6th century        Christian message to various parts of the Roman Empire.278
there was a new arousal of interest in the old legends of Greece, which were retranslated in a new            Christians separated themselves from Jews and other religions; they met in catacombs, as they were
and more spiritual light. 272                                                                                 safe due to a roman law, which protected burial grounds. In 250 AD Romans started to persecute
Rome was settled in 753 BC. From the very beginning it remained under the cultural influence of               them. Many of them were murdered in arenas.279
Greek. In fact, all the roman gods were acquired mainly from Greek but also other cultures like               At its height, the Roman Empire stretched from Hadrian's Wall in Britain to the Persian Gulf. When
Egyptians and Cartagina.273                                                                                   Diocletian came to power in 284 AD, the Empire was too diverse and weak in structure, and could no
To the Romans, the gods were functions, assigned a precise office which was what was worshipped               longer be ruled by one Emperor; power was divided between two rulers and two subordinates, but
rather than the personalities of the stories. Religion was related to the basic agricultural economy,         although theoretically these rulers were joint, the Empire gradually broke into an Eastern and
with the city of Rome personified as the main deity; they accepted some foreign gods, especially              Western half, and outlying provinces fell to barbarian invaders.280
Greek, into their pantheon, modifying the deities to fit their functional need.                               While Eastern grew in power, the power of the Western one declined. In 312 the cesar Constantine
Roman religion was essentially state controlled. The state cult gave way to the cult of the emperor.          became Christian after seeing burning cross in the sky. The Christianity became an accepted religion
Imperial deification began after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC when the Roman Senate            in the Roman Empire in the year 313 AD with the proclamation of the Edict of Milan. In the year 380
proclaimed him as a god and the deification of strong emperors continued.274                                  AD it was declared an official religion of the empire. All other religions were proscribed. The year 476
Since the year 597 BC Jews tended to isolate. The ancient Israelites seem to have distinguished               marks the end of Western empire. 281
themselves from other religious groups by their belief in a god called Yahweh who had shown special           Dark Ages
compassion towards their ancestors.

                                                                                                                    Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
269                                                                                                           276
      Ilustrowana historia świata, H. Samsonowicz ed., Warsaw 1993.                                                 Ibidem.
270                                                                                                           277
      European religion,, 19 April 2003.                                       European..., op. cit.
271                                                                                                           278
      Ilustrowana..., op. cit.                                                                                      Ibidem.
272                                                                                                           279
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                         Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
273                                                                                                           280
      Ilustrowana..., op.cit                                                                                        European..., op. cit.
274                                                                                                           281
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                         Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Mahomet was born in Mecca in 570 AD. When he was 40 he claimed to have seen an archangel                       The Franciscan order (the friars) was founded by Francis of Assissi, one of the greatest medieval
Gabriel. He told him to worship the one God in the polytheistic East. After fleeing Mecca he moved to          saints. He decided to leave behind his life of wealth and pleasure and devote himself to the sick and
Medina. He found many followers there, his words (Koran) were written down. In 630 he returned to              the poor. In 1206 he rebuilt the ruined church of San Damiano and over time gathered a group of
Mecca. Since this time Mecca has been open only to Muslims. Although he is only a prophet, all the             followers. In 1209 the order received papal approval, and in 1212 an order of Franciscan nuns was
paintings cannot show his face. 282                                                                            set up by St Clare, an early convert of St Francis.
The eighth century left Europe more united on one side – the Saint Roman Empire stretched on the               The Dominicans were an order of priests founded in 1216 by Dominic de Guzman with the purpose of
terrains of today‘s France and Germany. It was a counterweight for the increasing power of the                 preaching and teaching the Gospel in the new cities of Europe. The Dominicans contributed greatly to
Popes.                                                                                                         medieval university life by using science and philosophy to present Christian theology in a systematic
On the other hand, the tensions between the Greek speaking eastern churches, based around                      way. The order suffered during the reformation and French revolution, but revived in the nineteenth
Constantinople, and the Latin speaking western churches based around Rome, culminated in the 11th              and twentieth centuries to a point at which it now has 7,500 members working in 86 countries.
century over the issue of the relative importance of Rome and Constantinople within the Christian              Like the Dominicans, the Jesuit order was founded with the purpose of propagating the Christian
world. The church in Rome claimed seniority over the church at Constantinople. The Constantinople              faith. Their founder, Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), was inspired by a work on the life of Christ to
church, however, refused to acknowledge the authority of Rome, a decision that led both churches to            entirely devote himself to the church. In 1540 Loyola established the Society of Jesus (or Jesuits), an
excommunicate one another in 1054. This schism has never been healed.283                                       order distinguished from others by its members wearing ordinary clothes rather than a distinctive
Palestine was a sacred ground for the Christians and since the second century many pilgrims have               religious habit and their expressed commitment to total obedience to the pope. As a result of
travelled there. When the new rulers of the Palestine forbade Christians to come, the Pope – Urban II          missions to Asia, Latin America, North America and Africa, the order has now established itself
– called for a holy crusade. The first crusade did not even get to Palestine, but the second conquered         worldwide. 289
the land. In the thirteenth century Christians were fought back. The fourth crusade sacked                     Times of change
Constantinople. In 1212 there was a crusade of Children, but it also did not get to Palestine. When            The old religiousness was to impress the man. The churches were huge, with only one small
somebody‘s tomb was decorated with a picture or a sculpture, which has crossed legs – it means he              entrance, located on a side of the church, the altars were on both the sides of church. The confession
was a crusader. 284                                                                                            happened once or only few times in life, penance was also huge.
Season for monasteries                                                                                         In the thirteenth century Lateran Council encouraged the people to confess their sins once a year,
Since the earliest years of Christianity many people have decided that the life dedicated only to the          the penance was small, the religion should have been closer to people, the entrance to a church
God and spent alone is the best way to salvation. The Benedictines are the most important of the               became bigger and opposed the altar. 290
early monastic communities. They follow the rule of St. Benedict of Nursia (480-552), which is based           The end of fourteenth century brought a Great Schism to Christian church. In 1309 Clemens V moved
on the four principles of study, communal life, prayer and obedience. 285Orders tended to have similar         to Sauvignon, because of demolishing wars in Italy. In 1377 Gregory returned to Rome. The conclave
rules, live together and be rather autarkic. As monks were usually the best-educated people in the             argued about the election of a new pope and elected two of them. The whole Europe split and fell in
society, they served as administrative clerks, healers and priests. 286                                        conflicts. In 1409 both the popes were cancelled and a new (the third) was elected. Finally in 1417
Monastic communities expanded after the turn of millennia. Two motives inspired the establishment              one of them – Martin VI) was declared the only pope, which brought the Schism to the end. 291
of these orders: the desire to return to a more austere form of monasticism characteristic of the early        At the beginning of the sixteenth century the new ideas of renaissance encouraged many people to
Benedictine orders and the desire to spread the Christian faith within and beyond Europe. The                  oppose the teaching of the roman church. The priests, their style of life and organisation of the
earliest of the medieval orders, the Carthusians, was founded by Bruno of Cologne in 1084. The                 church were strongly criticised. With his 95 theses Luther wanted to start a discussion in the church
Carthusians are distinguished by their austere lifestyle and based on isolation and almost perpetual           but was declared a heretic and excommunicated.292 This is how the dominance of Rome in Western
silence.                                                                                                       Europe came to an end in the sixteenth century through the Protestant reformation. At this time the
The second order, the Cistercians, was founded in 1098 by twenty-one Benedictine monks. Like the               majority of countries in Central and Northern Europe broke away from the authority of Rome and
Carthusians, the Cistercians sought a simple austere lifestyle which was symbolised by their robes             established churches which placed themselves under the jurisdiction of the local prince, monarch or
made of cheap, undyed wool.                                                                                    government. These churches, which came to be known as Protestant, sought to return to the early
Equally austere were the Carmelites, an order founded by Christian settlers on Mount Carmel in                 style of Christianity practiced by the churches of the New Testament and to rid themselves of the
Palestine towards the end of the twelfth century. Carmelite life combined both solitude and                    non-biblical accretions which they believed to have sullied the church. 293
community; each member of the community lived in an individual cell, meeting other monks only for              In 1522 the pope declared that the church had many problems but he died before he could introduce
the Eucharist and communal work. In 1452 a Carmelite order of women was established. 287                       any reforms. They began in 1534, under the rule of Paul III. He supported the Capuchins, who
These early orders were located far away from cities, as they were self sufficient. But the new                focused on teaching and converting. 1540 Jesuits were officially approved. In 1545 began the Trident
begging orders needed cities as sources of their material existence. 288                                       Council. They decided to raise the level of education of priests and underlined the importance of
                                                                                                               poverty. 294The reform process, known as the counter-reformation, clarified and elaborated church

283                                                                                                            289
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                          European..., op. cit.
284                                                                                                            290
      Ilustrowana..., op. cit.                                                                                       Lecture on: Dzieje..., op. cit.
285                                                                                                            291
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                          Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
286                                                                                                            292
      Ilustrowana..., op. cit.                                                                                       Ibidem.
287                                                                                                            293
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                          European..., op. cit.
288                                                                                                            294
      Lecture on: Dzieje miast w Polsce, W. Morawski, given in 2002.                                                 Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
doctrine and allowed for the enforcement of doctrine through the establishment of the Roman                    Christianity is the religion of people whose belief system centres on the person and teachings of
Inquisition. 295The Inquisition spread over Europe. At the same time witches and all the magic were            Jesus. To Christians, Jesus of Nazareth was and is the Messiah or Christ promised by God in the
hunted and burnt alive.                                                                                        prophecies of the Old Testament (the Hebrew Bible). By his life, death, and resurrection he freed
In the seventeenth century people still believed that everything what happened on earth resulted               those who believe in him from their sinful state and made them recipients of God's saving grace.
from the God and His will. Good crops were a price while bad – a punishment from the God.                      Many also await the second coming of Christ, which they believe will complete God's plan of
                                                                                                               salvation. The Christian Bible, or Holy Scripture, includes the Old Testament and also the New
The families prayed every day and attended Sunday masses. They believed in devils and witches.                 Testament, a collection of early Christian writings proclaiming Jesus as lord and saviour. Arising in the
Many people were buried as witches. Most countries followed the rule: whose power - their                      Jewish milieu of 1st- century Palestine, Christianity quickly spread through the Mediterranean world
religion.296                                                                                                   and in the 4th century became the official religion of the Roman Empire.303
                                             MAIN RELIGIONS IN EUROPE                                          Christians have tended to separate into rival groups, but the main body of the Christian church was
Introduction                                                                                                   united under the Roman emperors. During the Middle Ages, when all of Europe became Christianised,
Generally speaking, although in Europe there are adherents of all religions, Roman Catholic,                   this main church was divided into a Latin (Western European) and a Greek (Byzantine or Orthodox)
Protestant, and Orthodox churches dominate on this continent. Protestant sects are found mostly in             branch. The Western church was in turn divided by the Reformation of the 16th century into the
Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the Scandinavian countries. Roman Catholics are              Roman Catholic church and a large number of smaller Protestant churches: Lutheran, Reformed
predominant in Ireland, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic,          (Calvinist), Anglican, and sectarian. These divisions have continued and multiplied, but in the 20th
Slovakia, Slovenia, and Croatia. The Orthodox Church is predominant in Greece, Russia, Ukraine,                century many Christians joined in the ecumenical movement to work for church unity. This resulted in
Belarus, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, and Moldova. Pockets of Islam are found in the                  the formation of the World Council of Churches304. Christianity exists in all parts of the world.
Balkan Peninsula, especially in Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Islam, along with Judaism, also                The growth of Christianity testifies to its continuing strength in the world today. While church
exists in many urban areas of Western Europe. Lack of any religious affiliation is increasingly                attendance has been in decline in Europe, in other parts of the world Christianity continues to
common.297                                                                                                     flourish. The 20th century has seen a marked shift in the global demography of Christianity so that
          Chart 1. Comparison of the percentage of adherents in the world and in Europe                        for the first time since the 7th century there are now more Christians outside of Europe than in
                                                                                                               Europe. In the 21st century the majority of the world's Christians will live in Latin America and
                        Source: On the basis of data from: and
                                                                                                               According to Christian belief, the original human beings rebelled against God, and from that time until
Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the three great monotheistic religions of the contemporary world.
                                                                                                               the coming of Christ the world was ruled by sin. The hope of a final reconciliation was kept alive by
They are also the three largest religions in Europe. Their adherents believe in one God, whose words
                                                                                                               God's covenant with the Jews, the chosen people from whom the saviour sprang. This saviour, Jesus
have been given to people and written in sacred books.298
                                                                                                               Christ, partly vanquished sin and Satan. Jesus, born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy
Christianity                                                                                                   Spirit, preached the coming of God's Kingdom but was rejected by the Jewish leaders, who delivered
Christianity is the religion of one-third of the population of the earth. Around 2 billion human beings        him to the Romans to be crucified. On the third day after his death God raised him up again. He
are identified with the Christian movement, 550 million in Europe and most of the rest in North and            appeared to his disciples, commanding them to spread the good news of salvation from sin and death
South America.299                                                                                              to all people. This is the mission of Christ's church.306
Christianity begins with Jesus Christ, who lived among Palestinian Jews from about 6-5 BC to 30                Christianity inherited and modified the Jewish belief that the world would be transformed by the
AD.300 The effects of his life, the response to his teachings and the experience of his death and              coming of the Reign of God. The Christians held that the bodies of those who had died would rise
resurrection were the beginnings of the Christian community. When the apostle Peter is represented             again, reanimated, and that the righteous would be triumphant, the wicked punished. This belief,
in the New Testament as confessing that Jesus is ―the Christ, the Son of the living God‖, he speaks            along with Jesus' promise of "eternal life," developed into a doctrine of eternal rewards (heaven) and
for the Christianity of all ages. And it is in response to this confession that Jesus is described as          punishments (hell) after death. A source of doctrinal uncertainty was whether salvation depended on
announcing the foundation of the Christian church: ―You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my            God's election in advance of a believer's faith, or even in a decision of God before the disobedience
church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it.‖ 301 Our knowledge of Jesus' ministry            and fall of the first man and woman.
derives almost entirely from the four Gospels of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John),             Although Christians today tend to emphasize what unites them rather than what divides them,
which present Jesus as one who proclaimed the arrival of the kingdom of God throughout the villages            substantial differences in faith exist among the various churches. 307 Those in the Protestant tradition
and countryside of Galilee. His acceptance of social outsiders and his claim to prophethood and                insist on Scripture as the sole source of God's revelation. The Roman Catholics and Orthodox give
divinity led to conflict with the Jewish priesthood and ultimately to his arrest and execution by              greater importance to the tradition of the church in defining the content of faith, believing it to be
crucifixion. Each of the Gospels contains accounts of Jesus' resurrection from the dead, and John's            divinely guided in its understanding of scriptural revelation.308 They stress the role of ecumenical
contains a reference to Jesus' ascension to heaven.302                                                         councils in the formulation of doctrine, and in Roman Catholicism the pope, or bishop of Rome, is
                                                                                                               regarded as the final authority in matters of belief.
      European..., op. cit.
      Ilustrowana..., op. cit.
297                                                                                                            303
      Grolier…, op. cit.                                                                                             Grolier..., op. cit.
298                                                                                                            304
      Religie świata, Oficyna Wydawnicza „Delta W-Z‖, Warsaw 1995.                                                   Ibidem.
299                                                                                                            305
      Encyclopedia Brytannica, Chicago, 1963, vol. 5, p. 693.                                                        European..., op. cit.
300                                                                                                            306
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                          Grolier..., op. cit.
301                                                                                                            307
      Encyclopedia..., op. cit., p. 694.                                                                             Encyclopedia of European social history from 1350 to 2000, Detroit, 2001, Vol.5, p. 269.
302                                                                                                            308
      European..., op. cit.                                                                                          BBC - Religion & Ethics,, 12 April 2003.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Christians also vary widely in worship. Early Christian worship centred on two principal rites or               resurgence of Orthodoxy after a long period of decline, and modernist groups are placing greater
sacraments: baptism, a ceremonial washing that initiated converts into the church; and the Eucharist,           emphasis on tradition and ceremony.
a sacred meal preceded by prayers, chants, and Scripture readings, in which the participants were               Islam
mysteriously united with Christ. As time went on, the Eucharist, or mass, became surrounded by an
increasingly elaborate ritual in the Latin, the Greek, and other Eastern churches, and in the Middle            Islam is customarily defined in non-Islamic sources as the religion of those who follow the Prophet
Ages Christians came to venerate saints – especially the Virgin Mary. In the West, seven sacraments             Muhammad. The prophet, who lived in Arabia in the early 7th century, initiated a religious movement
were recognized. The Protestant reformers retained 2 sacraments – baptism and the Eucharist –                   that was carried by the Arabs throughout the Middle East. Today, Islam has adherents not only in the
rejecting the others, along with devotion to saints and images, as unscriptural. They simplified                Middle East, but also in other parts of the world icluding Europe. Adherents of Islam are called
worship and emphasized preaching. Since the 19th century there has been a certain amount of                     Muslims.311
reconvergence in worship among ecumenically minded Protestants and Roman Catholics, with each                   While many Muslims oppose the language that the Prophet Muhammad is the "founder" of Islam – an
side adopting some of the other's practices. For example, the Catholic Mass is now in the vernacular.           expression they interpret as an implicit denial of God's initiative and involvement in the history of
Among other groups in both traditions, however, the divergence remains great.                                   Islam's origins, none would challenge that Islam dates back to the lifetime (570-632) of the Prophet
In most Christian churches Sunday, the day of Christ's resurrection, is observed as a time of rest and          and the years in which he received the divine revelations recorded in the Koran. At the same time,
worship. The resurrection is more particularly commemorated at Easter, a festival in the early spring.          however, most of them would stress that it is only in a sense that Islam dates back to the 7th
Another major Christian festival is Christmas, which commemorates the birth of Jesus.                           century, since they regard their religion not as a 7th-century innovation, but as the restoration of the
                                                                                                                original religion of Abraham.312 They would also stress that Islam is a timeless religion, not just
Judaism                                                                                                         because of the "eternal truth" that it proclaims but also because it is "every person's religion," the
Judaism, the religion of the Jews, is the oldest living religion in the Western world. Historically,            natural religion in which every person is born.
Judaism served as the matrix for Christianity and Islam, the other two great monotheistic religions,            Muslims have a specific view of other religions. They do not recognise other prophets besides
which together with Judaism claim half the world's population as adherents.                                     Muhammad and other Scriptures besides the Koran. Muslims believe that the completion of God's
Judaism was the first religion to teach monotheism. This belief is the basis of Judaism and is summed           favour to humanity have been realized in the sending down of the Koran. Those who, on the basis of
up in the opening words of the Shema, recited daily: "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is              what they had previously received from God, recognize the message of the Koran as the ultimate
One". Jews believe that God's providence extends to all people but that God entered into a special              Truth show themselves thereby as true believers, while those who reject it prove themselves to be
covenant with the ancient Israelites. They do not believe that they were chosen for any special                 unbelievers, no matter by what name they call themselves.
privileges but rather to bring God's message to humanity by their example. Belief in a coming                                                                  313
                                                                                                                PAGANISM AND LOCAL FAITHS
messiah has been a source of optimism for Jews. In the biblical account, the patriarchs Abrham,
Isaac, and Jacob received the revelation of the one, true God, who promised special protection to the           FREEMASONRY
Israelite tribes.309                                                                                            The basic doctrine of this faith is belief in a Supreme Being. All Masons are required to have some
The basic source of Jewish belief is the Hebrew Bible (called the "Old Testament" by Christians),               form of religious belief before being admitted. Freemasonry, although it claims origins in Ancient
especially its first five books, called the Torah or the Pentateuch. Judaism did not stop developing            Egypt, was established in its present form in 1717 when the Grand Lodge of London was formed.
after the Bible was completed. The traditional Jewish prayer book is an important result of this                According to them ―Masonry is not a religion or a substitute for religion, (…) is not a competitor with
process of development, reflecting the basic beliefs of Judaism as well as changes in emphasis in               religion, though in the sphere of human conduct it may be hoped that its teaching will be
response to changing conditions.310                                                                             complementary to that of religion". Masonry was especially popular among intellectuals, who
                                                                                                                abandoned the Christian Church seeking new opportunities for their faith. The movement was also
Judaism has a system of law, known as Halachah, regulating civil and criminal justice, family
                                                                                                                attractive because it claimed to be the only recipient and guardian of an ancient powerful secret
relationships, personal ethics and manners, social responsibilities such as help to the needy,
                                                                                                                handed down from the distant past. It was at first opposed by the Church authorities (Pope Clement
education, and community institutions as well as worship and other religious observances. Some laws
                                                                                                                XII issued a Papal Bull in 1738 against the movement).
once deemed very important, for example, laws governing the offering of sacrifice and most rules of
ceremonial defilement and purification, have not been practiced since the destruction of the Second             DRUIDRY (NEO-CELTIC RELIGION)
Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Individual practices still widely observed include the dietary laws, rules        Modern Druidry draws its inspiration from Celtic traditions, but Druids do not have any specific central
concerning the marital relationship, daily prayer, and study, and the recital of many blessings,                doctrine, therefore each member is encouraged to formulate their own beliefs. Druid groups are
especially before and after meals.                                                                              highly diversified, although there are some basic concepts that are more or less common. Most of
At present, because of political circumstances, rigid Orthodoxy is the only form of Judaism officially          them are open to both men and women on an equal basis. Some groups do not regard Druidry as a
recognized in Israel. But a large part of the population is remote from formal religion, and the                religion, but as a philosophy or a kind of science. Most, however, seek to preserve the ecological
modernist versions have difficulty making their message heard.                                                  balance of the Earth and see humankind as an integral part of nature rather in control of it. It is
                                                                                                                estimated that there are some three thousand people who practice Druidry as a religion in Britain and
A great exodus of Jews from the Soviet Union began in the 1970s and reached new heights after the
                                                                                                                Ireland. As Druidry is a nature based religion, they gather outdoors rather than in buildings.
breakup of the USSR in the 1990s. In the West, despite loss of members, mixed marriages, and a
serious drop in the Jewish birth rate, religious institutions are flourishing. The number of synagogues         SWEDENBORGIANISM
and synagogue members increased dramatically after World War II. There has been a remarkable

                                                                                                                      Encyklopedia Powszechna, PWN, Warsaw, 1984, vol. 3, p. 308.
309                                                                                                             312
      Encyklopedia Powszechna, PWN, Warsaw, 1984, vol. 2, p. 374.                                                     Grolier..., op. cit.
310                                                                                                             313
      Grolier..., op. cit.                                                                                            European..., op. cit.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
This religion was created by Emmanuel Swedenborg, born in Stockholm. He taught a theosophy                      religions. In addition, rituals called esbats are usually held every two weeks, in which teaching is
centred on Jesus Christ, in whom he found a Trinity of Love, Wisdom and Energy. He perceived the                given and spells are worked. Witches keep a Book of Shadows (traditionally kept in secret), in which
human body as the kingdom of the soul and developed his doctrine of correspondence – that all                   to write invocations, rituals and other information and lore. The Book of Shadows is regarded as a
physical phenomena have their spiritual correspondences. Because his theological system is                      shadowy reflection of the realities of the other world.
anthropocentric, Swedenborg did not believe in Christian redemption. His spiritual world is populated           As far as the number of adherents is concerned, there are no official figures available. However,
exclusively by deceased human beings grouped together into heavenly or infernal societies that form             witchcraft is very widespread and can be found, in one form or another, all over the world314.
a huge man, so called Maximus Homo. Christ is to be regarded as the highest manifestation of this
humanity. Swedenborg claimed that there was no such thing as a personal Devil or Satan, but that                GODDESS SPIRITUALITY
the name signifies the whole society of evil spirits. Swedenborg, and his doctrine of correspondence            Goddess spirituality encourages creativity and spontaneity and the development of power-from-within
was particularly influential on Western poetic literature. He was admired by such people as                     rather than power-over others. The Goddess Movement has enabled women to reclaim their own
Baudelaire, Goethe, Blake, and Kant.                                                                            spirituality, unmediated by male priests. In spirituality groups, the Goddess is represented as strong
THEOSOPHY                                                                                                       and powerful. Women are honoured as Priestesses, women of power. Some regard themselves as a
                                                                                                                sisterhood, in which the older women teach the younger women and conduct rites of passage for
The Theosophical Society was founded by Helena Petrova Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott in New York                 menarche, childbirth, menopause and other transitions in a woman's life.
in 1875 and it was a breakthrough for occultism. For the first time ever an organised body was
created, open to both men and women, for research and study. There were three main aims of                      However, not all goddess spirituality organisations and groups are exclusively orientated to women.
Theosophical Society: (1) to form the nucleus of an Universal Brotherhood of Humanity, without                  The Fellowship of Isis, founded in 1976 and based in Eire, concentrates on both female and male
distinction of race, creed or colour, (2) to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature,           principles of divinity. It is today the largest Goddess-centred organisation with over 13,000 members,
religion and sciences and (3) to investigate the hidden mysteries of Nature and the Physical powers             both male and female, world-wide.
hidden inside man. Theosophy also tried to abolish Christianity and replace it with freethinking                NEO-PAGANISM
humanism. Of course, they did not succeed in overthrowing Christianity, but they did provide a forum            Pagan religions have their roots in the traditions of ancient Nature religions. Paganism is a term used
for debate and study of many religions and did a great deal to popularise Indian religions in                   to describe a variety of religions linked by common traditions. The main Pagan religions to be found
particular.                                                                                                     in Europe are Wicca, Druidry, Shamanism, Goddess Spirituality, Sacred Ecology, the Northern
THE HERMETIC ORDER OF THE GOLDEN DAWN                                                                           Traditions, and various Magical Groups. As such, there are no official doctrines – most Pagans believe
The order was founded by Dr. William Wynn Westcott in London in 1888. A candidate, who wanted to                that no one belief system is correct, and that each person has the freedom to choose their own
be admitted into the Golden Dawn had to acknowledge his or her belief in the existence of a Supreme             religion. The Pagan Federation, the largest umbrella organisation for Paganism in Europe, has set out
Being, but the old Pagan gods were also very welcome. The Golden Dawn procedure for uniting with                three principles of Paganism: (1) love for and kinship with nature, (2) ― Do what thou wilt, but harm
the divine was essentially pagan, using pre-Christian practices and names of power which they found             none‖, (3) the concept of the Goddess and God as expressions of the Divine reality.
in Hebrew, Greek, Coptic, Egyptian, and Chaldean sources. The order was founded to include both                 NEO-GERMANIC RELIGIONS
men and women on a basis of perfect equality. The Order has been reestablished in recent years as               The Norse-German Gods were worshipped all over Northern and Western Europe by the ancestors of
The Oxford Golden Dawn Occult Society (OGDOS) in Britain and the New Reformed Order of the                      the Norse, Dutch, German and English peoples, and were brought to Britain by invaders such as the
Golden Dawn in the USA.                                                                                         Angles, Saxons and Vikings. Thus, the myths and stories of the Northern Tradition have always been
WICCA                                                                                                           part of Iceland's cultural heritage and Christianity was adopted as the state religion in the year 1,000
Wicca is a revived religious tradition, with roots reaching distant past. Between about 1480 and 1650,          only through a substantial bribe to the law-speaker Thorgeirr. Practitioners of the Northern Traditions
alleged witches were hunted and either burned or hanged. It has been suggested that as many as                  follow the pre-Christian Pagan traditions of Northern Europe, centred around two distinctive groups of
nine million victims died during this time (though more recent estimates quote a figure of 40,000               divinities, the Aesir sky gods and the Vanir earth gods. The Gods are viewed as immanent and
people).                                                                                                        manifest in nature, and are venerated through the seasonal celebrations which are based around the
                                                                                                                major festivals of Yule. The most widely used symbols in neo-germanic religions are the runic
Wicca has no central doctrines. However, many witches hold to the Wiccan Rede - "An it harm none,               symbols, which are thought to be embodiments of truth, and are used for divination, magic, and
do what thou wilt" – and the Law of Threefold Return – that whatever you do, whether for good or                decoration to honour the gods.
bad, will return to you threefold. Most Wiccan traditions use three degrees of advancement. The
degrees are not regarded as hierarchical (all witches are equal) but as a mark of proficiency and               NEO-SHAMANISM
experience in the Craft.                                                                                        Shamanism originated in Siberia and Central Asia and spread from the Russian steppes westwards
Witches are normally initiated into the Craft by a family member, with mothers initiating daughters             into Europe and Eastwards into North America. There is no single dogma or central authority for
and fathers initiating sons. Covens are generally run by the High Priest rather than the High Priestess,        Shamanism, which is very diverse. The spirit world is viewed as part of everyday reality – it surrounds
and they tend to work robed, preferring a black hooded cloak or robe. There are many types of                   us and we live with spirits all the time. A Shaman is usually identified at an early age as possessing
convents (e.g. Dianic, Seax-Wica, Faery), which differ one from another. Although different, the                special powers of communication with the otherworld. They often had a spontaneous, severe and
traditions of the Craft share sufficiently similar deities, forms of worship, language, symbolism and           traumatic experience – an illness or spiritual crisis – which forced open for them the doors of the
philosophy, such as moon magic, belief in reincarnation, and concept of deity as personification of             otherworld. He has the ability to move between the worlds and thus provide a bridge, becoming a
powers of nature or universal life (feminine and masculine, God and Goddess), to make them                      pathfinder for his people. Through training or calling the Shaman is able to access the spirit worlds
recognisable as derivations of one religion.
Witches celebrate eight major festivals (called Sabbats) in common with many modern Pagan                       314
                                                                                                                      The Witches Tree,
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
and work with the powers there. Through this contact, he is able to work acts of healing, divination              pupils wish to be considered for a place at a grammar school , they must sit Transfer Tests. About 35
and magic, revealing human spirituality through vision, poetry and myth315.                                       per cent subsequently attend "grammar schools", which cater for pupils up to the age of 19, with the
BALTIC RELIGION                                                                                                   remaining 65 per cent attending secondary schools, which cater for pupils up to the age of 16. At age
                                                                                                                  16, when education is no longer compulsory, the majority of pupils in England, Wales and Northern
In Baltic religion, all of nature is considered sacred and the Earth is the universal mother. The pre-            Ireland continue their studies, either at school or at a further education institution. It is more com-
Christian Pagan traditions have become integral to the aspirations of newly emerged countries such                mon for pupils wishing to undertake vocational education to transfer to a further education institu-
as Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to establish their own distinctive national identities. Christianity came        tion, although schools are beginning to offer a limited range of vocational courses. Further education
late to the Baltics and the people proudly retained their pre-Christian heritage, boasting of being the           institutions offer both vocational and academic courses.
last christianized region in Europe. In Lithuania there is a strong Pagan church and an organisation
called Romuva, which promotes Lithuanian Paganism. A similar organisation operates in Latvia, called              Pupils wishing subsequently to continue their studies at a higher education level transfer to a higher
Dievturiba, after Dievs the sky-god who, along with Laima, goddess of life, is believed to determine              education institution, normally at age 18.
the fate of humans316.                                                                                            FINLAND
FINNISH PAGAN RELIGION                                                                                            Comprehensive school peruskoulu starts in the year when a child is seven. For one year before that
Due to the geographical proximity of Finland to Siberia, Finnish Paganism has its roots in Shamanism,             time, the child can participate in pre-school instruction intended for 6-year-olds. Pre-school instruc-
sharing many similar concepts, such as the honouring of ancestors, spirits of the land, and the                   tion is mostly organised as part of the day-care system, but a comprehensive school can also offer
elements of earth, air, fire and water.                                                                           pre-school instruction to six-year-old children. However, it is voluntary.
In Finnish cosmology there are three realms - the Upperworld, the Lowerworld or Underworld, and                   Education is compulsory for nine years, and nearly all children fulfil it by attending comprehensive
the world of everyday consciousness, which are to be found on a World Tree. Some Finnish pagans                   school peruskoulu. Compulsory education ends when the comprehensive school syllabus is completed
believe that people's destinies are written in the leaves of this tree, and that when a leaf falls, a             or not later than ten years after the beginning of compulsory education.
person dies.                                                                                                      After completing basic education, a young person can continue studying or enter working life. It is
The major feast of the Finnish seasonal cycle is Ukon Vakat (Ukko's Day) in honour of the sky and                 not regarded as advisable to move immediately to working life, but one of the objectives of education
thunder god Ukko. Modern Pagans in Finland have developed their own seasonal cycle, which                         policy is to provide the entire age group with free-of-charge upper secondary education. If schooling
includes Ukko's Day. Rites are simple and are often conducted outdoors.                                           is continued, a choice is usually made between:
                                                                                                                       general upper secondary school
                                                                                                                  General upper secondary education builds upon the basic education syllabus, and the scope of the
                                                                                                                  general upper secondary school syllabus is three years. General upper secondary education is usually
                                        EDUCATION IN EUROPE                                                       arranged in a non-graded form. The general upper secondary school syllabus should be completed
                                                                                                                  within a maximum of four years, unless a student is granted a continuation of the completion period
ENGLAND                                                                                                           for a well-grounded reason. At the end of general upper secondary education, students usually take
The period of compulsory education in England and Wales is divided into four key stages :                         the national matriculation examination ylioppilastutkinto , which gives general eligibility for higher
                                                                                                                  education. General upper secondary schools select their students autonomously on the basis of the
         key stage 1 for pupils aged 5 to 7                                                                       criteria determined by the Ministry of Education.
         key stage 2 for pupils aged 7 to 11                                                                           vocational education
         key stage 3 for pupils aged 11 to 14                                                                     The scope of upper secondary level vocational qualifications taken after basic education is 2 - 3 years,
         key stage 4 for pupils aged 14 to 16.                                                                    depending on the field of study. The scope of all the study programmes is currently being changed to
The majority of pupils transfer from primary to secondary school at age 11 although, where a system               three years. Part of the education is given in the form of on-the-job training in the workplace. Besides
of middle schools exists, pupils may transfer at age 8 or 9 to a middle school and subsequently to a              studying at a vocational institution, a qualification can also be completed as apprenticeship training
secondary school at age 12 or 13. The vast majority of secondary schools are comprehensive schools                oppisopimuskoulutus, which is organised in the workplace in connection with practical work assign-
and do not select pupils on grounds of ability. Some cater for pupils up to the age of 16 only, and               ments.
some cater for pupils up to the age of 19.                                                                        After having completed general upper secondary school or vocational upper secondary education, a
Compulsory education in Northern Ireland is divided into four key stages:                                         student can apply for higher education. The Finnish higher education system consists of two sectors:
                                                                                                                  universities and ammattikorkeakoulu (polytechnics).
         key stage 1 for pupils aged 4 to 8
                                                                                                                  Those applying for university are required to have completed the matriculation examination ylioppi-
         key stage 2 for pupils aged 8 to 11
                                                                                                                  lastutkinto, an AMK degree or a vocational qualification in a programme of at least three years' dura-
         key stage 3 for pupils aged 11 to 14                                                                     tion.
         key stage 4 for pupils aged 14 to 16.                                                                    Adult education offers citizens the opportunity to obtain education and complete qualifications at any
In Northern Ireland, most pupils transfer from primary to post-primary school at age 11 years. If                 stage of life. Adults can study in either the same educational institutions as young people, or in insti-
                                                                                                                  tutions and units intended for adults.
315                                                                                                               Pupil Assessment
      Foundation of Schamanic Studies,
      The official website of Lithuanian Romuva, op. cit.
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
According to the Basic Education Act, pupil assessment aims to guide and encourage study and to                tion, Community Youth Training, Local Training Initiatives.
develop pupils‘ self-assessment skills.                                                                        School Year in Higher Education
In addition to pupils‘ learning outcomes, the targets of assessment include their schoolwork and the           In practice the main academic year commences in early October and finishes the end of May. De-
entire learning process, as well as their conduct. The National Board of Education issues national             pending on the course involved, examinations may take place in May, June or September but lectures
criteria for pupil assessment.                                                                                 and workshops occur normally between October and May. Institutions are moving towards modulari-
Pupil assessment has two different roles. The first is the above-mentioned educational guidance and            zation and/or semesterisation, a trend which is likely to affect the pattern of the academic year in
encouragement. This is known as continuous assessment. It is based on each pupil‘s own learning                higher education. The University of Limerick has operated modularization and semesterisation for a
and growth process, its starting points and objectives.                                                        number of years. A number of the other universities have begun the process of becoming semester-
The second task of pupil assessment is the final assessment of basic education, on the basis of which          ised though it is slow to develop in the Irish system.
pupils will be selected for further studies when they leave comprehensive school. This assessment              SWEDEN
must be nationally comparable and it must treat pupils equally. The final assessment is based on the           The pre-school fšrskolan is the first stage of the educational system.
objectives of basic education. For the purposes of the final assessment of basic education, recom-
mended assessment criteria have been prepared for the intermediate grade (8) in all common sub-                The public school system for children and youths consists of pre-school class, fšrskoleklass compul-
jects.                                                                                                         sory school grundskola, upper secondary school gymnasieskola , compulsory school for pupils with
                                                                                                               learning disabilities, schools for pupils with impaired hearing/vision and physical disabilities special-
Pupils are given reports at the end of each school year; in addition, pupils may be given one or more          skola , Samic school sameskolan and the Swedish schools abroad. The adult education system, which
intermediate reports. In the first seven forms of comprehensive school, assessment may be either               offers equivalent education, consists of municipal adult education komvux , education for adults with
verbal or numerical. Later the assessment must be numerical, but it may be complemented with a                 learning disabilities and Swedish tuition for immigrants sfi . There are also two state schools for
verbal assessment.                                                                                             adults which are complementary to the municipal adult education. Popular education folkbildning is
The scale of grades used in assessment is 4–10, where 5 is fair, 6 passable, 7 satisfactory, 8 good, 9         offered by folk high schools or adult education associations. Higher education is conducted at univer-
very good and 10 shows excellent knowledge and skills. Grade 4 is for failed performances.                     sities and university colleges.
IRELAND                                                                                                        During the 1990s, major parts of the Swedish education system have been reformed, i.e. the pre-
Education is compulsory from age 6 to age 15. In 1998 the Minister for Education and Science has               school, the pre-school class, the compulsory school, the upper secondary school and the higher
announced the raising of compulsory education to age 16. As a rule children proceed from primary               education system.
level to a secondary school of their parents' choice at approximately age 12. After age 15 and since                Since July 1st 1995 there has been a new curriculum for the whole of the compulsory school
September 1994 the Minister for Education has provided for an optional three years' senior cycle                    system comprising the compulsory school, special schools for the mentally handicapped, schools
education. At approximately age 18 various third level education options are available. The average                 for those with physical disabilities and the Sami schools. New syllabi and timetables were also in-
age for starting school is four years.                                                                              troduced. From the start of school year 1998/99, the curricula have been amended to cover not
The majority of children are in first class in primary school at age 6 and may transfer to second level             only compulsory schooling, but also the pre-school class and the after school centre fritidshem .
school when they have completed the full primary course, generally about age 12. For registration in                Minor changes have also been made to the timetable.
a second level school pupils must be age 12 on 1st January of their first year in second level school-              In the new integrated upper secondary school implemented between 1992 and 1995, all educa-
ing.                                                                                                                tion is organised in terms of 16 different national programmes. All the upper secondary school
The junior and senior cycles of second level schools comprise lower and upper secondary education.                  programmes contain the same eight core subjects, Swedish/Swedish as a second language, Eng-
Four types of schools exist at this level - secondary , voluntary secondary, vocational, comprehensive              lish, social studies, religious studies, mathematics, science, sport and health as well as artistic
and community. All of them offer a curriculum that combines academic and vocational subjects. At                    activities. In addition to these core subjects, pupils study subjects specific to a programme. The
the end of year three in the junior cycle the majority of pupils sit their first State examination, the             curriculum for the non-compulsory school system comprises upper secondary education, upper
Junior Certificate. Since September 1994, the Transition Year, a one-year interdisciplinary programme               secondary education for pupils with learning disabilities, municipal adult education and education
has been available to all pupils at the end of junior cycle as one option in a three-year senior cycle.             for adults with learning disabilities.
At senior cycle the main course is the two-year Leaving Certificate leading to higher education or                  Since autumn 1996 a pilot scheme for advanced vocational training has been carried out.
employment. There are also two alternative certificate courses - the Leaving Certificate Vocational                 In the new higher education system, introduced in 1993-94, there are, apart from the general
Programme and the Leaving Certificate Applied Programme.                                                            degrees, 45 specifically professionally oriented diplomas described in the Government degree
YOUTHREACH is a two-year programme of education, training and work experience available to                          ordinance. Diplomas concern primarily professions requiring authorisation or registration e.g.
young people who have left school with no formal qualification. Year one is a foundation year and is                programmes for doctors and teachers that may cover periods ranging from two to five and a
followed by a progression year. Youthreach is run jointly by the Vocational Education Committees and                half years.
FAS. It is funded by the Department of Education and Department of Enterprise and Employment                   Adult education consists of municipal adult education, the state school for adults, education for adults
with assistance from the European Social Fund. YOUTHREACH courses are free of charge. Partici-                 with learning disabilities and Swedish tuition for immigrants for people aged 16 and over. Komvux
pants are paid a weekly training allowance which varies according to age. YOUTHREACH is a second               and sfi form the state adult education system. Other opportunities for adult education have been
chance for 15-18 year olds to gain education and training with national certification and future em-           created in the non-compulsory popular adult education sector made up of study associations and folk
ployment prospects.                                                                                            high schools. Popular adult education is financed partly by means of special state grants.
Training courses of various lengths are provided by FAS for unemployed young people: Skills Founda-            NETHERLANDS
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
The following types of education are provided:                                                                 The purpose of adult education is to provide a solid foundation for vocational and secondary educa-
     primary education for children aged from 4 to 12 years, including special schools for primary             tion courses and enable adults to participate in society.
     education                                                                                                 Higher education, for students aged from around 18, includes higher professional education, univer-
     special education for children of all ages from 3 to 20 who require special educational treatment         sity education and higher distance education in the shape of the Open University. Higher professional
                                                                                                               education (HBO) follows on from the level achieved at the end of HAVO, VWO and MBO (senior
     secondary education for pupils aged between 12 and 18 years.                                              secondary vocational education). University education (WO) is provided at universities, of which the
     higher education, for students aged around 18 and over. This may be subdivided into, higher               Netherlands has thirteen. The maximum length of HBO and university courses is four years, with the
     professional education (HBO), 17/18-21/22 years; university education (WO), 18-22 years; open             exception of certain courses which are regulated by law and last five or six years. All courses end
     distance education (OU), 18 years and over.                                                               with an examination.
There are no single-sex schools in the Netherlands.                                                            GERMANY
Primary education lasts eight years and is for children from the age of 4 to 12. Special schools for           The ability of pupils to transfer between school types and the recognition of school-leaving qualifica-
primary education (or group 1 special schools) cater for children who - for a period of time at least -        tions is basically guaranteed if the preconditions agreed between the Länder are fulfilled. The dura-
require special educational treatment of a kind that cannot be provided at a mainstream school. Up to          tion of full-time compulsory education (compulsory general education) is 9 years (10 years in four of
31 July 1998 these schools were known as schools for children with learning and behavioural difficul-          the Länder) and the subsequent period of part-time compulsory education (compulsory vocational
ties (LOM), schools for children with learning difficulties (MLK) and departments for preschool chil-          education) is 3 years.
dren with development difficulties (IOBK). On leaving primary school or a special school for primary           1. In some Länder special types of transition from pre-school to primary education (Vorklassen,
education, children can go on to a special secondary school, learning support, practical training, pre-        Schulkindergärten) exist. In Berlin and Brandenburg the primary school comprises 6 grades.
vocational education (VBO), junior general secondary education (MAVO), senior general secondary
education (HAVO) or pre-university education (VWO).                                                            2. The disabled attend special forms of general-education and vocational school types (in some cases
                                                                                                               integrated with non-handicapped pupils) depending on the type of disability in question. Designation
Special schools cater for children who, possibly because of a disability of some kind, require more            of schools varies according to the law of each Land .
help with their development and education than ordinary primary and secondary schools can offer. At
the end of special primary schooling, pupils generally go on to a special secondary school or to learn-        3. Irrespective of school type, grades 5 and 6 constitute a phase of particular support, supervision
ing support or practical training, or they may be able to continue their education at an ordinary sec-         and orientation with regard to the pupil's future educational path and its particular focuses. In some
ondary school.                                                                                                 Länder, the orientation stage ( Orientierungsstufe or Förderstufe) is organised as a separate organ-
                                                                                                               isational unit independent of the standard school types.
Secondary education comprises pre-university education (VWO), senior and junior general secondary
education (HAVO and MAVO), pre-vocational education (VBO) and practical training/learning support              4. The Hauptschule and Realschule courses of education are also offered at schools with several
and caters for pupils from 12 to about 18 years of age. VWO, HAVO, MAVO and VBO courses begin                  courses of education, for which the names differ from one Land to another. The Mittelschule
with a period of basic secondary education. Basic secondary education is a new core curriculum for             (Sachsen), Regelschule (Thüringen), Sekundarschule (Sachsen-Anhalt), Erweiterte Realschule
the lower years of all the different types of secondary school. The emphasis is on acquiring skills and        (Saarland), Integrierte Haupt- und Realschule (Hamburg), Verbundene Haupt- und Realschule
delivering an integrated curriculum. Basic secondary education is for pupils between the ages of 12            (Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) and Regionale Schule (Rheinland-Pfalz), as well as
and 15 and lasts no more than three years.                                                                     comprehensive schools (Gesamtschule) fall under this category.
VWO courses last six years and prepare pupils for university. In practice, students also go on from            5. The Gymnasium course of education is also offered at comprehensive schools (Gesamtschule). In
VWO to higher professional education. HAVO courses last five years and are designed to prepare                 the cooperative comprehensive schools, including the Schulzentrum in Bremen, the three courses of
pupils to enter higher professional education. In practice, pupils who have obtained HAVO qualifica-           education (Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium) are brought under one educational and organ-
tions also transfer to VWO or MBO. The second stage of HAVO and VWO, which follows on from basic               isational umbrella; these form an educational and organisational whole at the integrated Gesam-
secondary education, is also referred to as pre-higher education (VHO). MAVO lasts four years and is           tschule. The provision of comprehensive schools (Gesamtschulen) varies in accordance with the
meant chiefly to prepare pupils for vocational education. Many pupils with MAVO qualifications de-             respective educational laws of the Länder.
cide, however, to go on to HAVO. Pupils with VBO qualifications (4-year course) can go on to voca-             6. The general education qualifications that may be obtained after grades 9 and 10 carry particular
tional education. MAVO and VBO are also referred to jointly as pre-vocational secondary education              designations in some Länder. These certificates can also be obtained in evening classes.
(VMBO).                                                                                                        7. Admission to the Gymnasiale Oberstufe requires a formal entrance qualification which can gener-
Adult and vocational education (BVE) comprises vocational education courses and adult education                ally be obtained after grade 10. Sachsen-Anhalt and Thüringen have ruled that the formal entrance
courses. There are two possible training pathways in vocational education: vocational training                 qualification can be awarded after grade 9 at the Gymnasium. The Allgemeine Hochschulreife can
(equivalent to the old senior secondary vocational education or MBO) and block or day release                  generally be obtained after the successful completion of 13 consecutive school years. In four Länder
(equivalent to the old system of apprenticeships). Non-formal adult education and the old part-time            (Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) the Allgemeine Hochschulreife can
MBO courses have been subsumed by these two training pathways and the four levels of qualification             be acquired after 12 years of schooling.
available. Vocational education is for young people who want to obtain a vocational qualification at           8. The Fachoberschule is a school type lasting two years (11th and 12th grades) which takes pupils
secondary level and caters for those above compulsory school age who have a VBO or MAVO certifi-               who have completed the Realschule and which qualifies them for higher education Fachhochschul-
cate, i.e. have completed the first stage of secondary education, and/or have left the second stage of         reife. Pupils who have successfully completed the Realschule and have been through initial vocational
secondary education with or without a qualification. Adult education comprises adult general secon-            training can also enter the Fachoberschule directly in the 12th grade.
dary education (VAVO), courses providing a broad basic education (what used to be known as adult
basic education), courses aimed at fostering self-reliance and courses in Dutch as a second language.          9. Full-time vocational schools differing in terms of entrance requirements, duration and leaving
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
certificates. Certain two-year Berufsfachschulen requiring a Realschule certificate for admission lead          To enrol in laurea specialistica courses, students must be in possession of a laurea or of another
to a state-recognised examination as assistant. One or two-year courses at Berufsfachschulen offer              qualification obtained abroad and officially recognised by the Italian educational system.
basic vocational training. Under certain conditions the Fachhochschulreife can be acquired on comple-           GREECE
tion of a course lasting a minimum of two years.
                                                                                                                Education is provided on three levels:
10. Extension courses are offered to enable pupils to acquire qualifications equivalent to the Haup-
tschule and Realschule leaving certificates.                                                                         1.   Primary education: which includes kindergarten and primary school.

11. Fachschulen cater for vocational continuing education (1-3 year duration) and as a rule require                  2.   Secondary education: which includes gymnasio (junior secondary school), eniaio lykeio
the completion of relevant vocational training in a recognised occupation and subsequent employ-                          (unified senior secondary school) and technika-epangelmatika ekpedevtiria (TEE or techni-
ment. In addition, the Fachhochschulreife can be acquired under certain conditions. Within the con-                       cal schools).
text of the International Standard Classification for Education (ISCED97), Fachschulen are classified in             3.   Higher education, which includes universities (AEI) and technical colleges (TEI).
the tertiary sector.                                                                                            After the nine years of compulsory education, i.e. after gymnasio, anyone who wants to continue
12. Including institutions of higher education offering courses in particular disciplines at university         their studies can select: Unified senior secondary school (EL) Technical school (TEE)
level (e.g. theology, philosophy, medicine, administration science, sport).                                     Attendance at an EL is for three years, as it is in the unified musical (Mousiko Lykeio) and unified
13. Tertiary sector institutions in seven Länder offering academic training at a Studienakademie                ecclesiastical lykeio (Ekklissiastiko Lykeio). These latter types of lykeio follow the regulations for the
(study institution) combined with practical in-company professional training in keeping with the prin-          EL, but they also include about ten additional hours of classes per week in musical and theological
ciple of the dual system.                                                                                       subjects respectively. Attendance at evening lykeia is for four years. In accordance with laws 2525/97
ITALY                                                                                                           and 2640/98, the second level of secondary education is going through a transitional period. All types
                                                                                                                of lykeio have now (school year 1998-99) been converted into eniaia lykeia (EL) and thus first and
The education system includes:                                                                                  second form are already operating as such. The third form, however, in all ELs, is operating for the
     nursery school (non-compulsory) for children between 3 and 6 years of age;                                 last time this year on the basis of the provisions in effect for the type of senior secondary school it
     primary education for children between 6 and 11 years of age;                                              used to be before becoming an EL. Diagram 5 shows schematically the alternative educational
                                                                                                                "routes" that pupils in third form of lykeio can follow in the school year 1998-99.
     lower secondary education for children between 11 and 14 years of age.
                                                                                                                Curricula, Courses, Number of Hours
Primary and lower secondary education is compulsory. Upper secondary education includes different
types of schools. Generally speaking, it is attended by students between 14 and 19 years of age, see.           For each TEI department, the content and the length of studies, which is eight semesters, including
                                                                                                                the semester during which both the graduating project is conducted and the supervised and evalu-
Access to both university and non-university higher education is reserved for students after passing            ated apprenticeship in the profession is carried out, are determined by Presidential Decree issued
the State examination (esame di Stato). Vocational training courses are run by local authorities and            upon the advice of the Department and upon recommendation of the Institute Of Technological
can be attended by people aged between 15 and 25 and sometimes even older. The lower secondary                  Education (ITE). In the future, the recommendation will be a responsibility of the National Education
school leaving certificate diploma di licenza media is needed to gain access to upper secondary school          Council (ESYP).
and to enter apprenticeship or alternating training programmes.
                                                                                                                The programme of studies (curriculum) of each TEI department is drawn, upon recommendation of a
Special legislation and experimental initiatives aim at providing special guidance to students who              special programme committee, by the General Assembly of the Department and it is approved by
must make decisions about their future career or higher education at the end of upper secondary                 ITE-in the future, by ESYP- based on criteria relevant to its compatibility with the content of studies,
school. The number of initiatives in the area of guidance undertaken by Ministero della Pubblica                its relevance to the level and the nature of Higher Technological Education, its materialisation etc.
Istruzione as well as by Provinces and Communes, public and private bodies are numerous and diver-
sified. Recently the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione has activated a research path based on pro-            The courses provided in the TEI departments are described as compulsory, compulsory elective, or
jects and in-service training on "orientamento formativo nella scuola media" i.e. a formative guidance          optional. Every semester course carries a number of academic credits (a.d.m) each of which depends
in the middle school. having the aim of analysing this theme in all its aspects and of setting up a             on the weekly teaching hours and its degree of importance. The total number of a.d.m. of each
network of knowledge and experiences to be extended in time. The two year project involves 44                   semesters‘ courses is 30, according to the European Credit Transfer System (E.C.T.S.). The last
scuole medie located in different parts of the country.                                                         semester of studies, which includes assignment of the graduating project as well as the supervised
                                                                                                                and assessed apprenticeship in a work place, grants a total of 30 credits(d.m.) of which 10-20 d.m
          New regulation:                                                                                       correspond to the students‘ graduating project.
According to the reform to enrol in degree courses laurea students must be in possession of di-                 Also, the working load in each semester of studies is 750 hours, that is 1500 hours on an annual
ploma di superamento dell'esame di Stato at upper secondary level or of another qualification                   basis. Each semester of studies in TEI departments includes fifteen (15) weeks of classes and is
obtained abroad and officially recognised. Until recently enrolment could be attained just with the             followed by two examination periods, of two weeks each. During registration or when registration is
possession of a diploma finale di scuola secondaria superiore except for university courses for which           renewed at the beginning of each semester, the student submits his/her personal programme of
there was a prescribed limited intake; now the Regulations no. 509 establishes that each university             studies which must reflect the relationship between prerequisite and dependent courses as decided
must define, in its regulations, the knowledge required for the admittance and lay down the tests'              by the Department.
procedures. Tests can be carried out on completion of propaedeutic training activities in collaboration,
at the same time, with institutes of upper secondary education. A not positive tests' result doesn‘t            With the exception of this obligation, the student draws up independently his personal programme of
preclude the enrolment, but teaching regulations will have to specify additional specific training re-          studies, taking in consideration that the distribution of the courses over semesters is indicative, ac-
quirements to be fulfilled within the first year of the course.                                                 cording to the Department curriculum, and not compulsory for the student.

                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                                                                                               Yet before Christmas preparations start. Each family buys or prepares an Adventkranz, which is
Anna Radecka, Bartosz Pustuł, Mateusz Homa                                                                     decorated with 4 candles lit on four Sundays before Christmas. On 5 th of December a Krampus Day
                                                                                                               takes place. Children gather and throw snowballs at figures of Krampus, which is a creature that
                                            EUROPEAN HOLIDAYS                                                  represents evil. On the next day St. Nicholas day is celebrated. The main person of Christmas in
                                                                                                               Austria is the Christkindl, who decorates the Christmas Tree and gives the presents. Every church in
                                                            Introduction                                       Austria has its Krippe with little figures of newborn Christ, Joseph and Maria. Krippes are also made
Celebrating holidays in numerous gatherings is a distinguishing feature of all European cultures. It is        by families and are often hundreds years old and full of characters and figures. On Christmas Eve,
a part of our heritage to cherish customs that have prevailed in local communities. Some of them are           after the tinkling bell summons every body to the Christmas dinner – children see the Tannenbaum
widely spread and known, some are distinctively linked to particular regions or locations. Even those          (Christmas Tree) decorated with ornaments and candles for the first time and wait for the Christkindl
that are common might appear so similar, yet they might be uniquely enriched by having local varia-            to arrive. The families exchange gifts and after the dinner go to the Mitternachtmesse. On the first
tions and modifications. Therefore it is of utmost importance to preserve regional differences, cus-           and second Day of Christmas Austrians meet their families and friends. On January 6, the Epiphany is
toms and traditions and sustain the diversity of European cultures.                                            celebrated to remember the Three Wise Men.318
This paper provides a brief overview of selected European customs. The first part focuses on the               1.3. Bulgaria – pat me with a stick and happy I shall be!
fashions in which Christmas is celebrated in various countries, in that the most interesting and               In Bulgaria people prepare themselves for Christmas with a 40-day Advent fast. On Christmas Eve the
graphic examples are given. In the following chapters a relatively wide array of holidays, specific and        hole family gathers at the table to eat a vegetarian dinner that consists of 7, 9 or 11 dishes, of which
typical of both global and certain local communities, is covered, ranging from April Fool‘s Day to the         the most popular are: homemade bread, pumpkin pie, beans, cabbage leaves stuffed with rice, dried
Oktoberfest.                                                                                                   fruit compote, walnuts and garlic. Each member of the family recites prayers to drive away any bad
1.       Cross-country overview of Christmas traditions (Bartosz Pustuł)                                       spirits.
The celebration of Christmas differs among countries in Europe. Every country or at least a group of           The Christmas Tree is usually bought on the 23rd of December and decorated with straw that symbol-
countries has its own Christmas traditions, customs. In each country different food is served on the           izes the straw in Bethlehem‘s stable. Some of the straw also goes under the white cloth on the
Christmas Eve, the Christmas Tree is decorated with local ornaments, every country has its own                 Christmas Table. The two main Christmas traditions in Bulgaria are singing carols by young men
Christmas carols. However more and more often those traditions are being forgotten and new ones                called Kolendari and Sooroovachka, which is a custom of patting the family with a stick by chil-
are borrowed from outside. This article presents the customs that are typical for certain regions and          dren for good luck and health. Kolendari usually receive sweets, cakes and other food and children
countries and are being preserved by local communities.                                                        who participate in Sooroovachka are given money. Another Bulgarian custom is that young, unmar-
                                                                                                               ried girls put a piece of bread from the Christmas table under their pillows in order to dream about
1.1. Armenia – Christmas celebrated three times!                                                               their future husband. The food from the Christmas dinner is traditionally left on the table until the
The time of celebrating Christmas by Armenians is a bit confusing. There are three dates on which              next morning.319
Christmas is celebrated, depending on the region where Armenians live. Those who have emigrated                1.4. Czech Republic – beware, death is coming...
celebrate on both 25th of December and 6th of January. In Armenia Christmas is celebrated on 6th of
January, due to the fact that the Armenians believe that Christ‘s birth should be celebrated on the            The Czech Christmas dinner consists of many dishes including fish soup, salads, vegetables, potatoes,
day of his baptism. What‘s even more interesting, as the Armenians use the old Julian Calendar,                eggs, and carp. The Czechs have several weird customs which, if not followed, may end tragically.
Christmas fall on the 19th of January. And on that date Christmas is celebrated by Armenians, who              There must be a even number of people sitting at the table. If anyone leaves the table before the
live in the Holy Land...                                                                                       dinner is finished or if a candle lit on the table goes out, it means that someone will die the following
                                                                                                               year. Therefore the Czechs always prepare everything before the meal start and always hold a spare
As far as the traditions are concerned, Armenians prepare themselves for Christmas with a fast,                box of matches under the table.
which consists of not eating meat one week before Christmas and not eating anything at all on the
day before Christmas. The fast ends on Christmas Eve, when traditional badarak is served. It con-              After the Christmas dinner carols are sung and people attend the Midnight Mess. Children collect the
sists of lamb and rice or Boulgeur Pilav and is served after the family returns from evening mess.             presents that are hidden under the Christmas tree. A traditional Czech customs says that if a branch
During the service men and women sit traditionally in separately. After the meal children sing carols          from cherry tree, cut before Christmas and put into water, blooms, a happy and wealthy year is
on the roofs of their houses. They hold handkerchiefs that the parents fill with presents that are             coming and the winter will be short.320
mainly raisins or fried wheat and money. The Christmas time in Armenia is a time of social visits and          1.5. Denmark – candles and joy
meeting with friends.317                                                                                       Similar to Austrian customs, the Danes prepare a wreath that holds four candles that are lit on Sun-
1.2. Austria – home of “Silent Night”                                                                          days prior to Christmas. Candles are really important on Danish Christmas and thousands of then are
As Austria is the motherland of great composers, the Christmas time is filled with music. The most             lit by people in the streets, in their houses, everywhere. Christmas in Denmark is celebrated with
famous concerts take place in Salzburg, where Salzburger Adventsingen takes place every year,                  great joy and happiness. In every company a Christmas Dinner is prepared for employers on Friday
followed by candlelight concerts in the Hohensalzburg Fortress and others like Mozarteum and                   prior to Christmas.
concerts in churches and Market squares. In Vienna City Hall a concert of choirs from all over the             The Danish tradition say that families should always be ready to welcome a stranger on Christmas
world takes place. Austria is also the birthplace of the world‘s best known Christmas carol – ―Silent          Eve. If a visitor is not welcomed and well fed in a Danish household, he may take the spirit of Yule
night‖, which is celebrated in Oberndorf in the Silent Night Memorial Chapel.

317                                                                                                            320                                                  
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
(Christmas) away from the family.                                                                               in English has a more complex structure. First, people dressed in animal costumes, in order to remind
The traditional Danish Christmas Dish is a rice pudding with a white almond hidden in it. Who finds             of kalikantzari – gnomes, go around villages singing and collect sweets and food. At the end of this
the almond receives the award – marzipan cake. Other Christmas dishes include goose stuffed with                festival the priest blesses the water by throwing a cross into it, so that the bad spirits are sacred.
apples and prunes and served with red cabbage, caramel-browned potatoes, and lingonberry sauce.                 Young men from the village dive for the cross, although the temperature is rather low (6 th of Janu-
For dessert we should expect ris ala mande – rice mixed with sugar, vanilla, almonds and cream.                 ary). The one who finds the cross in the freezing water has a good luck and health in the following
Denmark is the only country that I know of, in which national flags are used to decorate the Christ-
mas tree...321                                                                                                  1.10. Hungary – complex chair
1.6. Finland – home of Santa.                                                                                   The celebration of Christmas in Hungary begins well sooner than month before the Christmas
It is not true that Santa Claus lives in the North Pole! Why should he live so far away from the rein-          Eve. Streets and shops are decorated with different ornaments. A holiday typical for Hungary is Luca
deers and elves that live in Finland? Every child in Finland knows that Joulupukki – Santa Claus lives          Napja or Luca‘s Day that falls on 13th of December. The Day is celebrated in villages by making a
in Lapland, at Korvatunturi. Over one million letters addressed Santa Claus, Finland, Lapland comes             chair out of 7 different types of wood, in order to use it during the Christmas Eve Mass. The supersti-
to Finland every year. On Christmas Eve Joulupukki arrives in every Finnish house, asks if there are            tion says that a person standing on that chair can see all the witches in the church.
any good children and gives presents.                                                                           As far as food is concerned, Hungarian dishes are mainly made of fish, with special fish soup as a
Not only Santa but also animals are very important on Christmas time. Each family leaves some of                traditional Christmas Dish. Desserts are also crucial for Christmas, with cookies, cakes and Beiglie –
the food outside, so that the animals can enjoy it and bring luck and happiness for the family.322              soft, rolled cookie with walnuts and poppyseeds.
1.7. France – no reindeers please, just donkeys!                                                                1.11. Iceland – 13 Santas...
What is characteristic about French Christmas, is that the French do not consider Christmas Tree as a           Christmas or Yule is a period of spending time with family, decorating your house and the Christmas
part of the celebration. Instead they use a Yule-log shaped cake called the Buche de Noel. As far as            tree. The celebrations begin on 23rd of December with Thorlakur's Day named for Thorlakur
the Christmas Eve is concerned, the French eat a very late Christmas Dinner called la reveillon,                Thorhallsson, former Bishop of Skálholt - Iceland's major native Saint. The main custom, which began
which takes place after the Midnight Mass. The Christmas food differs among French regions. As a                in the Fjords and now is popular in whole Iceland, is the partaking of a simple meal of skate. Two
curiosity, we may say that in Provence, thirteen desserts are served to symbolize Jesus and twelve              other things that happen on Torlaksmessa are decorating the Christmas tree and shopping – the
apostles.                                                                                                       shops are open until midnight.
French Santa Claus is called Pere Noel and is quite different from what we are used to. He wears                The celebrations on Christmas Eve start at 6 p.m. which is associated with the fact that in the past,
wooden shoes, carries gifts in a basket and uses a donkey to travel. Adults usually exchange gifts              days officially started on 6 p.m. As far as food is concerned, the traditional Icelandic dishes are called
after New Years Eve.                                                                                            Hangikjot, Rjupa and Laufabraud. According to old Icelandic tradition, there are thirteen Santas,
                                                                                                                who begin to visit homes on 12th of December. Each of them is responsible for different Christmas
The Christmas time is also filled with songs called pastorales and carols. Families prepare Nativity            event and to name only three of them: Door Slammer, Candle Beggar and Meet Hooker it is obvious
scenes, which present scenes from lives of saints or santons.323                                                what events we are talking about...
1.8. Germany – Tannenbaum’s homeland                                                                            As far as Christmas Eve or Ađfangadagur is concerned, it is a day of exchanging gifts, which is
The preparation for Christmas in Germany begins on December 6, which is the St. Nicolas Day. Chil-              rather a new tradition, that began in 19th century. What is interesting is that TV programme stops at
dren prepare shoes or boots in which delicious holiday edibles are placed if the child was good and             5 p.m. and restarts at 10 p.m. so the families spend the Evening singing carols. On Jóladagur –
twigs if the child didn‘t behave.                                                                               Christmas Day, Icelandic families meet together and enjoy themselves with cookies, cakes and other
The Christmas tree is an important part of Christmas. Germany is the homeland of Tannenbaum                     traditional desserts.326
(Christmas tree) and therefore it‘s truly important for the family to prepare a splendid tree. Children         1.12. The Netherlands – Santa comes from Spain!
are not allowed to see the tree, decorated with with apples, candy, nuts, cookies, cars, trains, angels,        In the Netherlands Santa‘s or Sinterklass’es birthday are celebrated, not as in whole Europe on the
tinsel, family treasures and candles or lights, before the Christmas Eve.                                       6th of December, but on the 5th. What is even more interesting is that Santa, according to the Dutch,
After the Christmas meal, that consist of local dishes with obligatory white sausage, suckling pig and          doesn‘t come from Finland or North Pole, but from... Spain.
macaroni salad, children receive presents that are hidden under the tree. On the first Day of Christ-           The Dutch celebrate Christmas with midwinter-hoornblazen – a concert of tubes that has a well
mas dishes such as Christstollen which consists of long loaves of bread bursting with nuts, raisins,            over 4000 years of tradition.
citron and dried fruit, Lebkuchen, marzipan, and Dresden Stollen which is a moist, heavy bread
filled with fruit, are served.324                                                                               As far as Christmas food is concerned, the Dutch eat kerststol, which is a almond and fruit-paste
                                                                                                                bread and krentebolletjes.327
1.9. Greece – pig slaughter and freezing divers.
There are two specific Christmas customs in Greece – chirosfagia and theophania. The first one‘s
translation into English is... pig slaughter. This custom comes from ancient times and bases on tradi-          1.13. Scotland – short tradition of Christmas.
tional way of slaughtering a pig, which is then eaten during Christmas time. Theophania or Epiphany             In Scotland Christmas was not celebrated until 1960 and by that time December 25 was just a normal

322                                                                                                             325                                                   
323                                                                                                             326                                                    
324                                                                                                             327                                                   
                                                                                    Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
working day. This results from Cromwell times and lasted for over 400 years. As Christmas means                      vest their crop from spaghetti trees.332 April Fool‘s Day is a ―for-fun-only‖ holiday, nobody is expected
Christ‘s Mass it was simply banned in Scotland over the past 4 centuries.                                            to buy gifts, nobody gets off work or school, however on that day one must be vigilant all the time as
The Christmas Eve is called Sowans Nicht in many regions of Scotland and the name comes from a                       he can be the next April Fool. The customs involves the superstition that the pranking period expires
traditional Scottish dish. Christmas celebration in Scotland are rather modest and all the joy and                   at noon on the 1st April (2nd in Scotland) and any jokes attempted after that time will call bad luck
happiness is left for the celebration of New Year which is called Hogmanay.328                                       down onto the head of the perpetrator. Additionally, those who fail to respond with good humor to
                                                                                                                     tricks played upon them are said to attract bad luck to themselves. Not all superstitions about the day
1.14. Spain                                                                                                          are negative, some people believe that boy fooled by a pretty girl is said to be fated to end up mar-
Hogueras is a custom typical for some Spanish regions during Christmas. People in Grenada and                        ried to her or at least enjoy a good friendship with her and other way around.333
Jaen gather around bonfires and jump over the fire to send away any bad spirits. Another important                   Although the origin of this custom is not certain and there are many speculations about where the
tradition in Spain is to build a belen or nacimiento – nativity scenes are built in almost every                     practice of hoaxing people started, one thing is sure – the tradition of April Fool‘s Day was born in
household. On Christmas Eve or Noche Buena a Rooster Mass is held, of which the most famous                          Europe and later it was spread around countries such as United States of America or Mexico by Euro-
one takes place at Montserrat monastery, where a boy choir performs Christmas songs.                                 pean immigrants.
For Christmas Eve the Spaniards usually serve a turkey staffed with truffles. After the meal whole                   The most spread theory of the origin of April Fool‘s Day goes back to King Charles IX of France who
family gathers around the Christmas tree and sings Christmas carols or villancios until dawn. Gifts                  adopted the Gregorian Calendar introduced in 1562 by Pope Gregory. Before the reform of calendar,
are given on 6th of December traditionally by the Three Kings, Melchior, Gaspar and Balthazar.329                    New Year‘s was celebrated on March 25th and celebrations lasted until April 1st. However, in spite of
1.15. Ukraine                                                                                                        the introduction of Gregorian Calendar which moved the celebration of New Year‘s on January 1 st
The central event of Christmas in Ukraine is the Christmas Eve Supper or Sviata Vechera. Before                      there were some people who still celebrated it on April 1st. It was due the fact that communication
the meal a bunch of wheat decorated with ribbons and other ornaments is brought to the house by                      traveled slowly in those days and lot of people were informed of the change several years later.
the head of the family. The wheat or didukh represents the whole family and its ancestors and is                     There were also individuals who simply refused to acknowledge the change. All those people were
carried throughout the house three times and left in the dinning room. The supper itself consists of                 called April Fools by general populace and were subject to jokes and pranks. To this end, French
twelve traditional dishes, that represent twelve cycles of the moon and each of them presents the                    peasants would unexpectedly drop in on neighbors on that day in effort to confuse them into thinking
most valuable products of the field and garden. In order to express respect for the animals, no meat                 they were receiving a New Year‘s call.334
or milk is served during Christmas. On the Christmas table you can always find a loaf of bread with a                The fact that in some countries today April Fool‘s Day is called Prima Aprilis indicates that the roots of
candle in it. This in Ukraine is called kolach and reminds that Christ was the Bread of Life.330                     this tradition may go back further in the time than mid 16th century. That is why another tale links the
1.16. Wales – carol contest.                                                                                         origin of April Fool‘s Day with ancient Rome where the Christians in the Roman Empire ridiculed
                                                                                                                     Pagans who would not let go of their beliefs and observed the first day of spring celebrating festival
The Welch Christmas is a time filled with music. Every village or town has its own choir that sings
                                                                                                                     Hilaria, which commemorates the resurrection of the god Attis.335
carols often accompanied by harp. Every year a national competition of eisteddfodde (caroling)
takes place and a set of carol-words is sent to each village. Villagers compose their own music and                  This harassment evolved, over time into a tradition of prank-playing on the first day of April. The
the best one becomes a part of Christmas repertory in whole Wales. This tradition is almost 1000                     tradition eventually spread to England and Scotland in the eighteen century. It was later introduced
years old.                                                                                                           to American colonies of both English and French. April Fool‘s Day developed into an international fest
                                                                                                                     with different nationalities specializing in their own brand humor at the expense of their families and
Another Welch tradition, called Grey-Mary or Mari Lwyd includes dressing in grey-white clothes and
carrying a horse-skull by a group of singers. If anyone gets ―bitten‖ by the horse, he/she has to pay a
fine or at least invite the singers for a cake or other sweets.                                                      In France, the April Fool‘s Day is known as ―Poisson d‘Avril‖ or ―April Fish‖. An April fish is a young
                                                                                                                     fish and so, one that is easily caught. French children fool friends by taping a paper fish to the vic-
As far as Christmas service is concerned, it lasts from 4 a.m. until dawn. Durind the service or Pyl-
                                                                                                                     tim‘s back and, when the ―fool‖ discovers this trick, yelling: ―Poisson d‘Arvil!‖. Traditionally French
gain traditional dishes are served and carols are sung individually or in choirs.331
                                                                                                                     pranks must include a fish and it is not unusual for friends to be presented with dainty presents
2.       Selection of European customs and holidays                                                                  fashioned in the form of small fish on All Fool‘s Day. The nickname of ―Poisson d‘Avril‖ is said to have
2.1. April Fool’s Day – Prima Aprilis (Anna Radecka)                                                                 been acquired by Napoleon Bonaparte when he married Marie-Louise of Austria on April 1st 1810.336
April Fool‘s Day, which is also called Prima Aprilis, is the first day of April and traditionally it is a day        In Scotland, where the tradition is celebrated over two days, April Fool‘s Day is also known as ―April
to play jokes on each others and on unsuspecting people. On that day almost all pranks are allowed                   Gowk‖, ―Gowkie Day‖ or ―Hunt the Gowk‖. ―Gowk‖ is Scottish word for ―cuckoo‖ and thus, a ―gowk‖ is
and the victims of jokes have no right to get offended but they are in force to take revenge for it on               the synonym of any practical joke. The second day of the Scottish April Fool‘s custom is devoted
next April Fool‖s. Pranks performed on this special day range from the simple such as saying ―Your                   exclusively to pranks involving the ―second‖ region of the body. That is way the day is commonly
shoe‘s untied‖ or setting one‘s alarm clock back an hour to the much more elaborated. Whatever the                   known as ―Taily Day‖ and the origin of the ever-popular ―Kick Me‖ sign is likely derived from this
prank is, the trickster usually ends it by yelling to his victim ―April Fool‖ or ―Prima Aprilis‖. These days         custom. The same ―ritual‖ takes place in Orkney Isles (located just off the Scottish Mainland), where
even news media gets involved into fooling around people. For instance, a British short film once                    this area‘s ―Tailing Day‖ is also celebrated on April 2nd.337
shown on April Fool‘s Day was a detailed documentary about ―spaghetti farmers‖ and how they har-
328                                                                                                                  334                                                       
329                                                                                                                  335                                                                    http://www.gothamgazette/citizen/april02/april-fool.shtml
330                                                                                                                  336                                                        
331                                                                                                                  337                                                          
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
In England tricks and pranks are only permissible during the morning hours of All Fool‘s Day and the              young people involved in the fight grabbed the tomatoes from the stall and started throwing them at
victim of jokes is known as a ―noodle‖. In the Cronwall region of England, an April Fool is also known            each other until the police ended "the battle", and those responsible for the riot paid for the dam-
as a ―gowk‖ ( as in Scotland) or a ―guckaw‖. If a person is successful in playing a trick on another,             ages.341 This tomato fight was not forgotten and the next year on the same Wednesday of August
then it is usual for the perpetrator to yell: ― Fool, fool, the guckaw!‖. On the other hand, if the victim        people, especially teenagers, gathered at the square, this time with their own tomatoes. This how
fails to fall for the trick thr retort is: ―The gowk and the titlene sit on a tree…you are a gowk as well         another tomato battle started. Despite official prohibition announced by authorities, in the following
as me!‖ A ―titlene‖ is a hedge sparrow. In the County of Cheshire in England, an April Fool is an ―April          years people continued to celebrate ―day of tomatina‖ as it was called by locals. In 1950 Buńol Town
Gawby‖, sometimes referred to as a ―gobby‖ or ―gob‖, while in Devon, unlike the reminder of Eng-                  Hall allowed the festival but next year it was again banned. Due to its popularity, the festival was
land, jokes are allowed in the afternoon and the custom of pinning on inscription such as ―Please kick            eventually allowed. Moreover, since then, the celebration had more and more participants every year
me‖ to the coat-tails of an unsuspecting victim is popular (again, much as it is in Scotland). In Devon,          and started to be better known outside Buñol. Taking part in that tomato craziness was equal to
however, this is known as ―Tail-Pipe Day‖. In the Lake District area of England, an April Fool is an              having great fun so each festival attracted more and more people. In 1957 when the authorities
―April Noddy‖ and at the end of the day, it is customary to chant: ―April Noddy‘s past and                        forbade once again the ―tomatina‖, some of its dedicated fans decided to celebrate ―the tomato‘s
gone…You‘re the fool an‘I‘m none‖.338                                                                             funeral‖. A coffin with big tomato inside was carried by some young people, followed by a band
In Portugal, April Fool‘s Day is celebrated on the Sunday and Monday prior to the Lenten Season,                  playing funeral marches.342 After numerous demands, in 1959 the Town Hall allowed again the cele-
with the traditional trick being to throw flour at one‘s friends.                                                 bration of the ―tomatina‖ but under certain restrictions. From that moment, the festival was institu-
                                                                                                                  tionalised, it was also changed a little bit. Now the final ―batalla‖ is preceded by various cultural
So, no matter where one happens to be in the Europe on April 1, should not be surprised if someone                events and parades.The changes concern also the starting of the celebration and nowadays the
will try to play tricks on him.                                                                                   week-long festival starts with so called ―soap pole‖. Some volunteers climb a tall pole with soap to
2.2. La Tomatina.                                                                                                 obtain the trophy at the top: a ham. In 1975 ― Los Clavarios de San Luis Bertran‖ took on responsibil-
Imagine the situation that people throw ripe tomatoes at each others in one big tomato war, and                   ity of organisation of ‗La Tomatina‖ and from that moment it provided tomatoes. After 1980 the Town
what is more, they really enjoy it. This is in short, definition of La Tomatina, custom which tradition           Hall was in charge of organising and promoting the festival, so every year the quantity of tons of
lasts more than fifty years. The tomato war takes place each year on the last Wednesday of August in              tomatoes rise as well as the number of participants from all over the world.343 It should be underline,
the little town of Buńol (30 miles west of Valencia in eastern Spain) between 11:00 a.m. until 1:00               that despite great number of participants, the festival each year is a success without any incidents.
p.m.. The "batalla" takes place during a week-long celebration of the festival for the town's patron,              So far hasn‘t been observed any similar custom around Europe, probably that is why each year,
filled with on-going festivities and with even greater anticipation for the monstrous tomato battle that          thousands of tourists come to Bunol – little Spanish town, to take part in that ―tomato craziness‖ and
serves as the culmination of the week's events. . For a week leading up to the battle, the 20,000-                to have fun. Maybe La Tomatina‘s tradition some day spread over other European countries. The
strong town of Buñol, is filled with parades, fireworks, food and street parties. The night before La             Tomato‘s holiday has its dedicated fans especially among youths from Germany and England.
Tomatina, the narrow streets beneath the town's imposing medieval bell tower are filled with toma-                2.3. ”San Fermin – Running of the Bulls”
toes, in a much more palatable form than they will be the next day foreshadowing. On the early
Wednesday morning shopkeepers and other people who owns apartments or businesses along the                        San Fermin festival takes place in Pamplona, Navarra, since the XII century. Originally it was a reli-
Plaza and its neighborhood cover windows and doors in preparation for ―la batalla‖. 339 At 11:00 a.m.             gious celebration in honour of San Fermin, a bishop from Pamplona killed in France, where he spent
tomato fight starts .This is a war were there are expected to be no winners, but where all are sup-               the last years of his life spreading the Christian religion. The festival of San Fermin is the best known
posed to have fun. The participants grab red ripe tomatoes and throw them at anyone that runs,                    event taking place in Pamplona.344 TV-spectators in all the world are surprised, impressed or shocked
moves, stays still, bends down, or turns around. There are certain rules which have to be obeyed:                 each year when they watch the spectacle of bulls running. The festival in honour of San Fermín
only tomatoes can be used, and they should be crushed before being thrown so they can‘t hurt any-                 celebrated in Pamplona -which is known also as Running of the Bulls or los Sanfermines- is a mixture
body. Bottles, water bombs and the like are totally forbidden. After the tomato war, people loaded                of the official and the local, the religious and the entertaining, for local people and outsiders, the old
with good humor, positive energy gather in the town square for the food and wine festivities.                     and the new. And all of this packed into one long week starting with a bang at midday on the sixth
                                                                                                                  of July and ending on at midnight on the fourteenth.345 On the eve of the July 6th, so called
There are several stories trying to explain the origin of this popular festival. According to some histo-         vispera, (San Fermin eve mass), locals and tourists gather with anticipation at midnight for the
rians, its origin goes back to a "practical joke" that some friends wanted to play on a man who was               fireworks show that begins the festival. On July 7th, is the day of the amazing race. It is the running
crossing the town square singing and playing a musical instrument but, seemingly, he was doing it so              of the bulls, known as encierro. The runners (called peńas) who gather at the bottom of Santo
badly that some of the people around decided to take some tomatoes from a fruit and vegetables                    Domingo - the starting line - are crowded together and they sing a homily to the image of San Fermin
stall and throw them at him. Everybody else joined in to end up in a tomato battle. 340 However, the              which is placed in a niche on the wall decorated with the scarves of the peńas. The song goes like
most reliable and historical version claims that everything takes its beginning in 1945. The town                 this: "A San Fermín pedimos, por ser nuestro patrón, nos guíe en el encierro dándonos su bendición"
square (where the "tomatina" is traditionally held nowadays) was crowded with young people to                     ("We ask San Fermín, as our Patron, to guide us through the Bull Run and give us his blessing.") A
witness a "Gigantes y Cabezudos" parade (giant carnival figures with a grotesque head). Some of                   rocket goes off at the moment the bulls are let out into the street. A second rocket goes off to let
them decided to join the authority committee and music band leading the parade and to do so they                  everyone know that all the bulls are now in the street. 346            After that signal hundreds of men
pushed the ones who were wearing the giant disguises. One of the participants fell down and when                  dressed in red and white suit, sprint through the city streets to the Plaza de Toros, the bullring lo-
he stood up he started hitting everyone around so everybody ended up in a fight.
Fate or chance, there was a vegetable stall nearby with open crates showing the goods for sale. The               341
338                                                                                                               344                                                           
339                                                                                                               345                                                          
340                                                                                                               346                                      
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
cated at the end of town. The length of the run is some 800 meters and there is no need to sign up                 from the XII century on.352
anywhere to take part; the willing person just enters into the run and chooses the street where he                 2.4. St. Patrick’s Day – March 17. (Mateusz Homa)
will run and tries to do best as he can. Then that evening the most important bullfights of the season
are battled with the best toreros. Those outside the ring parade the streets with large bullheads and              It is astonishing that St. Patrick‘s Day, which is most commonly associated with Ireland, was officially
party deep into the night.347                                                                                      celebrated on the Emerald Island no sooner than in 1996. It is even more so, as we unravel the fact
                                                                                                                   that festivals, feasts and a range of various activities held abroad prior to that year were overwhelm-
One of the most characteristic aspects of San Fermin festival of Pamplona is the San Fermin white                  ingly more impressive and famous than those moderate ones organised in Ireland. This idiosyncratic
suit. Unfortunately its origin is         not very clear. According to a theory (there are many more),             difference prompted the Irish Government to establish on this day a national festival in Dublin, as a
some of the first runners of the encierro at the beginning of the 20th century, were bakers (depend-               means of promoting the country, attracting tourists and drawing more attention to ―the Celtic Tiger‖.
ing of the person who tells the story they were painters, construction workers, butchers or anyone                 Moreover, it gave the Irish an unique opportunity to express their pride of their heritage and descent
who uses a white suit at work…). The rest of the public just imitated them. Some other theory, this                all over the world. Initially, the festival was held in only on 17 March, however in the latter years it
one much more possible, says that back in the 20s, some of the peńas (runners) decided to wear in                  evolved to a four-day event and the word ―day‖ was omitted from the official name ―St. Patrick‘s
a different way in order to distinguish from the rest of the people at the bullfights. A curious detail, is        Festival‖. The event has also grown in terms of both the preparation stage and attendance – the
the fact that there are no pictures showing people running in white suit, before the 30s. Even some                former expanding from 5 to 18 months, the latter rising from 430,000 to 1.2 million people.353
of the official San Fermin posters, did not show anyone in white suit and with the red handkerchief
tied around the neck, before that decade. So, it seems quite possible, that the origin of the white                As far as the origin of the day is concerned, it has its roots in the life of one of the most widely rec-
and red San Fermin suit, was just the wish of some penhas to distinguish. In fact, not all of them                 ognised figures in Christianity – St. Patrick. He is believed to have been born in Roman Britain, most
started to wear just red handkerchief and belt, but also blue and green ones.348                                   likely Wales, near the end of the fourth century. Although his father was a Christian deacon, there is
                                                                                                                   no evidence that young Patrick was a particularly pious and religious person. At the age of sixteen, he
The festival in honour of San Fermin , according to historians takes its roots in the XII century. It was          was abducted by a group of Irish marauders that raided his family‘s estate. He was subsequently
launched to commemorate San Fermin just after his death in the French city of Amiens. The festivi-                 transported to Ireland and kept in captivity for the following six years, during which he worked as a
ties in those times were very different. The festival was a deep religious event, with masses and                  shepherd and, as a result of his solitude, he turned to his religion and became a devout Christian. It
processions in honour of the saint. Basically, it was a way of remembering the suffering and torment               was also then that he envisaged for the first time the prospect of converting the Irish to Christian-
of San Fermin and his execution in the French city. Until 1591 the festival used to take place in Octo-            ity.354 It is said that after this period he received in a dream a command urging him to escape and
ber, the month in which, according to records of Amiens Town Council, the bishop of Pamplona                       leave the island. In order to do so, St. Patrick undertook a 200 miles‘ journey on foot from County
entered the French city in order to evangelise and spread Christianity.349 Over the following years the            Mayo (where he was apparently held) to the Irish coast. Afterwards he travelled to England and
festival become more popular, amusing and entertaining, and less religious. The festival moved to the              France, where he settled for twenty years in Marmoutier Abbey as a monk and experienced his sec-
streets of Pamplona, where people used to drink, dance and have fun, forgetting about their ordinary               ond revelation prompting him to return to Ireland as a missionary. On completing his studies at in the
lives for a few days. Due to the influence that autumn weather had on a festival, in 1591 the religious            Abbey in 432, he was summoned to Rome by Pope Celestine, who bequeathed on him the honour of
authorities accepted to move the start of the festivities to the 7th of July, but actually the religious           Bishop and St. Patrick left for Ireland soon after.355
events in honor of the saint used to take place the day before. Those event were called the "Vis-
peras" (San Fermin eve mass), religious celebrations that used to take place the evening of July 6th.              He arrived in Ireland along with 24 of his followers in the winter of 432 and proceeded to acquaint
In 1910 the Town Council decided to move the beginning of the festival to the previous days with a                 the Irish with Christianity. He assumed that the best solution was to combine and interleave native
general pealing of bells all over the city.350 The beginning of the festival as we nowadays know it, was           beliefs with his lessons rather than to try to eradicate them, therefore he set about using bonfires,
born in 1939, when the city authorities decided to officially announce the beginning of the festival,              hitherto employed to honour pagan gods, to celebrate Easter, and brought together the sun, a pow-
with the launch of a rocket from the Town Hall square. This event is known as the "Chupinazo",                     erful Irish symbol, and the Christian cross to create what is now called a Celtic cross. All those meas-
the explosion of the rocket that nowadays is the start of the nine days-long festival. The chupinazo as            ures were aimed at making the new religion more attainable to inhabitants of Ireland. There is also
the important event we nowadays know, it's a creation of Joaquintxo Illundain, Pamplona Town                       an oft-quoted example of making ingenious use of the shamrock (Irish Gaelic for the three-leafed
councilor in 1939. He suggested that the new chupinazo could be launched by the Mayor of the city.                 clover) to explain a theological dispute. St. Patrick attempted at confronting and converting one of
According to Ilundain, that was a way of giving official character to this event.351                               the most powerful rulers in Ireland, King of Laoghaire. While being in the presence of the king, he
                                                                                                                   plucked a three-leafed shamrock and explained showing the plant, how the Father, the Son and the
Back to the religious roots of the tradition and the Saint -San Fermin, all what is known about San                Holy Spirit could exist as three separate parts of the same entity. More presently, it is often dipped in
Fermin, comes from many legends and theories about him that are more or less believable. One of                    whisky and thrown over the left shoulder to distract any potential misfortunes. The ritual is referred
these theories says that San Fermin was the son of the roman governor of Pamplona, someone called                  to as ―The Drowning of the Shamrock‖. The lore has it besides that St. Patrick delivered a sermon on
Firmus, but there are some historians who have serious doubts about this fact. According to some of                a hill that drove all snakes away from the island, which, since no snakes were ever indigenous to
this legends, San Fermin, became catholic due to San Saturnino. Baptised by this Saint, he became                  Ireland, symbolises conversion of the pagans. He is believed to have died between 463 and 493 on
clergyman and finally the first bishop of Pamplona. He left Pamplona to evangelise and spread Chris-               March 17 and this day has been commemorated ever since.356
tianity in France. There, he found death on September 25th in the French city of Amiens, where he
was beheaded. After his death, his body remained in that city. Later on some parts of his body,                    For years, the day was regarded as a solely religious holiday, especially as it falls during Christian
considered religious relics, have been taken back to Pamplona and the town started to honor him                    Lent. The Irish would attend church services in the morning and celebrate in the afternoon. St. Pat-

347                                                                                                                352                                                
348                                                                                                                353                                                                            
349                                                                                                                354                                                   
350                                                                                                                355                                                 
351                                                                                                                356                                                
                                                                                                       Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
rick‘s Day enjoyed a suspension of Lenten obligations and people were allowed to dance, drink and                                and merriment. It is also on this day that windows in shops are decorated for the first time.361
feast – including the traditional bacon and cabbage. It is significant that it was in New York City that                         It is customary that at dawn of December 13 the eldest daughter (called ―Lussibrud‖, or Lucy Bride)
the very first parade took place on March 17. In 1762 a group of Irish soldiers serving in the British                           in each family dresses in a white robe with a red sash and wears a wreath with four candles on her
army marched through the city to demonstrate attachment to their roots. 357 In the course of the                                 head. Then she carries coffee, a tray of saffron buns and gingerbread cakes to her parents‘ room and
following years patriotic feelings of the Irish thrived, only to be massively superseded by that of                              wakes them up. Her siblings will follow, dressed in a similar fashion.362 It is also common for hotels to
fellow compatriots arriving in the US after 1845 due to the Great Potato Famine in their homeland.                               arrange for a white-robed girl to serve breakfast to guests. Throughout Swedish towns and villages a
Outnumbered by the Protestant majority, undereducated, despised for religious beliefs and bizarre                                selected young woman, dressed in a white gown, a red sash and a wreath with burning candles goes
accent, the immigrants were ostracised from the society and soon realised the dire need to make                                  at dawn from door to door so as to pay visit to each family, bring cakes and return by break of day.
their presence felt. Consequently they began to exploit their political power stemming from relatively                           This custom is thought to have originated in some of the better-off farming districts and still persists
large numbers as an important swing vote. Parades on St. Patrick‘s Day were used as a means of                                   with candles replaced rather by electric lights. Nowadays the Lucia is joined by a pack of ―stjärngos-
showing their strength and a must-go for every political candidate, which was most accurately re-                                sar‖, i. e. ―starboys‖ wearing tall, pointed hats. They are believed to represent the young men that at
flected in President Truman‘s appearance in 1948.358                                                                             one time would go from door to door frightening people, singing and begging for money.363
Oddly enough, until the 1970s pubs in Ireland were shut on this day, which was naturally a conse-                                2.6. Guy Fawkes Day – “Remember, remember the 5th of November”
quence of its being a religious occasion. As the event became distinctively secular in terms of celebra-
tion, new customs were introduced. Those include brewing specially for this holiday the famous                                   The death of Queen Elisabeth I in 1603 sparked substantial hopes among English Catholics of a more
―green beer‖ and enjoying it during all-night sit-ins in local pubs. It was in fact the credit of the Irish                      tolerant state and a less hostile attitude towards them than those that they had had to experience
communities spread all around the globe that St. Patrick‘s day, held already in distinctively remote                             during her reign. Unfortunately, oppressive laws seemed to persist under James I, which resulted in a
parts of the world such as Japan, Russia and Singapore, was reinvented in Ireland in the form of the                             number of plots to overthrow the sovereign. The most notable one was set up in May 1604, as a
aforementioned festival. Multi-day celebrations include parades, concerts, outdoor theatre perform-                              group consisting of Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Thomas Wintour and Guy Fawkes
ances and fireworks shows.                                                                                                       hatched ―the gunpowder plot‖. Their aim was to blow up the House of Lords during the State Open-
                                                                                                                                 ing with the intention to assassinate the King, the Prince of Wales as well as the noblemen that op-
A part and parcel of the Dublin festival is the Skyfest, which is a breathtaking fireworks experience                            pressed Catholics. Despite the fact that the plot was masterminded by Robert Catesby, it is Guy
held on the city‘s quays. Also particularly worth mentioning are the banks of the River Liffey, where                            Fawkes who epitomises those passages of history.364
thousands of individual performers, street theatres etc. gather to celebrate during the festival‘s pe-
riod. On the days preceding March 17, a series of concerts under the title ―The Music Village‖ gives                             The initial focal point of the plan was to dig a tunnel under the House of Lords, but as the works
testimony of traditional and contemporary Irish music. However the most spectacular part is obvi-                                proved slow and ineffective for the men unacquainted with physical labour, it was abandoned. With a
ously the parade on the very day, which lures the Irish and tourists with a vast range of pageants                               stroke of sheer luck, the conspirators managed to hire in March 1605 a cellar under Parliament and to
and tremendous marching bands. The event culminates in ―Ceili Mor‖, that is a wild party and, at the                             store there 36 barrels filled with gunpowder (apparently purchased from Government supplies) under
same time, the largest outdoor occasion of Irish dances that continues into the night.359                                        piles of firewood and iron bars. On 26 October the now famous anonymous letter was delivered to
                                                                                                                                 William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, urging him not to attend the State Opening on November 5. It is
2.5. St. Lucia Day – December 13                                                                                                 nowadays explained that one or more of the participators started having second thoughts regarding
The particular reason why a story of a saint of Italian descent received such an enormous response in                            the plot and the prospect of wounded and killed innocent human beings became unbearable.365 Nev-
the Nordic countries remains quite veiled in mystery. Nonetheless, this holiday has been enjoying a                              ertheless, the ring met on November 3 and agreed that Guy Fawkes would be the one to ignite the
revival of its popularity since the 1920s, when a Stockholm newspaper introduced a more modern                                   fuse. In turn Fawkes, oblivious of potential danger conceded after little hesitation. It is worth men-
perception of it by organising a competition for the Lucia of Sweden. Ever since the winner has trav-                            tioning that the rest promptly arranged for a retreat for outside the capital, which in effect raises
elled to Syracuse and attended the annual Lucia-carnevale there. According to the Julian calendar,                               further suspicions of Fawkes being set up and used as a scapegoat in what seemed as an already
the original feast day fell on the winter solstice.360                                                                           thwarted case.366
St. Lucia was born in the third century AD in Syracuse on the island of Sicily to a wealthy family. She                          Early in the morning of November 5, a group led by Sir Thomas Knyvett, a Westminster magistrate,
is said to have provided Christians hiding in catacombs with food. In order to light the way in dark                             inspected the cellar and discovered the plot. Guy Fawkes was apprehended and moved immediately
passages she wore a wreath with candles on her head. When her mother intended to marry her to a                                  to the Tower and kept there until January 27, when he and his fellow conspirators were tried for high
pagan, St. Lucia made vows of chastity and declined to comply with the request. She was afterwards                               treason, sentenced to death, and executed on 31 January 1606. Among those executed was Henry
denounced by the would-be groom to the Roman authorities as a Christian and promptly sentenced                                   Garnett, the superior of the English Jesuits, who had been aware of the conspiracy. It triggered
to be moved to a brothel. As a result of divine intervention the order could not be executed and, after                          further hostility against Catholics and restrictions on their rights.367
several unsuccessful attempts (including burning at stake) she was pierced to death with a sword in                              Already on November 5, the profoundly moved Londoners, having learnt little more than that the
304, thus becoming one of the martyrs. In all probability, the story proliferated in Sweden due to                               King had been saved, gathered and celebrated the occasion with bonfires. Soon, people began plac-
missionary activities. It was combined with beliefs that St. Lucia, being a queen of light, led the way                          ing effigies made of old clothes and (more recently) old newspapers onto bonfires, and fireworks
for the sun on the shortest of days. People used to light ―St. Lucia Fires‖ and throw incense into
them. Moreover, St. Lucia Day in Sweden marks the beginning of Christmas celebrations, feasting
357                                                                                                                              364    
358                                                                                                                              365                                                                            
359                                                                                                                              366                                                             
360                                                                                                                              367                                                                                    
                                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
were added to the celebrations. Effigies of Guy Fawkes, and sometimes those of the Pope, appeared                    witnessed a rapid surge in the number of leisure opportunities, mostly due to a revival of the tradition
on the stakes. Still today, some throw dummies of both Guy Fawkes and the Pope on the bonfire                        of fairs and similar occasions in Germany. Moreover, breweries began to take an active part in the
(and even resort to cast in a contemporary politician or two), although the act is regarded rather as a              whole funfair and introduced their own tents and halls, the number of which amounts at present to
somewhat odd and eccentric tradition, rather than an expression of hostility towards the Pope.368                    14. The present custom of main proprietors‘ parade on Saturday morning evokes the fact that the
Preparations for Bonfire Night celebrations include making a dummy of Guy Fawkes, which is called                    Munich of the end of the 19th century was significantly smaller than that of the present times and one
"the Guy". Some children even keep up an old tradition of walking in the streets, occasionally from                  had to leave the city and go out on the fields to attend it.374
door to door, carrying "the Guy" they have just made, and beg passersby for "a penny for the Guy."                   It was the mayor Thomas Wimmer who started the well-known tradition of tapping the first beer keg.
The kids use the money to buy fireworks for the evening festivities. In some regions children cover                  It is habitual that the mayor taps it on the first Wie‘sn – Saturday at exactly 12 p.m. and shouts
their faces with black ointment, as Guy Fawkes might have done on the crucial day. On the night                      ―O‘zapft is‘!‖ to mark the beginning of the celebration (which means that the keg has been tapped).
itself, Guy is placed on top of the bonfire, which is then set alight; and fireworks displays fill the sky.          That custom has repeatedly occurred since it was started in the 1950s.375
The bonfires are moreover used to cook potatoes and heat up soup for the people that attend the                      It is perfectly conceivable that during this remarkable period of the Oktoberfest‘s history some un-
celebration.369                                                                                                      pleasant disturbances must have happened. And indeed, the event has been cancelled 24 times so
The extent of the celebrations and the size of the bonfire varies from one community to another. The                 far, for a variety of reasons, including war, cholera and inflation. The year 1980 was of a notable
town of Lewes, in the South East of England, is famous for its Bonfire Night festivities and consis-                 gravity to the Oktoberfest, since 13 attendees were killed and further 200 seriously injured as a result
tently lures thousands of people each year to participate.                                                           of a bomb attack at the main entrance.
Britain is not the only place in the world that witnesses Bonfire Night celebrations. The tradition went             As for some curiosities, the amount of beer drunk has grown from 1.5 million litres in 1950 to a
across the oceans and established itself in the British colonies during the centuries. It was actively               staggering figure of 6.6 million litres in 2000. In the following two years the festival recorded how-
celebrated in New England as "Pope Day" as late as the 18th century. Today, November 5th bonfires                    ever a self-explanatory slump in the consumption.
still light up in such remote places like Newfoundland in Canada, and some areas in New Zealand. An                  The aforementioned parade on Saturday evening involves a showcase of breweries wagons‘ being
Act of Parliament was passed appointing 5 November each year as a day of thanksgiving for 'the                       pulled by remarkable draught horses to the ―Wies‘n‖. In the evenings there are concerts of costumed
joyful day of deliverance'. This Act remained in force until 1859 although it is still traditional in Britain        folk bands and performers representing different regions and ―Bundesländer‖. This is supplemented
to have bonfires and set off fireworks on or around 5 November.                                                      by an additional parade the following morning, in which take part brass bands and folk groups in
Another tradition is for the Yeoman of the Guard to conduct a ceremonial search of the Houses of                     traditional costumes.376
Parliament an hour before the State Opening.370
2.7. Oktoberfest                                                                                                     Mateusz Kokosiński, Maciej Nowicki, Agnieszka Owsiak [editor]
Thought to be one of the largest festivals in the world, the Oktoberfest reported in 2001 an out-
standing turnout of some 6 million visitors from all around the world. The event has always had an                                                             EUROPEAN ALCOHOLS
enormous impact on the local economy – a sum of approximately 955 million euros was spent during
the 16 days of the most recent one. Out of the total, food, drinks and entertainment accounted for                   INTRODUCTION
one half of expenditures, hotel accommodation, public transport and restaurants for the other.371                    Alcohol, a substance most of us so willingly enjoy in one form or another, is the quintessence of
It was on October 12, 1810 that the first festival was held in the suburban area of the Bavarian city                many of the world's most celebrated beverages, from wine to pure medical spirit. The word dates
of Munich. Its aim was to celebrate the royal wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig (later to become King                   from early Arabic civilisation and derives from al-koh'l, a very fine metallic powder, often antimony,
Ludwig I) with Princess Therese of Saxony – Hildburghausen. The inhabitants of Munich were invited                   used as a cosmetic, which later became to mean anything highly refined and distilled. The Arabic
to participate in a series of attractions on fields outside the city‘s gates, which were soon named                  association was probably reinforced by Islamic alchemists, who used forms of distillation to obtain
―Theresienwiese‖ (Theresa‘s fields). Ever since the locals have referred to it in a simple, abbreviated              perfumes from flowers and perhaps made alcohol for medical purposes377.
form of ―Wie‘sn‖.372 It was followed five days later by a horse race organised by the National Guard,                Alcohol production today reached such diversity that it is impossible to enumerate all the different
which was attended by the Royal Family. It was meant to be an opportunity for the Bavarian folk to                   varieties of beverages. Generally, there are three main kinds of drinks, according to the contents of
partake in the celebrations. The decision was taken to repeat the thoroughly successful event the                    pure alcohol. Since patterns of consumption also vary greatly from country to country, one can dis-
following year to honour the first anniversary and it was then accompanied by the first Agricultural                 tinguish three main drinking cultures, each discussed in the respective chapters.
Show, which, contrary to the horse race, has been held to this day every three years on the southern                 The first group of beverages – beers – is characterized by low contents of alcohol, varying from 5 to
part of the ―Wie‘sn‖.373                                                                                             13%. They are mainly made from grain (usually barley), hops, malt and water which are fermented
For many years, the public was presented with a relatively sparse range of amusements and pastimes                   during the process of brewing. Beers are mostly consumed in central Europe. The second group,
during the event. For instance, small beer stands were replaced by large tents no sooner than in                     wines, is very much diversified, but still there are some common features. Regardless of their type
1896 and there was only one carousel and a couple of swings until the 1870s. However the 1870s                       and origin, all wines are produced from grapes, yeast and sugar in the process of fermentation, just
                                                                                                                     like beers. The contents of pure alcohol ranges from 7 to around 35%. The keenest wine drinkers are
                                                                                                                     the nations of southern Europe. The third main group comprises the strongest alcoholic beverages,
370                                                                                                                  374                                                                    
371                                                                                                                  375                  
372                                                                                                                  376                                                        
373                                                                                                                  377                                                         
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
containing over 30% of pure alcohol, generally known as spirits. The main difference between these                                                                          PRODUCTION
and the two previous groups is that after fermenatation they undergo the process of distillation and              In natural-wine making the grapes are gathered when fully ripe and then the juice is being extracted
that is why the share of alcohol is that high. Spirits are traditionally drank in the coldest parts of the        (the must). The traditional method, treading, has now been almost entirely replaced by machines.
continent – Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.                                                                       For red wines, the must is fermented with the skins and pips, from which it gets the coulour, while
Many drinks cannot be classified as neither of the three mentioned types and therefore we decided to              for white wines pure must is used. In rosé wines, the skins are removed after fermentation has be-
create an additional category – other beverages – where we can find liqueurs or aperitifs.                        gun, thus producing a light pink color. Fermentation starts when wine yeasts existing on the skins of
We based our thesis mainly on Internet sources due to the lack of up-to-date books covering the                   ripe grapes come in contact with the must. It may take from a few days to several weeks, depending
topic. However, we used some dictionaries, encyclopaedias, tourist guides and statistical yearbooks               on the temperature and the amount of yeast. When the new wine has become still and fairly clear, it
for pictures, figures and other additional information.                                                           is poured into large casks, where it undergoes a complicated series of chemical processes thanks to
                                                                                                                  which it obtains its characteristic bouquet. The wine is periodically clarified and then poured into
Because of the limited length of the essay, we deliberately skipped Poland and decided to concen-                 smaller casks. After a few months, or for certain wines several years, the wine is ready for bottling.
trate on the other European countries instead.                                                                    During storing and maturation the wine should never come into contact with air so as not to become
All tables mentioned in the text are put together into the appendix.                                              'oxidised' — flat, stale and prematurely aged. Some wines are even kept beneath a 'blanket' of inert
                                                            WINE                                                  gas such as nitrogen. The process of ageing in wine is not fully understood, but it is thought that it
                                                                                                                  involves a very slow process of oxidation. The wine mixes with the small amount of air in the wine, or
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation of juice of grape, which is the fruit of the vine,
                                                                                                                  allowed in by the cork. What‘s interesting, the French scientists claim that a moderate consumption of
but the name is also applied to alcoholic beverages made from plants other than the grape, e.g.
                                                                                                                  red wine might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease380.
elderberry wine or dandelion wine.
                                                                                                                  Wines can be distinguished by colour (red, white, or rosé depending on the grape used and the
Wine is practically as old as the known history. Its exact origins are unknown, but it was already
                                                                                                                  amount of time the skins have been left to ferment in the juice), flavour, bouquet (or aroma), and
mentioned in early Egyptian inscriptions and in the literature of many lands. There are claims of
                                                                                                                  alcoholic content. Wine is also divided into three main types: still or natural, fortified, and sparkling, it
ancient wine makers in the Far East, and there is certainly evidence that the Egyptians were making
                                                                                                                  can also be classified as dry or sweet. In a natural wine all the alcohol present has been produced by
wine more than a thousand years BC. Noah's activities on Mount Ararat in Armenia are sometimes
                                                                                                                  fermentation. Fortified wines, such as sherry, port, Madeira, and Malaga, are wines to which brandy
cited as the first example of intentional wine making378.
                                                                                                                  or other spirits have been added. These wines contain a higher alcohol content (from 16% to 35%)
Wine came to Europe at around 1000 BC, when it arrived to the two countries that now account for                  than the still wines (from 7% to 15%). Sparkling wines, of which champagne is the finest example,
nearly half the world's total wine production: France and Italy. The wine produced at this time                   are produced by the process of secondary fermentation in the bottle.
needed the addition of some preservative or flavouring to keep it drinkable until the next vintage. The
Greeks kept their wine in open amphorae and then the Romans develop wine containers resembling
the barrels and bottles of today and so made great strides towards the development of wines that                  France is the biggest grapes and wine producer in the world. It has developed superfine natural still
were made to last and mature. Apart from Italy, most vineyards were developed in the region of                    wines and the finest sparkling wine: champagne. Most of its regions are ideally suited for the produc-
Marseilles (from AD 400) and along the valleys of the major rivers: Rhône, the Loire, and the German              tion of fine wine, but this is not the whole story. There are many other parts of the world at least as
Rhine and Moselle. By the change of the first Millennium, wine was being made all over Europe,                    capable of making truly great wine because of their geographical and meteorological situation. The
largely by the Church, which had practically a monopoly on vine-growing and wine making skills. In                French, however, have a very long tradition of making and drinking wine, which is the reason for
the Middle Ages there were even vineyards all over southern England, but the dissolution of monaste-              their being an absolute leader.
ries under Henry VIII brought a four-hundred-year pause in the cultivation of the vine in Britain.379             As wine is produced practically all over the country, there are thousands of varieties in all types,
                                              WINE DRINKING COUNTRIES                                             colours and strengts and numerous classifications. Therefore it is virtually impossible to do an ex-
                                                                                                                  hausting elaboration on the topic, hence we present only a brief outline of the most important facts
The traditionally wine drinking countries are those of Southern Europe - France, Italy, Portugal,
                                                                                                                  and curiosities.
Spain and Greece. Luxembourg is a particular case since the consumption of alcohol per capita is the
highest in Europe and both wine and beer have a substantial share there, so it is the only country we             Classifications
decided to treat as both wine and beer drinking. Even though the wine consumption in Northern                     The French have always been pioneers in wine legislation with their famous vin de pays ‘laws and
European countries has greatly increased in the last few years it is still not the dominant beverage              ‗Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée‘ (AOC) laws, which have been developed throughout this century and
there. On the other hand, the consumption of wine in the wine drinking countries has been decreas-                on which so many other systems of designating ‗quality wines‘ have been based throughout the
ing in proportion to the other alcohols. Suprisingly, the leading European wine drinkers are the Lux-             world. According to the French system, the quality of a wine is determined most importantly by the
embourgers closely followed by the French, the Portuguese and the Italian (cf. Table W1). The con-                exact spot where it was produced. For a wine to qualify as Appellation ‗X‘ Contrólée it must have
sumption of wine in comparison to the other alcoholic beverages is highest in Italy (78% of the total             been made from very carefully controlled quantities of prescribed grape varieties grown in a vineyard
alcohol consumption), France (64%) and Portugal (62%) (Table 1). As for the production of wine                    in the exactly delimited area of ‗X‘ and made to certain specifications. This is the highest official
Italy is the leader, followed by France, Spain and Germany, which is, however, a traditionally beer               national quality designation in France and about fifteen per cent of all wine produced in France each
drinking country (cf. Table W2).                                                                                  year is AOC. To qualify as a vin de pays a wine must also come from a specified area, must usually
                                                                                                                  reach a certain alcoholic strength, be made according to certain specifications and be approved by a

379                                                                                                               380
      Le Petit Larousse Compact, Paris 1996, p. 140                                                           
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
tasting panel, but it‘s quality is inferior to that of AOC. Apart from the ‗Appelation d‘Origine Contrôleé‘        ous wines, one from the north, the other from the south, the two zones into which the Valley is
and ‗vin de pays‘ (regional wines), there are also ‗vins de table‘ (table wines) and other, unclassified,          climatologically and viticulturally split. As this region is close to Provence, it is hardly surprising that a
of lower quality381.                                                                                               high proportion of rosés are made, the local grape Grenache being particularly suitable for pink
The main wine regions                                                                                              wines. However, this is not a great white wine country.
First of all, it is impossible to talk about ‗French wines‘ as one single category since every region has          The Alsatians have devoloped a unique, regional style combining the flowery, fragrant grape varieties
its own specialities. One could probably say that French wines are more diversified than all the other             of Germany with the techniques of French wine-makers. All wines are fermented out to dryness in
wines produced in Europe. What is interesting, most regions have their characteristic shapes of bot-               such a way as to minimise the use of chemicals and maximise the amount of fruit, with the aim of
tles so it is easy to distinguish wines without even reading the labels.                                           encapsulating in the bottle the exact flavour of the grapes that went into it. In Alsace the entire
                                                                                                                   region has just one AOC, ‗Alsace‘ and to this is added on the label the name of the grape, which is a
Bordeaux                                                                                                           very simple classification as compared to the other regions. In Alsace the Riesling is recognised as
Bordeaux is said to produce the most interesting wines, and more of them than anywhere else in the                 king, as it is on the other side of the Rhine in Germany, and this produces the noblest and longest-
world. Red bordeaux has been always regarded as one of the world‘s top red wines and it is now                     living wines of Alsace. Another famous grape variety in Alsace is Pinot Gris or Tokay d'Alsace384. This
shipped to wine connaisseurs all over the world. Bordeaux also produces huge quantities of lesser                  has no connection with the famous Hungarian Tokay and here makes rich, dry wines. Almost all
white wine; about one-third of all wine produced each vintage is white. Some of this is still fairly               Alsace wine is bottled in Alsace itself, a policy which usually achieves its desired effect of keeping a
mediocre quality, but recently it has been rising thanks to the government policy to enhance the                   certain quality and freshness in the wines. Alsatian wines are usually sold in tall, elegant green flute
quality of all the grapes grown throughout the country. Very little rosé is produced in the Bordeaux               bottles, and that most labels seem to carry an unusual mixture of German and French words on
region.                                                                                                            them.
Many of Bordeaux – and not only – carry the name of a 'château' (castle) on the label. This does not               Apart from the aforementioned traditional wine producing regions, a number of good French wines
necessarily serve as evidence that there is indeed a great building of that name, which is surrounded              are made in areas not considered as such385.
by the vineyard from which the wine came. There is an official register of all these so-called petits              Midi, Provence and Corsica
châteaux (small castles) which are nothing more than a building in which the wine is made. Bordeux‘s
most prestigious red wine area is the Médoc. The dominant grape varieties grown in Bordeaux are                    More than one in every two bottles of wine produced in France comes from the grapes grown on
Cabernet Sauvignon (more than half of vines planted), Merlot and also some local varieties 382.                    Mediterranean coast in the south and west of France. This is called the Midi or the Languedoc-
                                                                                                                   Roussillon region. Most of the wine produced here is red, much of it deprived of character (rather
Burgundy                                                                                                           table wine that sophisticated fine wine varieties), most of it produced by growers who seem to be
The Burgundians have always disputed with the Bordelais' claim to make the finest red wines in the                 more interested in quantity than quality. However, thanks to a more far-sighted approach now being
world, but in the domain of dry white wines they are surely the best. The topflight wines are pro-                 adopted by some producers there, the proportion of ‗nobler‘ varieties grown (Merlot, Cabernet, Gre-
duced only in very limited quantities and sold only at very high prices. Burgundy is not one homoge-               nache) is increasing and some wines of character are now coming out of the Languedoc-Roussillon386.
neous region, but the name is used to include Chablis in the north, the prestigious heartland of the               Corsica falls within the scope of the French wine authorities but experts claim they have been too
Côte d'Or (Golden Slope, where Burgundy‘s greates wines are made), the Côte Chalonnaise, the                       liberal in their awards of AOCs to the island. This may be true, but the Corsican reds and rosés with
Mâconnais and Beaujolais in the south. The classic red burgundy grape is Pinot Noir and the classic                an intensive bouquet are still of quite good quality.
white grape is Chardonnay. The Burgundian town of Beaune organises an annual charity wine auc-
tion.                                                                                                              Jura
In southern Burgundy is situated the Beaujolais region. Here the most popular grapes are Beaujolais,               The Jura is a strangely isolated region in the hills between Burgundy and the Swiss border. It is the
Beaujolais-Villages and Beaujolais cru. Beaujolais is a wine to be drunk young. This principle is con-             homeland of the nineteenth-century scientist Louis Pasteur, who did so much work in the study of the
cluded every year with the appearance of beaujolais nouveau every November 15th. These wines are                   ageing process in wine. A whole range of wines — red, white, rosé, still, sparkling — are made in the
produced and bottled very quickly – just after the vintage – and should be drunk as soon as possible.              Jura, but its two specialities are vin jaune (yellow wine) and vin de paille (straw wine). Vin jaune is
                                                                                                                   the nearest France comes to producing sherry and is kept for many years in wood, where it gets
Loire                                                                                                              stronger and darker. Vin de paille is made by drying out grapes on straw mats (hence the name) and
The Loire region produces a great variety of wines: you can actually find any wine you like along the              is therefore similar to the vino passito made in Italy. To complete the list of the Jura's curiosities,
banks of the Loire: red, white or rosé; still or sparkling; bone dry to extremely sweet. There are                 there is also vin gris (actually pale rosé rather than grey) and Vin Fou (crazy), a brand of fizzy wine.
several distinct winemaking areas as one travels up the river. The most popular white vines are                    Savoie
Muscadet, Chenin and Gros Plant383. Moving upriver there is Anjou, most famous for its rosé and
Cabernet Sauvignon for red wines. In the Loire valley are also made sparkling wines (by the méthode                The Savoy region lies to the south of Geneva and thus the wines made here are similar to those
champenoise and often good value alternatives to champagne).                                                       made over the border in Switzerland. The best wines of this region are light, dry whites, some of
                                                                                                                   them sparkling387.
Rhône and Alsace
                                                                                                                                                               Champagne and sparkling wines
The Rhône region is now well past its heyday, when Hermitage was thought of as the king of wines
and Châteauneuf-du-Pape was a prerequisite for any wine list. These two are the region's most fam-                 There are several ways of putting bubbles into wine to make it sparkling, each of which has a differ-

381                                                                                                                385
      Francja. Przewodnik ‗Wiedzy i Zycia‘, Warszawa, 1996, p. 22                                                        Labrune G., La Geographie de la France, Nathan, 1994, p. 90
382                                                                                                                386
383                                                                                                                387                                                        
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
ent effect on the resulting wine, which of course largely depends on the initial quality of the still wine.        Chardonnay. A blanc de noirs (‗purely red‘) is made only from Pinot. The average champagne is made
There seem to be no wines more suitable for being turned into sparkling wines than the dry wines of                from a mixture of white and black grapes. The two most important champagne towns are Reims and
the Champagne region. Those in other parts of the world who aspire to making a really great spar-                  Epernay. The grandes marques are those houses which have developed an international reputation
kling wine always try to use a base wine as similar as possible to the still wines of Champagne. In                for their wines, but in addition to them, an increasing number of growers make their own cham-
Europe and most of the rest of the world (though not the USA) only the sparkling wine made in the                  pagne, particularly popular with Parisians, who can combine a weekend expedition with a cham-
Champagne region in north-eastern France by the famous méthode champenoise may be called                           pagne-buying trip. Other sparkling wines are produced in the Loire, Burgundy and Rhone regions391.
champagne. Everything else is just sparkling wine.                                                                 ITALY
                                               Production of champagne                                             Italy, the world‘s second biggest wine manufacturer (after France) and even the leader in some
Any method of making wine sparkle involves getting carbon dioxide into the wine in order to form                   years, is still struggling to establish itself as an important force in the world of top-quality wine. De-
bubbles, as small and as long-lasting as possible, when the wine is eventually opened. The méthode                 spite the large quantities produced, many Italian wines are of mediocre quality and are not recog-
champenoise is the classic way of achieving this. A careful blend of still base wines is made and,                 nized internationally. On the other hand, since Italy produces mainly cheaper, popular wines of all
together with specially cultivated yeasts and a little bit of sugar, is put into champagne bottles and             kinds it is still a major supplier of most northern European countries as well as the United States,
sealed with a crown cork. Bottles are left to rest in cool, dark cellars, usually for up to three years.           where it is the most important source of imported wine.
The sugar and the yeast react together to provoke a second fermentation, increasing the alcoholic                  Vineyards are the most characteristic part of the Italian landscape and the vine can be cultivated right
content of the wine and giving off as a by-product carbon dioxide. The sediment that forms as a                    from the top to the tip of the ‗boot‘. Even Sicily, which can be fiercely hot in summer, is an important
result of this alcoholic fermentation eventually falls to the bottom of the bottle but has to be removed           producer of grapes for wine.
if we are to recive a crystal clear wine. The development of a technique for removing this sediment,
together with the advent of strong bottles and champagne corks, was the most important part of the                 In terms of total quantities produced, Sicily and the hot southern tip of the country, Apulia, are major
evolution of champagne. The bottles are moved gently from their horizontal position and put into                   producers of wine in Italy and much of this is shipped north by tankers so as to add strength and
pupitres, racks with holes for bottle necks which are gradually tilted so as to take the bottles from              colour either for the blenders of northern still and sparkling wines or the makers of vermouth.
nearly horizontal to nearly vertical upside-down. Each time this is done, skilled workers called remu-             The best wines of Italy – those which have won international repute – come from the Alpine foothills
ers (shakers) also give them a little twist and the sediment moves from the underside of the bottle to             of Piedmont in the north-west and from the hills of Tuscany. The Veneto region with Verona in the
the cork. The bottles are then moved, still upside-down and vertical, to baths of a special solution               north also produces worldwide recognized winesand the wines of the far north-east, Friuli-Venezia-
which freezes the neck of the bottle and the sediment inside so that when the crown cork is popped                 Giulia, are quickly making a name for themselves.
off, this is ejected as a frozen pellet, a process called dégorgement. The bottles are then filled with            The classification system – Denominazione d‘Origine Controllata (DOC) – is modelled on the French
wine mixed with a little bit of sugar (dosage) which determines the final sweetness of the cham-                   Appellation Contrôlée system. If a wine is described as DOC it must come from the area specified and
pagne. The driest champagnes are usually called Brut, then comes Extra Dry, Sec, Demi Sec and Rich                 be made according to the laws for that particular DOC, usually based on tradition in consultation with
in ascending order of sweetness. After a few months' rest to ‗marry‘ the dosage and the wine, the                  the local producers. The Denominazione Controllata e Garantita is designed for the very best wines,
wine is ready for shipment and sale388.                                                                            such as Barolo, Barbareso, Brunello di Monatalcino, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Chianti
The second and most common method for making sparkling wine is called the tank method (bulk                        Classico392.
fermentation). Here, the second fermentation is carried out in huge tanks and not in individual bot-               The deep, dark wines of the Barolo region to the south of Turin, which usually age for ten years in
tles. After fermentation the sediment is filtered out and the wine bottled under pressure straight from            casks are quite heavy and woody. The other important red wine grape in Piedmont is the fruity Bar-
the tank. This is not allowed in France for any AOC sparkling wine (vin mousseux)389.                              bera, more of a picnic wine than a grand dinner wine. Of the white wines of the region, the sweet
The cheapest method of making sparkling wine is carbonation: simply injecting carbon dioxide into                  fizzy Asti Spumante is by far the best known, though this is rapidly being replaced by the rather less
the tanks holding the wine. This usually produces wines that have very large bubbles that cause a                  expensive Moscato Spumante.
great commotion when the bottle is opened, but don't last for very long in the glass. This method is               Further north and east is the Italian Tyrol, the Alto Adige, which, not surprisingly, has much in com-
used only for the cheapest wines390.                                                                               mon in winemaking terms with the Austrian Tyrol just across the border. The wine industry there is
The Champagne region                                                                                               centred on Bolzano or Bozen.
Champagne is recognised throughout the world as the ultimate in celebration drinks, ‗the king of                   In the centre of Italy is one of the oldest wine districts, Chianti country in Toscany. The law specifies
wines and the wine of kings‘. It is the only AOC wine in France that does not have to have ‗ Appella-              quite carefully what varieties and proportions of grapes may be used in Chianti. Chianti Classico
tion Contrólée‘ spelt out on the label. ‗Champagne‘ is enough.                                                     comes from the heart of the region and all wines so designated have to pass rigorous analysis and
The reason for the champagne‘s supremacy in the field of sparkling wine-making is the unique chalky                tasting tests. They can be spotted by their black cockerel seal. Chianti Putto has a cherub symbol.
subsoil of the region, whose composition was determined by a series of prehistoric earthquakes. The                Vinsanto, a white dessert wine, is a Tuscan speciality.
majority of grapes grown in the Champagne region are black rather than white, so the process of                    Just to the south of Tuscany is a region known particularly for its white wines, of all degrees of
pressing is an extremely critical one. It is vital to press the grapes so gently that none of the pigment          sweetness, Orvieto, while over on the Adriatic coast by Ancona Verdicchio in its special amphora-
from the black skins colours the juice, and the winemakers in Champagne take only the juice from                   shaped bottle is produced.
the first pressings. A blanc de blancs (‗purely white‘) champagne is one made only from white grapes,              In the southern part of the country enormous quantities of wine are produced, but there are very few

389                                                                                                                391                                             
390                                                                                                                392                                                              Rzym. Przewodnik ‗Wiedzy i Zycia‘, Warszawa, 1993, p. 306-307
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
internationally known names, usually quite rightly. Sicily‘s best-known wine today is probably Corvo di            most interesting whites come from the shores of the Lake Balaton, and are made from local grape
Salaparuta, both red and white versions being daringly high in alcohol. Sardinia is the home of many               varieties.
DOC, characteristically and traditionally fairly sweet.393                                                                                                          ROMANIA & BULGARIA
                                                                SPAIN                                              Romania is another Eastern European wine producer with interesting potential, particularly for whites.
Spain‘s major fine wine-producing region is Rioja and Navarre, wild hilly country in the north of Spain.           The Romanian vineyards are still in private hands and a wide variety of grapes is grown, including
Most of the Rioja wines are produced by peasant farmers, who sell their crop to bigger concerns that               Italian Riesling, Furmint, Muscat, Pinot Gris and Sauvignon as well as Kadarka and classic French red
actually make the wine. This means that a wide variety of different grapes can go into each blend,                 grape varieties. Wine is grown mainly in the southern parts of the country; one of the most popular
whose final taste is governed by the amount of time it spends in these American oak casks. Rioja‘s                 brands is the white Murfatlar. Bulgaria has also been experimenting, with marked success, with clas-
best wines are the more elegant reds. Another exciting area for good-quality Spanish wine is Pe-                   sic European grape varieties in its vineyards, which are almost as extensive as those of Hungary, but
nedes, in Catalonia, to the west of Barcelona. Here there are a number of firms making wines for                   only two-thirds of those of Romania. Some remarkable Cabernets and Chardonnays have been pro-
export, and this is also the centre of Spain‘s enormous sparkling wine industry. Another small region              duced by the state-run Vinprom organisation. In addition to these are many Balkan grape varieties,
producing rather weak wines but with an interesting bouquet is Priorato. A curiosity from Spain also               such as Hungary‘s red Kadarka, Bulgaria‘s own red Mavrud and Melnik. Even though Bulgaria is a
comes from the northwest: the Vega Sicilia brand has developed such a demand that its sales are                    relative new-comer as a wine producer, it is already one of the world‘s biggest wine exporters, chiefly
now rationed beacuse of its long production process: this very concentrated red must be kept for ten               to Germany and Russia. Most Bulgarian wines are marketed under the common name of ‗Sophia‘,
years in wooden casks394.                                                                                          however, they come from different regions and are made of all kinds of grapes398.
GREECE                                                                                                             NON WINE DRINKING COUNTRIES
Even though Greece was the first European country where wine appeared and from which Dionysus,                     GERMANY
the later Bacchic god of wine, comes, its wines are known rather locally than worldwide. The Greeks                German wine makers have traditionally been numbered among the world's great classic wine provid-
have quite specific and not very refined taste for wine. The most famous wines are retsina, the spe-               ers. Their main specialtiy are concentrated dessert wines usually made from the Riesling grape. All of
ciality of Attica (white and sometimes pink) and traditional specialities of Greece, such as the dark,             Germany's great wines are white - indeed only about ten percent of its vineyards are planted with red
sweetish red Mavrodaphne and the Muscat dessert wine of Samos. Much wine is produced on Greek                      wine varieties and these are made into wines that are usually consumed locally. Germany is too far
islands, most of it on Crete. The Greeks are now trying to adopt winemaking techniques from Bor-                   north to be capable of producing really good red wine. The most difficult and most prized achieve-
deaux and rioja with not bad results395.                                                                           ment for a German wine-grower is to harvest grapes that are high in sugar. Rarely German wines are
                                                             PORTUGAL                                              more than ten percent alcohol.
The Portuguese wines are well regarded by the connaisseurs, but rather underappreciated by impor-                  Classification
ters from other European countries and thus not very well knowned or popular internationally. The                  The most basic level of German wine is Tafelwein or table wine. This constitutes less than ten percent
Portuguese themselves are some of the world‘s most enthusiastic wine drinkers. Portugal‘s most                     of a typical German vintage, however, and the most commonly exported grade of wine is the next
popular wine is madura (mature) wine, remarkable for the concentration of flavour, not to be con-                  one, Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete or, rather more comfortably for non-German speakers,
fused with the equally popular Madeira, a quite strong, red wine, taking its name from the Atlantic                'QbA'. This is wine coming from a particular specified wine region, of which Germany has eleven.
island where it is produced. Continental Portugal has seven wine regions authorised by government,                 Germany's top-quality wines bear the name of Qualitätswein mit Pradikat (QmP). The most expensive
the most prestigious ones being Dão (red wine) and Minho (white wine produced of half-ripe                         wines in Germany are Trockenbeerebauslesen which are so extremely costly that they are often put
grapes)396.                                                                                                        only into half-bottles (0.375 litre). Eiswein is another rarity, wine that is made from grapes picked
                                                          LUXEMBOURG                                               when the juice is frozen and concentrated. All the criteria a wine has to meet so as to get classified
Luxembourg‘s small wine industry is centred on the town of Remich, just a few miles over the Ger-                  as one kind or another are described in the German Wine Law399.
man border (the Saar tributary of the Moselle), and indeed there is a similarity between the wines                 German wine is sold in tall, tapered bottles, whose colour depends on the region: green for the wines
produced in these two wine areas. Luxembourg wine is white, light and usually characterised by a                   of the Mosel, brown for wines coming from the Rhine regions and blue for some kinds of Liebfrau-
high degree of acidity. It should usually be drunk as young as possible.                                           milch, the most common form of Rhine wine, which may be any QbA wine with the characteristics of
                                                             HUNGARY                                               one made from Riesling, Müller-Thurgay or Silvaner.
Hungary‘s reputation as a wine producer was made by just one wine, the ‗essence of life‘, Tokay,                   German wine regions
which is still made today under the control of Hungary‘s State Wine system. It is produced around the              The Moselle Valley is probably Germany‘s most famous wine-making region. Ninety percent of all the
town of Tokaj, in the far northeast of the country. The typical varieties of Tokaj are Aszu, the very              vines planted are Riesling and the south-facing position close to the river encourages a high level of
sweet, dessert wine, sold in strange half-litre flasks, Tokaj Essencia, the ‗essence‘ of this unique, rich,        ripeness in the grapes as well as the Edelfaule or 'noble rot' so important to produce the greatest
spicy wine and Tokaj Szamorodni Dry which has no sweetness added and tastes more like sherry                       dessert wines. In the region is located the State research station at Geisenheim, as well as the Klos-
than a table wine397. Hungary‘s best-known red wines are Egri Bikaver (Bull‘s Blood) and Kadarka. Its              ter Eberbach, a beautiful 12th century monastery which now serves as headquarters for the German
                                                                                                                   State Wine Foundation, a site for prestigious wine auctions as well as the government-run German
                                                                                                                   Wine Academy.
      Hiszpania. Przewodnik ‗Wiedzy i Zycia‘, Warszawa 1996, p. 401.
396                                                                                                                398                                                  Gogoliński W., Leksykon alkoholi, Warszawa 1998.
397                                                                                                                399                                                       
                                                                                Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
The Rheinhessen is a large region that rarely produces wines of great distinction but is a valuable                                                                         BEER
source of medium dry, easy-to-drink wines of the Liebfraumilch type. A wide variety of different                Just like wine, beer is at least as old as recorded history and has always been the drink of the com-
grapes is planted here but most of them are of little longevity.                                                mon people. It was known as long ago as in the times of ancient Babylon and Egypt and is even
Further to the south, just across the Rhine from Alsace, is the long strip of vineyards that constitute         mentioned in Babylonian texts403. At first brewed chiefly at home and in monasteries, in late medieval
the Baden region. These vigorous wines, made chiefly from a wide range of grape varieties, are                  times it became a commercial product and is now manufactured by large-scale in almost every indu-
becoming increasingly better known outside Germany.                                                             strialized country, especially Germany, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, and the United
In the east around Würzburg, Franken (or Franconia) has built up such a following for its lively wines,         States.
sometimes called Steinwein, that they are now relatively expensive and tend to be consumed locally.                                                            INGREDIENTS & BREWING
The green flask-shaped Bocksbeutel is used for Franken wines.                                                   Beer is made by brewing and fermenting cereals, especially malted barley, usually with the addition
Other German wine regions whose wines are not often seen abroad are the red wine Ahr region to                  of hops as a flavoring agent which gives beer its characteristic bitterness. A mash, prepared from
the north of the Moselle Valley; the fruity wine region of Mittelrhein just across Rhine from the Ahr;          crushed malt (usually barley), water, and, often, cereal adjuncts such as rice and corn, is heated and
the smallest wine region, Hessische Bergstrasse; and Württemberg.                                               rotated in the mash tun to dissolve the solids and permit the malt enzymes to convert starch into
                                                      SWITZERLAND                                               sugar. The solution, called wort, is poured into a copper vessel, where it is boiled with the hops, then
                                                                                                                run off for cooling and settling. After cooling, it is transferred to fermenting vessels where yeast is
Swiss wines are expensive, usually white and dry, not rarely blended with cheaper imported wines                added, converting sugar into alcohol404.
and rather deprived of national character. Most Swiss wines are produced in the regions around Lake
Geneva (Vaud) and in the upper Rhône valley (Valais). The most popular red is Dôle, a light red                 Barley, the preffered grain throughout history, is the basis of all true beers, and its exclusive use is
similar to Beaujolais, from the Valais. Southern Swiss wines are very similar to those of northern              favoured not only by tradition but also because it provides a fuller flavour and cleaner taste than any
Italy400.                                                                                                       other grain. In Germany, a Bavarian law dating back to 1516 demanded that beer for the domestic
                                                                                                                market should be made exclusively from barley. Similar laws existed in Switzerland and Norway. In
                                                          AUSTRIA                                               Finland and the Isle of Man barley was also the only grain permitted, but sugars could be added. The
The Austian wines are very much like German ones, perhaps only a bit spicier. The Austrians them-               use of sugar as a fermentable material was legalised in Britain in 1847, after pressure from growers
selves prefer the sweet reds of the Tyrol, but surprisingly, it is the whites that are of better quality        and traders in the Caribbean colonies405.
and more known abroad. Austria‘s native grape is the Grüner Veltliner, other local specialities include         The first evidence that hops were used in the production of beer comes from Babylon, where the
the heavy wines of Gumpoldskirchen, made from the strangely named Rotgipfler and Zierfandler                    captive Jews drank it as a precaution against leprosy, though it is not clear whether the beverage was
grapes and Heurigen that are so popular in special cafés of the same name in the Viennese suburbs.              a beer or not. In Europe, the hops were first used in the ninth century in Bohemia, Bavaria and
Heurigen serve wine of the most recent vintage by the jug, and there are still a few vineyards left in          northern Germany. Germans may have brought the hop from Picardy in France, and the Flemings
the hills of Kahlenberg401.                                                                                     took it to Britain in the sixteenth century. Its earlier European rivals were the juniper, still used by
                                                   UNITED KINGDOM                                               home-brewers in Finland and Norway, angelica and coriander406.
Interest in English wine increased dramatically during and immediately after two exceptionally hot                                                                     KINDS OF BEER
summers – those of 1975 and 1976, when thanks to exceptional weather it was easier to produce                   Just as wines may be categorised as red, rosé and white; dry and sweet; sparkling and still; and then
ripe grapes and a vintage of half a million bottles in 1976 was recorded402.                                    according to region; so can be beers divide into different styles. Most modern beers are typically
Even though the climate is not too favourable for vine growing, there is an enormous amount of                  lighter than ancient and contain about 3% to 6% alcohol. There are several names for beers depend-
enthusiasm for reviving the wine industry. There are now well over two hundred vineyards in produc-             ing on the fermentation method, during which some species of yeast rise to the top of the brew and
tion in the British Isles, mainly in southern England, but also in southern Wales and Ireland. The              other sink to the bottom. Like red wines, beers made by top fermentation are very full in flavour
average vineyards is only about three acres and vine cultivation tends to be a weekend activity,                whereas beers made by bottom fermentation often have a lighter and more refreshing character, and
though some growers in Kent and Sussex are producing wine on commercial lines. English wines do                 are usually served chilled, like white wines.
not have any interesting taste or bouquet, but on the other hand, they are expensive as they are all            In the United Kingdom any light-coloured, top-fermenting beer is called ale, which was historically a
produced on a small scale and heavily taxed.                                                                    name for any beer made without hops. In Germany, light beers bear the name of lager – after the
                                                   THE FORMER USSR                                              German word meaning 'store', but in contrast to British ales they are mainly bottom-fermented and
Authorities in the former Soviet republics are keen to develop wine as a gentler alternative to vodka           stored for not less than four weeks, and ideally for much longer, so that they can mature very slowly.
among the society. This meant that they import huge quantities of wine from all over the world,                 If you add roasted malt to give flavour and colour to ale, you get Porter - a strong, dark beer. Stout,
wherever the price is right, and they have no spare wine for export. Besides, Russian wines would               which is darker and maltier than porter, has a stonger hop aroma and may attain an alcoholic content
probably not be very popular in the West, as – perhaps due to their fierce winters – Russians seem to           of 6% to 7%. Both of these are top-fermenting beers. Ice beer is a higher-alcohol beer produced by
like their wines strong and sweet. They are great consumers of sparkling wine, shampanskoe. Wine is             chilling below 0°C and filtering out the ice crystals that form.
manufactured in sothern parts of Russia (on the Black Sea), in the Ukraine (the Crimea), Armenia,               A beverage similar to beer but not always classified as one is cider, which is produced from fer-
Azerbaijan, Georgia and Moldova, whose wines are very much like the Rumanian ones.

400                                                                                                             404                                             Le Petit Larouss... op.cit., p. 140.
401                                                                                                             405
      Wieden. Przewodnik ‗Wiedzy i Zycia‘, Warszawa 1994, p. 278.                                           
402                                                                                                             406                                                         ibidem.
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
mented juice of apples. Selected apples are grated in a mill, and the juice is expressed, fermented              still used. The most famous local style of brewing is that of Cologne (Kolsch) and several others such
and filtered. The commercial product is usually pasteurized and blended with sugar, malic acid, or               as the Westphalian Altbier, Nürnberg‘s ‗copper‘ beer, and ‗smoked‘ beer of the Bavarian town of
tannin. Perry is a similar beverage made from pears. Cider is most popular in France, but also in the            Bamberg.
United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and Switzerland.                                                                 The majority of German beers are produced from barley but there is also an interesting version made
                                           BEER DRINKING COUNTRIES                                               of wheat known as Weizenbier. The result is a very light, sparkling summer brew which has been
The traditionally beer drinking countries are Austria, Czech Republic, Belgium, Denmark, Germany,                named ‗the Champagne of the Spree‘. Among the several breweries which specialise in this type of
Ireland, United Kingdom and Luxembourg. For all European countries the trend in beer consumption                 beer are Sanwald, in Stuttgart, and Weihenstephan, not far from Munich.410
was rising until mid 1970s and has since then been rather stable. According to recent data, Denmark              AUSTRIA
is the leading country as far as beer drinking is concerned, followed by Ireland, Germany, Austria and           Austrian beers are very similar to the German ones. The first modern Austrian lager was brewed at
Belgium (Table B1). The consumption of beer in comparison with the other alcoholic beverages is                  the Klein-Schwechat brewery in Vienna in 1841 which still functions as the part of th Österreichische
highest in Ireland (65% of total alcohol consumption), Denmark (59%) and Germany (57%) (Table                    Brau group, Austria's biggest brewers. There are also a couple of abbey breweries in Austria.
                                                                                                                 Despite the similarities to Germany, Austria also has some specialities such as Bock and Märzenbier,
As for the production of beer, Germany leads the way followed by the United Kingdom, Russia, Spain,              the name of which comes from the times when the last winter brew was held in March. The beer was
The Netherlands, Poland, France, Czech Republic and Belgium (see Table B3).It is evident that the                then lagered for six months and ceremonially enjoyed in September as at that time, it was impossible
leading consumers are also the biggest manufacturers, but there are a few exceptions such as Spain               to brew in the heat of the summer. The beginning of the traditional winter brewing season (in Octo-
and France, who are traditionally wine drinking countries.                                                       ber or November) and its end (March, April, May) is a good occasion for celebrations all over Austria
Brewing has greatest traditions in the Czech Republic, Germany and Belgium. In other countries it                and also in parts of Germany.411
was almost forgotten until the renaissance of interest in beer in the late 1970s, most dramatic in               THE BENELUX CONTRIES
Britain, where the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) brought about drastic changes in the policies of
large, powerful brewery companies407.                                                                            The beers of Benelux range from antique ‗Scotch‘ ales of great strength, and the specialities of Trap-
                                                                                                                 pist monks, to ‗wild‘ wheat beers and sharp summer brews fermented with black cherries. The main
Each country produces different kinds of beer, but some national brands are also renowned world-                 brands are Duvel, Stella Artois, Lamot, Jupiler and the excellent Cristal Alken412.
wide. We will now summarise the most typical.
                                                                                                                 Belgium specialises in top-fermenting beers, such as potent brews like Gouden Carolus, Bush Beer,
There is evidence that beer was known in Germany as early as in the Roman times (Tacitus noted                   cherry flavoured Krick and the very famous yeasty De Koninck beer of Antwerp. Even though Belgium
that the Germans drank beer). In the modern world, Germany alone has more breweries than any                     is quite a small country, the variety of its beers is surprising – actually, every province produces a few
other country in the world. There are nearly 1,725 breweries, of which almost 1,000 are located in               types. Besides, there are five monasteries which produce their own top-fermenting specialities, the
Bavaria, home of the Reinheitsgebot (Pure Beer Law) and of the world's largest hop-growing indus-                most notable being the Trappist abbey of Westmalle, in the north of Flanders. It is especially famous
try. There is no single dominant brewing city or region, and thus each one was able to retain its own            for its unusually pale Triple and Rodenbach, characterised by a sharp, fruity taste and a distinctive
tastes, traditions and local pride.                                                                              reddish colour. It is made by the blending of two top-fermented brews, one of which has been ma-
Germany's biggest brewing company is Schultheiss of Berlin and two other giants are the Dortmunder               tured for eighteen months in oak. In French -speaking Belgium, the monastery of Chimay is re-
Union Brewery (DUB), and the Munich Big Six (Löwenbräu, Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräu-                     nowned for its aromatic Capsule Bleue. Like Germany, Belgium also has a tradition of ‗white‘ wheat
haus, Paulaner-Thomas and Spatenbräu)408.                                                                        beers, low in alcohol, brewed to refresh in the summer.413
Although Berlin holds the largest brewery in the country, it is in Dortmund that most beer is being              THE NETHERLANDS
produced. The true Dortmunder is drier than a Munich made beer, and is pale in colour so it is often             The Netherlands is the home of Heineken, which took European beer to the United States. It is,
referred to as ―blonde‘. Moreover, if you come across a bottle labelled as ―Export‘ you can be sure it           nevertheless, regarded very much as a mass producer at home and also owns Amstel, which is the
was produced in Dortmund. It is caused by the fact that in the old days extensive sales elsewhere in             second most popular brand in Holland, followed by Grolsch, a substantial independent.
Germany were regarded as such. The DUB consists of breweries such as DAB, Thier, Hansa, Hitter
and Wenker.                                                                                                      The third Benelux country, tiny Luxembourg, has half a dozen breweries, among which the family
                                                                                                                 firm of Simon, in Wiltz, has the most interesting range of products.
Having said that, Germany‘s traditional brewing capital is still in Munich and it is there that Germany‘s
most typical beers - dark brown lager called dunkel and it‘s light counterpart called hell – are pro-            UNITED KINGDOM
duced. It is also in Bavaria that the world‘s strongest beer, Einbecker Doppelbock, is produced. The             The beer-drinkers of Britain and Ireland are unique in their tastes. British ale varies much more from
tradition began with the first ‗double‘ bock, produced under the name of Salvator by the monks of St             brewery to brewery than does any other category of beer elsewhere in the world. Although the 1960s
Paul, in Munich409.                                                                                              and 1970s saw a great growth in the popularity of ‗international‘ lager beers, most of them are
When talking about monks, Germany still has several active abbey breweries, especially in Bavaria,               brewed locally despite their Danish, German, Dutch and Canadian brand names. Because the brewers
where two of the most famous are Andechs and Mallersorf, where the brewmaster is a nun. There                    own more than eighty per cent of the pubs, they are in a position to determine what types of beer
are also one or two proud and independent towns where the traditional fermentation methods are
407                                                                                                              411                               
408                                                                                                              412                                       
409                                                                                                              413                                                ibidem.
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
are available. In the 1970s ―keg beers‘ produced on a mass scale and of low quality gained a sub-                 single-cell yeast used by lager-brewers the world over is still known as Saccharomyces Carlsbergenis.
stantial sale and thus the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) was launched among drinkers who pre-                     Thanks to the 1970 merger with Tuborg416, the company known as United Breweries of Copenhagen
ferred what they called ‗real‘ ale. The campaign was very successful and forced ―keg‘ producers to                is one of the world‘s biggest breweries owning also smaller companies like Neptun and Wiibroe. One
change their policy414.                                                                                           of its few competitors is Faxe which has a particular reputation among drinkers for its independent
By the middle of the 1970s, Britain was down to about 150 breweries, owned by around 100 compa-                   stance and unpasteurised Fad beer.
nies, and dominated by the Big Six and their subsidiaries: Bass-Charrington, Allied Breweries (Coope,             The Danes have developed their own brewing styles producing low strength beers, which are exempt
Ansell, Tetley), Watney, Whitbread, Courage and Scottish and Newcastle. They were recently joined                 from tax. One is known as white ale (hvidtføl) available in two hues: light (lys) or dark (mørkt). The
by a large number of independent breweries that based mainly on home made beer.                                   other low-strength style is a roasty-tasting malt beer called ship's ale (skibsføl), which in former days
British beers can be divided into three categories – ales, stouts and bitters. The basic British beer is a        would ferment out to a much higher strength during long sea journeys417.
cask-conditioned ordinary draught ‗bitter‘ which will have a very modest alcohol content – the British            NON-BEER DRINKING COUNTRIES
do not average out as big drinkers, the committed pub-goer takes his beer by the pint, and has a
good few in the course of the evening. The strong beers on the British Isles are usually known as                 Wine and spirit drinking countries do also have some tradition in beer manufacturing. For example
―old‘ or ‗winter‘. In addition to all of these types, some brewers produce a sweet or ‗milk‘ stout. Eng-          France, despite its evident wine drinking culture is one of the world's major beer-producing nations.
land also has a single brand of strong stout, which was originally brewed for Catherine the Great,                About half of France's breweries are in the northwest and near the city of Lille where there is a lot of
Imperial Russian Stout, brewed by Courage and matured for more than a year.                                       English influence and such are its beers, known as Bieres de Garde, presented in large, one litre
                                                                                                                  bottles, corked and wired in the manner of champagne.
Contrary to general belief Scottish beers are generally less strong than their English counterparts. In
place of mild, bitter, best and old, these rather different beers are known as 60, 70 and 80 shilling             In the northeast, where the industry is centred in the region of Alsace and the city of Strasbourg, the
(long ago, the price per barrel), and were produced in breweries such as Maclay's, Belhaven and                   cultural influence is German, the beers bottom-fermenting, and the breweries very few but extremely
Traquair House.                                                                                                   large. The production of cider in France is also important. It is made principally in Normandy and
                                                                                                                  Across the Pyrenees, Spain has about twenty breweries, among which three are owned by the Filipino
Throughout the British Isles, the term ‗porter‘ was once used to describe a medium-strength dry beer              giant San Miguel. Spain has some agreeable Pilsener-type lagers, the odd Münchener and the occa-
similar in character to stout. One or two brewers have now revived the term, though it is unlikely that           sional Märzenbier. The northern parts of Italy and Yugoslavia both have brewing industries, the latter
any will match the character of the porter produced by Guinness in Ireland up until 1973.                         country also being an important producer of hops.
Regular bottled Guinness (labelled as ‗Extra Stout‘) is never pasteurised and is made in a variety of             Where the two countries meet, the city of Trieste had in Austro-Hungarian days a brewery owned by
strenghts, all of which are dry stouts. Ireland's most famous national brewer has two tiny local rivals           the great Viennese innovator Dreher. His name lives on in a present-day Italian brewery company
producing the same type of beer – Cork‘s Murphy's, Beamish and Crawford.                                          which is headquartered in Milan and jointly owned by Heineken of The Netherlands and the British
CZECH REPUBLIC                                                                                                    firm of Whitbread.
All over the world, there are brewers who name their beers ‗Pils‘, ‗Pilsener‘ or ‗Pilsner‘. However it is         Across the water in Malta, the firm of Farson's produces the only English-style beers in the Mediterra-
the most frequently misused label. It has come to mean, quite wrongly, nothing more than a pale,                  nean.
golden-coloured lager but originally it was the name for the world‘s first light lager produced in the            A much more restricted range of beers is available in the other Nordic countries. Iceland, Norway,
Czech city of Pilsen, traditionally labelled as Pilsner Urquell (‗Urquell‘ meaning ‗original source of' in        Sweden and Finland all place considerable restrictions on the production, sale and public consumption
German, the language of Bohemia in the days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when the beer was                     of alcoholic drinks so eg. Iceland's Polar Beer is officially for export only, and the precise detail of
first brewed). In Czech, it is called Plzeňsky Prazdroj.                                                          restrictions on the strength of beer is a matter of constant political fight in Norway, Sweden and
Czech‘s second biggest brewery also located in Pilsen is named after Gambrinus, the legendary King                Finland.
of Beer, and was founded in 1869415.                                                                              Russia is the world's third or fourth largest producer of beer, though consumption per head is rela-
Budweis (Ceske Budejovice) and Pilsen were brewing towns six hundred years before the lager revo-                 tively low. Because of the problem of alcoholism among vodka drinkers, beer is, like wine, officially
lution. So were other Bohemian towns like Zatec and Prague. The capital has four breweries, the                   encouraged as a beverage of moderation. There are 62 brands, including an interesting dark ‗Ukrai-
smallest being U Fleku, a home-brew beerhouse dating back to 1499. The country has more than one                  nian-style‘ beer, a well-matured Amber, and the small-scale survivors of the top-fermenting ales once
hundred breweries, located in Moravia as well as Bohemia.                                                         popular in Russia. Supply of all beers can, though, be very localised and in some places kvass or
DENMARK                                                                                                           koumyss are more accessible419.
Though the nations of the Nordic world have long and intertwining traditions of brewing, reaching                                                                              SPIRITS
back to Viking times and beyond, it was Denmark which has played the most significant part in the                 Spirits, which may range from a little over 20% alcohol up to a dangerously high level of 99% alco-
recent history of the art. It has a lively and colourful home-brewing culture which is deeply rooted in           hol, are produced, either legally or illicitly in nearly every country around the globe. You can find
its agricultural life.                                                                                            them in a huge variety of bases and flavours, in numerous brands and every imaginable taste and
The country‘s most famous brewery is Carlsberg, about whose foundation there is a beautiful, roman-               quality, from the superb to the noxious. They have been prescribed and proscribed and above all,
tic legend. It is renowned worldwide thanks to the discovery of the single-cell yeast culture. The
414                                                                                                               418                                         
415                                                                                                               419                                     
                                                                                                            Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
taxed.                                                                                                                         the world's richest enterprise. After the outbreak of the First World War vodka was, ineffectively,
In these, regardless of flavour or strength, the arts of distillation play a very significant – if not total –                 banned in Russia, a prohibition maintained by the Soviets following the revolution of 1917, which
role. Unfortunately there is very little knowledge considering the early history of distilling or precisely                    ruined and exiled the Smirnoffs. Vladimir Smirnoff established a small distillery in the Paris area to
who and when invented the process. Certainly it was being practiced before the scientific principles                           supply the numerous Russian refugees in France. Today the Smirnoff brand-name belongs to the
underlying it were understood. The whole concept depends on the fact that alcohol evaporates at a                              USA422.
lower temperature than water, 78.3° C.                                                                                         Vodka was legalised once more, under state control, in 1925. But the damage had been done. Illicit
The first destilation is believed to have taken place in China over 3000 years ago. When destilation                           distilling had become established and continues to flourish.
arrived to Europe is under constant debate. The semi-legendary tales describe the first European                               There is a widely held belief that traditional vodka is made from potatoes. Good spirit may be made
process of distilling in Ireland over a thousand years ago, but there are also claims that the first                           but it is cheaper to use substitutes: it requires a greater tonnage of potatoes than of grain to produce
proper separation of alcohol and water (alcool vini) took place in France around 1100 A.D. Neverthe-                           an equivalent quantity of alcohol. Very satisfactory spirit comes also from rice.
less the first real evidence doesn't emerge until 1519, when destilation was illustrated in Das Buch zu                        Vodka brands around the world
Destillieren by Hieronymous Braunschweig.
                                                                                                                               Vodka, in its historic native lands, is mostly flavoured. There are literally hundreds of different types.
The assying of the alcohol strength is a matter of concern, since it came to be taxed and the tax was                          Apart from regional varieties, there is aperitif vodka, herbal vodka, fruit vodka, dessert vodka and
related to the proportion of alcoholic content. First methods of distillation only established a vague                         what can only be called pick-me-up vodka (flavoured with cayenne pepper). Of exported traditional
minimum level of what constituted aqua vitae. Probably the earliest idea of how to assess it was to                            vodkas, most comes from Russia and Poland, and rather less from Finland.
dip a rag into the liquid and ignite it. If it contained sufficient alcohol the rag would catch fire, other-
wise the liquid would be too watery and naturally not burn.                                                                    In Finland there is splendid vodka made by the state monopoly, Alkoholiliike, irreverently translated
                                                                                                                               as 'I like alcohol', derived from timber. This may case raised eyebrows in view of the dreaded 'wood
By the 15th century another method had become popular; that of pouring oil on to the fluid. If the oil                         alcohol', but in fact what is used is cellulose extracted from the wood. From this the delicate spirit is
sank, the spirit was strong enough; if it stayed on top, it was too weak. After those two primitive                            distilled; grain spirit is also used.
methods, the gunpowder treatment was a slight improvement. The liquid was mixed with the explo-
sive, and a flame was applied. If the liquid didn't ignite, it was not strong enough. If it flared, it was                     The best known Russian brand is Stolichnaya. There is also Moskovskaya, in red and white varieties,
sufficiently ardent to be passed as 'proved'. If it exploded mildly, it was even stronger, or 'over-proof'.                    and the stronger Krepkaya. The leading Polish contender is Vyborova. These are comparatively light
Another old process of proving spirit was to burn the alcohol: if the residual liquid was less than half                       in flavour. From Poland comes also the unusual Zubrowka, which has a pale green tinge due to the
the original quantity, the spirit content was satisfactory.420                                                                 inclusion of Zubrowka grass. Two other flavoured export Polish vodkas are the tart, cherry-flavoured
                                                                                                                               Wisniowka and Jarzebiak, which owes its taste to the rowanberry. Polish pure spirit, a grain distillate
                                                SPIRIT DRINKING COUNTRIES                                                      of dangerous strength, unflavoured and containing 80% alcohol is usually included in the vodka
The countries in which the spirit consumption is still dominant are these of Eastern Europe, such as                           category and used to produce do-it-yourself cordials.
Poland, Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic States (Table S1). Many traditionally spirit drinking                        Slavic vodka and western vodka
countries of Northern Europe have switched to beer over the last few years, however we decided to
include Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands into this category because of their long tradi-                            Vodka made in the West is a very different product. The difference between Slav and Western vodkas
tion in spirit drinking. The consumption of spirits was rather stable until the 70s and has been on the                        is even more marked than that between Dutch and London Dry gins. Slav vodka encompasses a
decline since then. From the non-spirit drinking countries, it is the Greeks, the French & the Spanish                         range of spirits: Western vodka is a specific product. It is as near as possible to being flavourless and
who consume most spirits. It is worth mentioning that in Eastern Europe there is practically one type                          made by filtering a highly rectified spirit, grain or cane, through charcoal: this further purifies the
of spirit, while the spirits of Western Europe are much more diversified.                                                      alcohol.

As far as spirits production is concerned, Russia leads the way in Europe, followed – surprisingly – by                        Vodka adds zest but no flavour to whatever is mixed with it. This appeals to people who like alcohol's
the United Kingdom and then the Ukraine, Germany and France (Table S2). It must be pointed out,                                effect but not the taste of spirits. Vodka is also said to be less fattening, not so easily detectable and
however, that a lot of spirits are manufactured illegally or at home due to high excise tax421.                                less likely to cause hangover. The most famous brands are the Finnish Finlandia, the Swedish Absolut
                                                                                                                               and the Dutch Bols423.
Vodka is said to have been evolved in the 12th century in the Russian monastery-fort of Viatka as
zhizennia voda (water of life), and it was used for medical purposes. The spirit came into social use in                       The Gaelic ‗usquebaugh‘, meaning ‗Water of Life‘, phonetically became ‗usky‘ and then ‗whisky‘ in
the 16th century: it was then associated mainly with the Ukraine, where grain was abundant, and                                English, however it is known, Scotch Whisky, Scotch or Whisky. Current fashion is that Scotch and
later it became to be associated with St. Petersburg and Moscow.                                                               Canadian whisky is always written thus, without the 'e', American and Irish as whiskey. Scotland has
                                                                                                                               internationally protected the term ‗Scotch‘. For a whisky to be labelled Scotch it has to be produced
It took some time for vodka-drinking to penetrate as far as the winelands of southern Russia, which                            in Scotland. Excellent alcohols made in other countries, are most often referred to as ‗whiskey‘,
is a big brandy-producing region. Eventually, vodka's domain stretched from Lapland to Persia but                              though they do not captivate the tastes of Scotland. Of all whiskies, the Scotch is the most fa-
had not gained much of a hold westwards beyond the Elbe. Vodka blossomed from a local product to                               voured, successful and well-known; it is also subject to imitation or counterfeiting of labels.
a major force in Russian national commerce in 1818, when Peter Smirnoff opened a distillery by the
famous Iron Bridge in Moscow. The distillery, under imperial protection, became over the years a                               Types of whisky: Scotch whisky
giant operation. By 1912 it was producing one million bottles a day: the family was thought to own                             The very origins of whisky are not really known, though it seems most likely it was the Irish who first

420                                                                                                                            422                  
421                                                                                                                            423                                          
                                                                                  Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
began distilling from cereals. The colonisation of Scotland by Irish commenced around 500 AD424, but              bined as United Distillers of Ireland426.
whisky wasn't introduced for another half-century when the craft of distillation became established in            Irish whiskey is made from a mash of malted and un-malted barley with some wheat, rye and, uni-
Ulster. It was finally brought to Scotland by Irish missionary monks, who established monasteries in              quely, oats. The wash is distilled three times by pot-still. Though the law requires only three years'
the wake of their compatriots, who were evicting the native Picts.                                                maturation, by tradition it has at least seven.
There are two dates, which are worth mentioning. In 1494 was the first time the word 'malt' was                   There was a time when most whisky drunk in England was Irish, but in the past century it has been
used to describe whisky. By 1505 the production of Scotch must have been well established because                 almost wholly superseeded by Scotch. Irish whiskey is still very much in the first league for its high
the supervision of spirit-making for Edinburgh district was granted to the Royal College of Surgeons              quality and distinctive character, and because Ireland gave whiskey to the world.
that year.
                                                                                                                  In Northern Ireland much of the whiskey is imported from Eire, but it also has its own style and its
The turning point for Scotch whisky-industry came in 1860s, the prohibition of selling whisky in bottle           own malt distillery. The malting process came into use at the Bushmills distillery in 1590, and a
to England was lifted, and, much more importantly, blending was introduced commercially. Straight                 whiskey similar to that is made today427.
grain whisky enjoyed a good sale in those days, it is now a rarity in retail commerce, represented by
a single brand: Choice Old Cameron Brig.                                                                                                                                 Other whiskies

At that time there were three distinct types of Scotch whisky: malt, grain and blended. The atmos-                One oddity which deserves marks is Welsh whisky (Cymraeg chwisgi). Whisky was produced in Wales
phere was also very favourable for industry's expansion: Queen Victoria was the champion of all                   during the last century, but then disappeared. A new version, with a small production for local con-
things Scottish. Also the older rich English aristocracy who were following the Queen's lead in buying,           sumption, was put on the market in 1978 under the brand name Swn y don (Sound of Wales).
restoring, enlarging or building neo-baronial castles helped the whisky industry.                                 The Netherlands makes good whisky, closer in style to Irish than to Scotch; a long tradition of fine
The very first famous bottled brand was set up by John Dewar in 1846 in Perth. In the 1880s Dewar's               distilling ensures excellent quality.
two sons went to London to sell Dewar's Scotch, both became peers and died multi-millionaires.                    The same applies to the best of Spanish whisky, though the comparison here is more likely to be with
Same story repeated with John Walker. He went to London and soon established a world-wide whisky                  American styles.
empire. James Buchanan came to London in 1879 as a factor for a whisky firm. He introduced his                    Many other countries produce their own whiskies for domestic market, especially in Scandinavia
own Buchanan Blend (a name revived in 1978) and by the 1880s he had world-wide distribution; in                   where distribution of alcohol is controlled by government monopolies, there is a custom to offer
1904 he registered an early non-family brand-name, Black and White.                                               domestic versions of different spirits along with imported ones.
The single greatest and most successful force in Scotch whisky today, which also controls the world's                                                                             GIN
biggest gin companies, is the Distillers Company. This was set up in 1877 to regulate the business of
                                                                                                                  Dutch gin
the leading distillers in Scotland, and was strongly instrumental in ensuring the prosperity of blended
Scotch whisky.                                                                                                    Unusually, the introduction of gin as a commercial product may be dated with precision, for it un-
                                                                                                                  doubtedly happened when Lucas Bols founded his distillery in Schiedam in 1575. The town's name
One more threat to the progress of Scotch whisky came during the First World War. During the war
                                                                                                                  became synonymous with gin, though 'Schiedam' is not often used nowadays as a description of
it was thought that workers in British munitions factories were spending an unduly large proportion of
                                                                                                                  Dutch gin, which is called genever in Holland, often geneva elsewhere and sometimes even Hol-
their new wealth on whisky. Governmental reaction was, that no Scotch whisky should be sold until it
had been matured in bond for at least three years. Anyone in England who was not prepared to pay
for costlier matured Scotch, simply turned to cheaper gin. This apparently stupid regulation in fact did          Gin was, naturally, being produced in the Netherlands prior to the advent of Bols, but until the second
the Scotch whisky companies a huge service: it improved enormously the general standard of Scotch                 half of the 16th century distillation, remained mostly confined to monasteries or the primitive medical
whisky425.                                                                                                        world, which was still more involved with alchemy than science: a lot was known about herbs.
                                                       Irish whiskey                                              The Dutch gin of today is substantially the same in all probability, as that of four centuries ago, if
                                                                                                                  more refined. It is based on malted, or partly malted, grain – distilled much as whisky – and is availa-
Irish whiskey is certainly the oldest of whiskies. Already 800 years ago, the Book of Leinster recorded
                                                                                                                  ble in two different styles, young and old, which are indicative of flavour rather than age.
that after a feast at Dundadheann, near Bushmills in the north, the guests, who had been drinking
the local uisge beatha, set out for Louth on the east coast. Staggering around they came to their                 The botanical flavourings – juniper berries, coriander, citrus rind and so on – are added to the brand
senses far south in County Limerick.                                                                              formula. This distillation may be repeated: each distiller has his own detail of method. The resultant
                                                                                                                  spirit is aromatic, with a strong botanical taste. It has preserved a reputation as a healthful drink
Irish distilling left monasteries and became a cottage industry, just as in Scotland later, anyone could
                                                                                                                  from its medical origins.
make rough whiskey without interference. Henry VIII, not caring for this freedom of enterprise by his
Irish subjects, promulgated a law to restrict distilling to licensed places only. Already in 1661 a tax on        Dutch geneva is still popular in most of Scandinavia, in Belgium, and in Germany, where similar
whiskey was imposed on a rate of four pence a gallon, yet, as usual, there was not much chance of                 products – Steinhager is the best known – are distilled.
collection. A century later, when administration had improved, it was reckoned that at least a third of                                                                        Dry gin
stills in use were still unlicensed.
                                                                                                                  The English' influence on the gin, and vice versa, has been crucial. English soldiers, sailors and trad-
As the more powerful distilleries increased their hold on the market, smaller ones were absorbed or               ers were not slow to discover the merits of genever and then shortened it phonetically to gin, the
disappeared. In Eire, eventually, only three great distilleries remained: John Jameson & Son (est.                name by which the spirit has long been known the world over.
1780), John Power & Son (1791) and Cork Distilleries Co. (1867). In 1966 the three great ones com-
424                                                                                                               427                                                    
425                                                                                                               428                                                                             
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
Fearing that gin could diminish the working capacity of the masses and lead to disorders and destruc-              Modern chais are lofty , with casks stored on high racks. Both serve equally well. The air is fairly dry
tion of property, the ruling class enacted in 1792 a law, which amounted to prohibition of spirits                 and summer temperatures high, and the evaporation is considerably great. The holder of the biggest
except for those who could afford the enormously increased prices caused by penal taxation. Illicit                maturing stocks, Martell, estimates that it loses the equivalent of two million bottles a year. Opinions
distilling and sale flourished, It was estimated that in that year 20 million gallons of gin were being            vary, but 50 years may be taken as the maximum age for a brandy to rest in wood. Very old cognac
distilled in London. Most of it was also consumed there: the population of the city was about half a               is disgorged from cask and kept in glass containers in what brand-owners aptly called their paradis431.
million429.                                                                                                        Brandy is made in particular in France, Germany, Spain, Greece, Cyprus and Australia. The best is
On the social scene gin was considered a drink of the lower classes – which indeed it was.                         often reserved for local consumption and does not find world markets with an obvious exception,
There was soon a dramatic fall in the amount of gin distilled and the businesses became more con-                  France432.
centrated, in the hands of reputable distillers such as Boors (est. 1726), Booth's (1740) and Gordon's             Cognac
(1769).                                                                                                            The practise of condensing for shipment overseas the wine of the Charente region by a primitive form
In the second half of the 19th century, London distillers started to make 'unsweetened gin', adver-                of distillation became established as early as the 15th century. These would have been rough 'low
tised as 'positively containing no sugar'. In the beginning it was called 'Dry Gin' and then 'London Dry           wines' with an alcohol content around 25%. The addition of water at the receiving end would have
Gin'. Some countries, particulary France, insist that only gin imported from Britain may carry the title.          restored the wine to something like its original state, but probably most of it was drunk as weak
That is also the main feature distinguishing it from the Dutch geneva.                                             spirit.
As far as the methods of production are concerned they vary significantly, but quality gins are pro-               Not until the 17th century, following the great improvements in commercial distilling initiated by the
duced by re-distilling the spirit with juniper berries, coriander, orris root, cassis bark and other botan-        Dutch, did an unknown distiller in the Cognac region treat his 'low wines' to a second distillation. By
icals, according to the formula of the brand-owner.                                                                this means the 'soul of the wine' was truly extracted and a strong wine spirit, first saw light in France:
Today the largest selling gin is Gordon's. Other companies such as Booth's and Gilbey's, also produce              Cognac brandy was born.
their gins in many countries and direct export by Tanqueray and Burrough's (Beefeater) is very ex-                 Of course, there was originally no definition of the Cognac region: it just happened that the best
tensive. But elsewhere there are many imitations of the labels of celebrated London brands, and                    French brandy came from there and thus attracted the name of the central town.
some truly awful 'London Dry gins'430.                                                                             In the mid 19th century when cognac had established a world-wide reputation, it happened that two
Plymouth gin                                                                                                       friends, a geologist and a spirit expert, visited the area to test a theory, which was eventually the
Plymouth gin was previously an aromatic gin, distinctively different to London Dry and particularly                basis for the very strict demarcation of the carefully defined Cognac region's six divisions. These are,
associated with the pink gin favoured by Navy officers. No longer has Plymouth the character asso-                 in descending order of prestige: Grande Champagne, Petite Champagne, Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons
ciated with it.                                                                                                    Bois and Bois Ordinaires. The word champagne used to describe the region for cognac has caused a
                                                                                                                   certain amount of confusion over the times. It has absolutely nothing to do with the wine of the same
                                                BRANDY                                                             name433.
The origin of the widely used word 'brandy' to describe distillations from wine is almost certainly from           The quality of wine from the Grande Champagne and Petite Champagne is virtually identical, al-
the old Dutch brandewijn – ‗burned' (distilled) wine – changed by the English to 'brandywine' and                  though the Grande Champagne is usually rated more highly. A label carrying the words Grande
subsequently shortened to brandy. Some experts give the similar German branntwein (weinbrand) as                   Champagne denotes a cognac solely from that area.Unblended Petite Champagne wine is compara-
the source.                                                                                                        tively rare.
In the 17th century Britain, any distillate was called brandy; even gin was included under that head-              Under French law a cognac may not be sold with a date although some Grande Champagne, and
ing. It took a long time until the word became to refer almost exclusively to spirit from a wine base.             occasionally Petite, from leading houses is shipped in cask to Britain a year or so after the vintage
Brandy is colloquially used to cover distillations from a number of fruits other than grape.                       from which it was distilled. After a long maturing, say 15 years, a sample will be submitted to the
Brandy is not necessarily the result of inefficient distillation but also come from use of bad wine, or            shipper.
the wrong type, and particularly from too short maturing; or none at all. You could almost make a                  Like any other spirit, cognac can not improve in bottle. By bottle age it may acquire rarity value,
general rule that good wine makes poor brandy.                                                                     nothing more. It can quite easily deteriorate. Vintage cognac, which is almost exclusively a British
Maturation is avoided: the wine must retain its original attributes, for it is these that give cognac its          phenomenon, attracts prestige.
unique character. Distillation starts immediately and continues until the following spring. As with                As far as the system of rating is concerned some houses use three stars to signify their standard
Scotch, cognac is double-distilled in much smaller copper pot-stills than those used in Scotland. The              grade. This does not mean it is three years old, minimum age for the important British market, for
first distillation of 'low wines', brouilli, contains about 28% alcohol.                                           the average age of a reputable cognac of this grade will be higher: it is simply a convention. If there
The brouilli may be made in stills containing as much as 100 hectolitres, but the second distillation,             are more stars on the label, that is a brand-owner's whim but of no actual meaning. Some brands
the bonne chauffe, must come from an alambic charentains (maximum 25 hectolitres) and must not                     have rejected stellar system in favour of invented names.
contain more than 72% alcohol.                                                                                     The widely used VSOP title stands for 'Very Special (or Superior) Old Pale' and stems from the time
In France the casks of cognac are stored in chais. The old chais – and some are very old – are low                 about a century ago when cognac changed from the heavier style – in flavour and colour – favoured
buildings with earthen floors, well ventilated. The idea is to keep them as cool and damp as possible.             by upper-class Englishmen to the paler type of today. It denotes a grade that is more aged than the

429                                                                                                                432
430                                                                                                                433                                                                              Francja... op. cit., p. 409.
                                                                                                            Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
same company's three-star or similar. It should not contain brandy that has been less than four years                                                                                     OTHER SPIRITS
in wood434.                                                                                                                    Arrack, arak or raki is usually classified as brandy. It can be distilled from grape juice, rice, sugar
                                                             Armagnac                                                          cane, grains, milk – well, almost anything in fact. Caña, a very strong spirit containing 75% alcohol,
The Armagnac region is the home of the second great French brandy and also of the immortal                                     of Majorca, almost defies classification. In 1979 a café was burnt out when some caña ignited while
musketeer d'Artagnan, said to have been an early patron of armagnac brandy435.                                                 being poured438! Pastis is the name of anis aperitifs, particularly associated with Marseilles. It was a
                                                                                                                               successor to the absinthe that was outlawed in France the day the First World War broke out. Other
Armagnac is more powerfully flavoured spirit than cognac and its makers are highly individualistic.                            important European spirits are the Spanish ojen and Greek ouzo.
The manufacture of armagnac remains largely a cottage-industry, less commercialised in modern
terms than its successful rival to the north, less organised – and, to many, the product therefore                             Grog was originally a mixture of rum and water. It is named after Admiral Grogram Vernon, who first
retains a special charm.                                                                                                       ordered the dilution of the British Royal Navy's daily rum ration. The term is now applied to almost
                                                                                                                               any unsweetened mixture of spirits and water, hot or cold, and it is sometimes used for any intoxicat-
A significant feature of armagnac is that it is distilled only once – cognac uses double distillation –                        ing drink.
and at a strength not exceeding 63% alcohol, and usually considerably lower. Armagnac requires
extra-long maturation in casks of Gascon oak and an average age in excess of ten years is common.                              Akvavit
The grade designations are similar to those used to describe cognacs. Inevitably, armagnac is com-                             The second traditional spirit of Scandinavia and parts of Germany, aquavit, or akvavit, is obviously a
pared to cognac, but it is a distinctively different brandy436.                                                                derivative of the universal aqua vitae, and covers almost a very broad spectrum of spirits. Also re-
Other grape brandies                                                                                                           ferred to as schnapps, these are, in the main, drunk the way the Russians drink vodka.
German brandy, almost a monopoly of Asbach, is made from a variety of imported wines, for those of                             Potatoes and grains are the usual base for aquavits, which are highly rectified. The range of flavour-
the country are too good and costly to turn into spirit. It may be drunk as a 'liqueur', but is better in                      ings is a wide one, mainly herbal, and with caraway seed predominating. The biggest producer is
long, mixed drinks, being thin and faintly sweet. German brandy from wine residue is called trester, it                        Sweden and Denmark is the second largest distiller, with Aalborg akvavit holding over 90% of the
is usually treated as a short, chilled schnapps drink.                                                                         Danish market439. In contrast, the Norwegians are moving away from aquavit towards Western-style
                                                                                                                               vodka. A Norwegian speciality is Linie aquavit.
Italian brandy has similar characteristics to that of Germany. Stock is best known and is fairly popular
in the USA. Spirit distilled from the residue of Italy's enormous wine production is called grappa, and                                                                                 OTHER ALCOHOLS
is very popular.                                                                                                               The last group of alcohols consumed throughout Europe comprises all the beverages that cannot be
Spanish and Greek brandies are made in large quantities. Basically they share a touch of sweetness                             classified in neither of the described gruoups. The variety of kinds here is enormous so we could only
and tend to be well caramelised for smoothness. Greece resinates brandy to turn it into an aperitif                            point out the best known and most often consumed ones. The three biggest subgroups here are
called mastika.                                                                                                                aperitifs, liqueurs and dessert wines. Let‘s start with aperitifs.
Fruit brandies                                                                                                                                                                                APERITIFS
Apart from true grape brandies several well-known products, which have nothing to do with wine,                                The word ‗aperitif‘ derives from the Latin aperire - to open. It is as an ‗opener‘ to the appetite that
attract the description 'brandy'. Calvados, Normandy's apple brandy, is distilled from cider, it tends to                      aperitifs are usually taken, therefore every kind of alcohol may be an aperitif but there are some
be rather tart and rough unless well aged. Thoroughly matured calvados is delicious, warming and                               special and unique ones worth mentioning.
costly.                                                                                                                        Vermouth
Often referred to as 'plum brandy', slivovitz is the general spirit of central Europe and the Balkans. It                      Today, vermouth is one of the most universal and widely spread alcohols over the world. It‘s origins
is worth mentioning that the Polish slivovitz is a very strong one, containing about 60% of pure alco-                         date back to the Roman medicine absinthianum vinum which was said to have descended from the
hol.                                                                                                                           legendary vinum Hippocraticum, the wine of Hippocrates. During the middle ages vermouth was
Kirsch is a proper distillate from cherries which comes from the Black Forest area of Germany and                              produced in Bavaria, from where a Piedmontese gentleman, Signor d' Alessio, believing it had com-
adjacent parts of France and from Switzerland437.                                                                              mercial prospects, took it to France (XVI century)440. The production of vermouth has a few prin-
                                                                                                                               ciples. Firstly, a handful of herbal ingredients are being mixed and they macerate in an appropriate
There are many fruit brandies, alcohols blancs in French terminology. These are of two types – those                           fluid for a week or more. Later, the grape spirit and grapejuice are added to the herbs, which gives
directly distilled from fermented juice and those where an eau de vie has infused into it the essence                          the wine a strong infusion (some herbs mix better with alcohol). The only common ingredient for all
of a particular fruit.                                                                                                         vermouths is the wormwood flower. The drink is then blended with more of the wine and fortified to
Poire William is a much-esteemed variety of the pear brandies: one style has a pear grown in the                               19% alcohol, pasteurized, filtered and ready for bottling. The combination of herbs used by each
bottle, a painstaking business. However, strawberry, bilberry, blackberry – in fact any berry – may be                         maker is their most guarded secret. Today, there are four kinds of vermouth around Europe: Punt e
used, or a mixture of them. The oddest is that from the holly-berry, eau de vie de baie de houx,                               Mes, Dry, White and the new Rosé. Traditionally, French vermouth is dry and Italian – sweet.
otherwise considered poisonous.                                                                                                Italy specialises in blended vermouths, dating back to times when vermouth was sold as a type of
                                                                                                                               concentrate, and customers in a tavern would call for one or more measures, which they would then
                                                                                                                               add to white wine in whatever proportion suited them. The local way of indicating how many meas-

      Le Petit Larousse... op. cit., p. 1251.
435                                                                                                                            438
      Francja... op.cit., p. 430.                                                                                           spirits/index.html
436                                                                                                                            439                                                          
437                                                                                                                            440                  
                                                                                      Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
ures of vermouth were required was by ‗points‘ (punti). Legend has it that, one day, changes on the                            when the bottle is chilled;
Turin Stock Exchange were running at around one and a half points, and a customer in the bar when                             Galliano – a yellow, herbal liqueur named after an Italian hero, which recipe is a total secret;
asked how many ‗points‘ he wanted, answered ‗punt e mes‘ (‗one and a half' in local dialect). When
Signor Carpano started putting out pre-blended vermouth in 1786, he used an equivalent formula and                            Sambuca – a liqueur known thanks to an Italian habit of floating coffee beans on a glass of
named it Punt e Mes. Today there are about eighty vermouth producers in Italy vermouth but the                                 Sambuca and setting fire to them which is described as con mosche, 'with flies' (it burns alcohol
market is dominated by two giants – Martini & Rossi, and Cinzano, which both, the first one founded                            and at the same time roasts the beans).
in 1840 and the second in 1757, come from Turin. Martini Extra Dry has come to lead the market in                     French liqueurs
many countries, while Cinzano were the inventors of vermouth white and rosé.441                                               Benedictine – one of the best known in the world, made in the monastery at Fécamp in Nor-
Campari                                                                                                                        mandy since 1510 on the base of cognac, the recipe is very strictly guarded;
Of all the great aperitifs, one that is hard to classify is the internationally celebrated Campari – a                        Chartreuse – made as a medicine in the vicinity of Grenoble since 17th century, not commercia-
fortified drink related to vermouth but a lot stronger (25%) and therefore classified as spirits in Great                      lised until the 19th century, its formula consists of 130 herbs, there are two kinds of chartreuse -
Britain. The drink is made by the world‘s only company – Campari – in Turin.442                                                yellow and green of which the latter is stronger;
Other aperitifs                                                                                                               Grand Marnier – first made in 1880, based on cognac, comes in two varieties: cordon rouge and
There are also many other, not as widely recognised, aperitifs which are worthy mentioning. Dubbo-                             a weaker cordon jaune;
net is a fortified and sweetened wine, sharpened with quinine. Other aperitifs made in France are                             Izarra – based on armagnac, produced in the Basque country since 1835;
Ambassadeur, a fruit- and gentian-flavoured wine, bitter Amer Picon and fortified herb- and quinine-                          Parfait Amour – usually violet, highly scented and almond flavoured liqueur from Lorraine, re-
flavoured Byrrh. Italian aperitifs include Fernet and Cora. They are both bitters – the first one generic                      puted to be a ―prostitute preference‘ in Victorian times;
and very aromatic and the latter a bit more mild.
                                                                                                                              Trappistine – Doubs department liqueur based on armagnac, which recipe belongs to the Trap-
                                                         DESSERT WINES                                                         pist order at the Abbey de Grace Dieu;
Wines with an addition of brandy or other stronger alcohol are called dessert wines. Sherry is a natu-                        Get – a peppermint liqueur created by Jean Get in 1797 on the base of Benedictine.
rally dry fortified wine, which name originally reffered to wines made in Andalusia, mainly in Jerez.
                                                                                                                      British and Irish liqueurs
After fermentation the wine is fortified with brandy and matured in casks for several years. There are
various kinds of sherry – amontillado, manzanilla, fairly sweet and fruity oloroso and amoroso and the                        Drambuie – one of the greatest liqueurs based on 15 year old Scotch whisky, its name comes
very sweet raya blends. Sherry contains from 15% to 23% alcohol, the more highly fortified wines                               from the Gaelic ―an dram buidbeach‘ (the drink that satisfies), in legend its recipe was was given
being for export.                                                                                                              to the Mackinnon family by Bonnie Prince Charlie, for saving his life after the collapse of the
                                                                                                                               Scottish clans' rebellion of 1745;
Port wine gets its characteristics taste thanks to brandy added before the fermentation process
comes to an end. Only wines made from grapes of the Douro valley may be called as Port according                              Ginger Wine – made from must, which is fermented and then flavoured with ginger, the most
to Portuguese law. There are four kinds of port – vintage, ruby, crusted and white. Port wines are                             popular brands are Stone‘s and Crabbie‘s Green;
kept in wooden casks for two or three years, bottled and stored for another 20 years or more.                                 Glen Mist – herbal and honey Scotch whisky liqueur, manufactured in Ireland;
Mead is a wine made of fermented honey and water, sometimes flavored with spices. It is said to be                            Bailey‘s Irish Cream – a mixture of coffee, chocolate, coconut, fresh cream and Irish whiskey;
highly intoxicating. Mead was known in classical Greece and Rome and was the favorite drink of the
                                                                                                                              Gallwey's Irish Coffee Liqueur – a combination of herbs, honey and Irish coffee;
tribes of northern and western Europe. It is still popular in Poland, Ukraine and Russia.
                                                                                                                              Irish Mist – a liqueur resembling a legendery heather wine which was made from heather honey,
                                                                                                                               produced in the Irish Tulamore Distillery;
Liqueur is a strong alcoholic beverage made of almost neutral spirits, flavored with herb mixtures,
                                                                                                                              Sloe Gin – made of sloes and gin444.
fruits, or other materials, and usually sweetened. Its name comes from the Latin word ―to melt‘ and it
can be produced either by macerating the elements in alcohol or passing the heated alcohol through                    Other liqueurs
the ingredients. The processes and ingredients are often strictly guarded secrets. No more than three                         Advocaat – a Dutch speciality made of sweetened eggs blended with brandy, the name‘s origin
people at one time are said to know the formula for making Benedictine. Liqueurs are usually served                            is that after drinking one talks like a lawyer;
after dinner, sipped from small glasses, and said to aid digestion. Many of the liqueurs were invented                        Cherry Brandy – a wine spirit flavoured with cherry juice, produced mainly in Denmark (Cherry
by monks experimenting to find new kinds of medicines443.
                                                                                                                               Heering), Holland (De Kuyper) and France (Cherry Rocher);
The most famous Italian liqueurs are:                                                                                         Elixir d‘Anvers – a Belgian liqueur containing 32 herbs, similar to yellow Chartreuse;
        Amaretto - with characteristic almond taste is said to have been evolved in about 1525 by a
                                                                                                                              Elixir de Spa – mainly produced in the Netherlands, its formula was lost in the 17 th century and
         young widow as a present for Bernadino Luini, an artist of the Leonardo da Vinci school;                              rediscoverd in old archives years later but it is still a close secret, made on the base of brandy
        Aurum – a brandy based bitter sweet liqueur;                                                                          and herbs;
        Fior d‘Alpi – the ―Flower of the Alps‘ containing a twig on which the sugar in the drink crystallises                Goldwasser – first produced in Gdansk in the mid 16th century, now in Berlin, its colour comes
                                                                                                                               from the addition of gold dust to the alcohol;
443                                                                                                                   444                                                              Gogoliński W., op.cit.
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
        Jagermeister – a dark, red German liqueur flavoured with gentian;                                      others. The immigrants affected isolated communities differently, people changed their habits, tradi-
        Maraschino – distilled from Dalmatian cherries and usually sold in straw-covered bottles; used         tions and language (first it was probably the same language). But even nowadays any Dane, Swede,
         for the famous Tiramisu dessert;                                                                       or Norwegian can travel in the neighbor countries, use his own speech, and be understood without
                                                                                                                too great difficulty.447
        Suomuurain – a Finnish liqueur with the unusual flavouring of cloudberries;
                                                                                                                It looks a little bit different as far as Iceland is concerned. The Icelanders (basically of Norwegian
        Swedish Punsch – a spiced spirit drunk either as an after-dinner drink, with coffee, or as the         stock) have retained their ancient speech since the Viking Age. Swedish, Danish and Norwegian have
         basis of a hot beverage445.                                                                            accepted a number of words from German, French, and English. The Icelanders are proud to say that
                                                        SUMMARY                                                 they, like the Greeks, always have their own word for it. 448
Alcohol consumption and production is a part of Europe‘s history. Each country has its own. This                The Finns, who are geographically and culturally close to their western neighbors, are of different
makes ―alcohol tradition‖ an indirect factor of national identity in the uniting Europe. France will            origin. Their ancestors came perhaps from the region of the Caspian Sea, and moved across the
always be renowned for its wines, we will go for a beer to Germany and drink good vodka in Scandi-              Russian plains to the north. Probably Hungarians originated from the same stock, and that‘s why their
navia. Nevertheless we do observe that the process of Europe‘s unification has an effect on different           languages are part of the separate Finno-Ugrian group.449 The Finns mixed to some extent with the
alcohol customs. In the beginning of the 1960s, significant differences in the alcohol consumption              Lapps, and spread into northern Sweden and Norway. Within Finland a very strong Swedish minority
existed among European countries, but during the last forty years Europe has seen large changes                 have influenced culture and traditions of its citizens. What‘s more Finland was converted to Christiani-
both in the levels of alcohol consumption (per capita) and in the structure (that is, relative shares of        ty from Sweden, and for 600 years was an integral part of the Swedish state. That‘s why the national
beer, wine and spirits) of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. In parallel with narrowing cross-            culture in Finland was strongly shaped with Swedish elements; now both nations seem indigenous.
country differences in alcohol consumption levels, especially the share of wine consumption has                 2. The geographical and historical backgrounds of Scandinavian cuisine.
increased considerably in many countries. Dimishing differences in alcohol consumption levels seem
to be a common feature concerning consumption in Europe.                                                        For many centuries the Scandinavians were isolated from other cultures and from each other. They
                                                                                                                fished and used a not very fertile land for growing crops and plants. This isolation inevitably helped
In this thesis we tried to prove, that Europe‘s tastes in alcohols divide it into three parts. The main         spawn many local dishes and traditions and has strongly influenced their food habits. But there are
idea was to stress the differences in the history of alcoholic beverages, but also to draw conclusions          also other factors that determine the character of cooking and food in Scandinavia. One of them is
from the available data upon the production and consumption of alcohols in European countries.                  its characteristic climate, especially long, dark winter is a very important one. Even today winter
Although the trends in consumption are changing rapidly, people will always associate some countries            continues to be the one inescapable fact of life in the North. The season comes early and lasts long,
with some types of alcoholic beverages – e.g. French as wine, Germans as beer or Russians as spirit             and what‘s more, it is dark and dreary. For centuries, the thinking of the people was shaped by win-
drinkers.                                                                                                       ter season, which made fishing, farming and hunting difficult. They devoted almost all their energy
                                                                                                                during the short growing season to making sure that they would live through the winter.450 Also
                                                                                                                significant was the large area and small number of inhabitants, which limited the trade between
Małgorzata Miko, Michał Dąbrowski, Paweł Zagrajek                                                               citizens. That‘s why the Vikings very early learned to preserve their food. It was not only grains and
                                                                                                                meat of wild animals, but also fish and milk. They smoked, dried and salted their meats and fish.
                                             EUROPEAN CUISINE                                                   Unfortunately, salt was quite expensive spice in those times (especially for the isolated Scandina-
                                                                                                                vians), and that‘s why they used only small amounts of salt, so that the fish were not rotten, but only
Introduction.                                                                                                   fermented. Today one of the most popular delicacies in Sweden is surstromming - fermented herring,
At the very beginning we must admit that it is far better to travel around the Europe and try or taste          sold in cans. The smell of this herring is not very pleasant for people that are not used to it, but for
all these delicious specialties than just to write about them. European cuisine is very differentiated          the Swedes from north is worth organizing huge feast each year in August. 451 Milk was also pre-
from west to east and from north to south. In our short essay we tried to describe and to familiarize           served with salt and even today the Scandinavians eat salty butter and margarine. Many of the foods
the reader with local customs and tradition of cooking. We begin our culinary journey in cold Scandi-           in the Scandinavian countries have a salty or smoky taste, or are pickled or dried - it‘s largely because
navian countries than we spent some ―time‖ in Central- and Eastern- Europe to end up in warm and                of winter and tradition (famous smoked salmon).
sunny Mediterranean countries. Enjoy !!!                                                                        The dishes in Scandinavian cuisine are also usually more sweet, than those in other countries. Sub-
I. Scandinavian cuisine                                                                                         stantial amount of sugar is added to marinated herrings and cucumbers. Why? It is connected with
1. Who are the Scandinavians?                                                                                   former special meaning of sugar. Mainly, to the end of nineteenth century sugar was a very expen-
                                                                                                                sive spice, which caused that sweet dishes were a symbol of wealthy. When already everyone could
The Swedes, the Danes, the Norwegians, the Icelanders and the Finns are widely known as the                     afford using ―this luxury‖, Scandinavians started to excessively add sugar to their cooking. Today this
Scandinavian people. Generally they are the descendants of Norse (the Vikings) – the men are tall               habit is often present, because people simply got used to that.452
and blond, the women fair. Except for the Finns and the Lapps, the Scandinavians must have been
originally one people. As the last ice sheet receded, small groups (probably from Asia Minor or the             The descendants of the Vikings consume today some of the dishes that the Vikings ate. The Vikings
Balkans) moved northward to hunt and fish and to settle – in this way the great Teutonic family was             liked mutton, cheese, cabbage, apples, onions, nuts, oysters and mussels, and all these continue to
founded.446 To the end of the seventh century, when the Vikings started their sea expeditions, the
Scandinavians were tightly isolated from European civilization and from each other. Next centuries              447
                                                                                                                      Brown J., Sinda M., ―Szwecja – praktyczny przewodnik‖, Bielsko-Biała, 1996.
brought some immigrating groups to the Scandinavian Peninsula - Scots, Walloons, Germans, and                   448
                                                                                                             - 12.04.2003
                                                                                                             - 09.04.2003.
445                                                                                                             451                                                                 Cichowicz-Porada T., „Kuchnia Skandynawska‖, Warszawa, 1991.
446                                                                                                             452 - 09.04.2003                                                                             Kołnierska E., Łebkowski M., „Kuchnia Skandynawska‖, Warszawa, 1996.
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
                                                        453                                                                    459
be staples of the Scandinavian diet.     The beautiful forests were the source of berries and mu-                  sauce.
shrooms, which are common addition to meat and famous sauces in Scandinavian dishes. The Vikings                   5. Smorgasbord
hunted wild birds, elk, deer and bear, just as their modern counterparts do. The Norwegians insist
that a whale steak properly marinated and broiled can taste as good as beef. The recipes, that are                 It is worth mentioning that popular around the world smorgasbord – a table with a lot of cold and hot
used today were not written down but handed down ―like folk ballads, mouth to mouth, memory to                     snacks was taken to Scandinavia from Russia. First it was the small buffet with vodka (XVIII century),
memory‖.454                                                                                                        but within next decades it was modified and developed on a wide scale. Smorgasbord exactly means
                                                                                                                   a table with butter and bread, but actually it is hard to find butter and bread on this colorful table.460
Potatoes – one of the basic ingredients of many dishes in Scandinavian cuisine – are present in Scan-              This tradition was very popular in the countryside, where the visitors used to bring their own dishes
dinavian diet since the end of eighteen century. The long infertile in those times contributed to the              to the parties and put them on the table together with dishes prepared by the mistress of the house.
popularization of potatoes between Scandinavians. Boiled potatoes with melted butter and dill are                  Everyone served himself. There is special order of eating snacks from smorgasbord. You should
inevitable addition to many Scandinavian dishes.455                                                                begin with herring (after that necessary change your plate), then other fish, meats and salads, then
Nowadays in Scandinavian cuisine we can distinguish two different kinds of dishes. Firstly, these are              simple hot dishes, and finally cheese.461 Usually people drink vodka (called akvavit – water of life) or
dishes strictly connected with Scandinavian tradition, and on the other hand we have dishes, which                 beer. Today this habit is cultivated only in restaurants. At home the Scandinavians usually eat tradi-
were introduced by wealthy French and German families in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centu-                  tional cold snacks for lunch or to the dinner – but it is served on separate plate for everyone.
ries. For example the habit of eating baked geese on the St. Martin‘s day comes from Germany.                      6. Smorrebrod
3. Fish in Scandinavian diet.                                                                                      Smorrebrod – sandwich – exactly means bread with butter, although it is hard to see the bread under
The long seacoasts of Scandinavia was always a source of many kinds of fish. One of the most re-                   its plentiful fillings and butter is very often replaced with mayonnaise. It is usually called open-faced
cognizable staples of Scandinavian cuisine is herring. It can be salted, smoked, marinated, boiled,                sandwich, because there is no top slice of bread, but filling is arranged very carefully to be admired
baked, but one thing is sure it has always a special place on Scandinavian tables. Many heads of state             by the eater. These sandwiches are very popular in Denmark, where they are usually served for
have tasted smoked Baltic herring straight from a fisherman's boat. Another popular fish is cod. The               lunch, however sometimes people organize special sandwich parties. The filling of sandwiches is not
white and moist meat of codfish is quite easy to prepare. It is usually combined with sauces of variety            accidentally, it is always very carefully selected and often put in few layers on the bread. That‘s why
of tastes. Boiled cod is usually served with cream or mustard sauces or simply with melted butter.                 it is comfortable to eat them with silver ware. The most popular fillings are: shrimps, smoked salmon,
Salmon is nowadays very popular around the world, but it were Scandinavians that introduced                        herring, ham. As additions and decorations the Scandinavians use parsley, dill, lemons, horse-radish,
smoked salmon to the European cuisine. Salmon is also used for making soup, or is grilled, fried or                red beet.462
served in a casserole with sliced potato or as a filling in savory pasties (originally Russian, kulibyaka).        7. Holidays and festive in Scandinavian countries.
From 1960s, when the new method of fishing was introduced seafood plays an significant role in
many Scandinavian recipes (sandwiches, snacks).456                                                                 Colorful Easter announces the arrival of spring. The Scandinavian speciality at Easter is mammi, malt
                                                                                                                   flavored oven baked pudding. Easter fare features egg, chicken and lamb dishes, and such traditional
Fish are the basic food in Iceland, where fishing is background of the country‘s economy. The most                 Orthodox dishes as pasha, kulitsa and baba. What the children look forward to at Easter is Mignon
famous dish on the Iceland is hakarl, meat of shark, which sliced in pieces has to lie for a few weeks             egg, real egg shells filled with the finest chocolate.463
on the beach, on planks covered with gravel and small stones. Then it is smoked and dried. It is
usually served with strong vodka svarta daud, what means ―black death‖, and hverabraud (rye bread                  When the winter is finally over, the seemingly endless summer days are savored along with the fresh
baked underground).457                                                                                             fruits and vegetables that are hard to find after the short growing season. Summer for Scandinavians
                                                                                                                   means being outdoors, grilling and smoking food and picking herbs from the garden. Fresh vegeta-
4. Meat in Scandinavian diet.                                                                                      bles cooked in milk make a delicious summery soup, followed by berries served with milk, cream or
Swedish meatballs are probably at the top of the 'best loved dishes' list in Sweden. Norway, Denmark               quark. During the white nights of Sweden and Norway, it is customary to serve a midnight supper
and Finland have their own versions, too. Meatballs were probably a way to use up leftovers; the                   after a concert or the theater, while a special occasion such as a baptism or anniversary might call for
cook used the meat that was on hand, a filler that was just available, and ingredients for the sauce               a feast of dill-stuffed whole salmon followed by kransekake, a beautiful towering ring cake of ground
based on not only recipe preference, but what was handy. Usually they call for beef, pork or veal.                 almonds.464
In Finland, reindeer meat is one of the favorite ( the result of strong influence of Lapp culture). No             The gastronomic peak of the summer is the start of the crayfish season in July. Very popular, espe-
wonder, it is delicious, fine-textured and extremely low in fat content. Even very high price does not             cially in Sweden, are traditional crayfish parties in August. The custom of eating those crabs in sum-
discourage people to buy it. What‘s more the export of reindeer meat from Finland is one of the                    mer was set up at the end of the nineteenth century and was connected with only two-month per-
fastest growing segments of the Finnish food industry.458                                                          mission for fishing crayfish. It caused, that people had been waiting for their appearance on the
In Iceland meat meals are quite expensive, except for lamb and mutton. It is not surprising while                  tables for almost a whole year – it made it a very special thing. Despite the fact that many species of
there are 600 thousand sheep for 278 thousand citizens. A very special delicacy for the Icelanders is              crayfish in Sweden no longer exists (pestilence in 1907), the tradition of this party still exists. Swedes
svid - boiled sheep's head. What‘s more, nothing from the sheep can be wasted, even eyes, lungs,                   consume approximately 2,000 tons of sweetwater crayfish each year. The lion‘s share of this amount
stomach are used. Popular among tourists is hangikjöt mutton with delicious new potatoes, pea and

453                                                                                                                459 - 09.04.2003.                                                                      - 12.04.2003
454                                                                                                                460 -09.04.2003                                                                                    Cichowicz-Porada T., „Kuchnia ...‖, op. cit., s. 11
455                                                                                                                461
      Cichowicz-Porada T., „Kuchnia ...‖, op. cit., s. 11.                                                               ibidem, s.12
456                                                                                                                462 -12.04.2003.                                                                                       ibidem, s.14
457                                                                                                                463 - 12.04.2003                                                                          - 05.04.2003
458                                                                                                                464 - 05.04.2003                                                                        - 09.04.2003
                                                                                 Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
is enjoyed at crayfish parties in August.                                                                        Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, Poles, Ukrainians and Russians are proud of their culinary tradition.
As the summer advances, the first strawberries ripen and delicious new potatoes, no bigger than a                Cuisine of Romania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia is similar to their northern neighbours, however it
finger tip, appear. These are served hot with butter and fresh dill. Tender rhubarb is the season's              is more aromatic and colourful.471
fruit for pies.                                                                                                  The role of history.
The autumn colors set the forests aglow and fulfill it with lingonberries and cranberries. The same              History of Europe played an important role in development of culinary art. Nowadays we may indi-
special taste is also to be found in Scandinavian cultivated berries, currants, raspberries, strawberries        cate three conventional regions:
and gooseberries. The wide variety of berries that do grow here enables Scandinavians to make                    Eastern Europe, Central Europe and Balkans- countries between Black and Adriatic Sea.
different types of wine, for domestic consumption and for export (the Finns make forty types of those
wine). Berry wines are somewhat uncommon in the world, but the method of production does not                     Eastern Europe always had its special place on world‘s culinary map. For example Russia is famous of
differ too much from that used when making wine from grapes. Finnish sparkling wines, made mainly                its nutritious sour soups and a great variety of pancakes and other sweet specialities. In the Central
from the white currant, have established a firm international reputation; their high quality have                Europe there is still some influence of Austro – Hungarian monarchy – for example custom of drawing
brought them several awards.466 White currants are also used to make fresh, fruity white wines.                  and drinking coffee. As far as Balkans are concerned it is worth mentioning that this region was
Autumn is also the season to wander in the woods and fill baskets with other fruit of the forest -               dependent on Otoman Empire that is why its cuisine is so aromatic.
mushrooms, including milk caps and horns of plenty.                                                              When we discus north – eastern Europe it is necessary to mention famous bread. People from the
November marks the beginning of the dark season, but also anticipation of Christmas. Undoubtedly,                region are also known from picking up mushrooms. Mushrooms are used as famous ingredients in
Christmas is one of the most important holiday in Scandinavian countries. On 24 th December they eat             soups, sauces and other specialities. When we move to Balkans mushroom become less popular and
Christmas dinner, which is not a fasten meal. They usually start with buffet, where you can find                 their place is taken by courgettes, aubergines, peaches and apricots. What is interesting about Bal-
herring, smoked sausage, red cabbage salad, ham. After that they eat traditional lutfisk – dried fish.           kans – rice is there a common ingredient in desserts. For example it is added to milk pudding with
This is a remaining custom after medieval fast, when the Scandinavians celebrated Christian‘s tradi-             rose water.
tions.467 Important part of Christmas gatherings are dishes based on fresh pork. It is mainly due to             Division into regions mentioned above is quite conventional and not fixed. Some dishes are served in
the old habit of eating fresh pork on Christmas in the Middle Age, when people for the whole year                a few countries as their national meal – for instance beetroot soup known as borsht is a traditional
had to eat salted pork. Only one or two pigs were left for Christmas, which made the dishes based on             dish in Poland, Ukraine and Russia. Balkan cuisine is mixed with German one. Central- and East –
that fresh meat very special.468 Christmastime gatherings, in particular, are often a chance to cele-            European cuisine is also a proof of old traditional trade exchange with Far East.472
brate with a cup of hot glogg (version of the spiced wine uses wine, port and vodka for the liquor) or           The role of religion.
punch. In Iceland traditional Christmas dishes include: mutton soup, leg of lamb, smoked rack of
                                                                                                                 Religion played an important role in cuisine of Eastern Europe. It is connected with tradition of Lent.
pork, and caramel potatoes.
                                                                                                                 That is why Russians and Poles developed high – caloric dishes without any meat based on beetroot
The Scandinavians pay great attention to the preparation and serving dishes. They are widely known               and cabbage – for example ―bliny‖. As far as Lent is concerned we should not forget about fish
as brilliant designers of the table-porcelain, crystal, silver ware, linen, and they always care much            dishes. The most popular kinds of fish in this part of Europe are: tench, pike and perch. There is also
about the way a table looks like. What‘s more they like cooking - in Sweden, more food books are                 one kind of fish, which is served from Hamburg to Moscow- herring. Herring is often marinated in
published per capita than in any other country in the world. It was more than 300 in 2002 alone -                vinegar or oil with addition of many spices.
proof that gastronomy has become a genuinely popular pastime.469
                                                                                                                 When we mentioned marinates it is quite true that cuisine of eastern and central Europe is rather
8. Spices                                                                                                        sour than spicy. Sauerkraut is very popular in Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Balkans.
Scandinavian cuisine is simple, delicious and made from natural local ingredients. The food taste of             The Polish ―bigos‖ is said to be the most delicious meal based on sauerkraut.
themselves – in Scandinavian countries one third of recipes does not call for any spices.470 Inevitable          As far as alcohol is concerned it is not used as ingredient as often as for example in Italy or France.
are fresh herbs, dill, parsley, green onions (the Danes make delicious green onion soup). Very cha-              In Balkans it has historic background since Balkans were dependent on Muslims. Nowadays they
racteristic for Scandinavian cuisine is cardamom in bread, cookies or cakes. Its sweet, delicate flavor          rather drink alcohol instead of using it in cooking. In central part of Europe alcohol is often served
gives an unique taste and aroma to baked cakes. It is often combined with almonds, which are also                with meals. Poland and Russia are famous of vodka made of rye and potato.
very popular in Scandinavian countries. Cardamom originated in India and Sri Lanka, but is today also
                                                                                                                 Preparation of meals from the region is not very expensive mainly because of the fact that great
grown in South America and elsewhere. Vikings brought the spice to the Scandinavian countries
                                                                                                                 majority of dishes come from peasant tradition. Instead of money it requires a lot of time and experi-
through their extensive trade route with India and the Far East.
                                                                                                                 ence to prepare it.473
II. Central- and East-European cuisine.
                                                                                                                 2. Latvia and Lithuania as representatives of Eastern European cuisine.
1. Overview
                                                                                                                 Lithuanian cuisine is a mix of Russian and Polish influence. It is dominated by high-caloric meals
Cuisine of central and east Europe is often described as paradise for people who like nutritious food            based on potatoes, meat and flour. One of the most popular dish in Lithuania is called ―kartacze‖ –
that give them energy and strength. Traditional dishes of this region have a lot of common features.             which is big dumplings made of potatoes stuffed with ground pork. It is quite similar to Polish
                                                                                                                 ―pyzy‖.474 Other popular, traditional dishes are called ― vedarai‖ and ―plokstrainis‖. ―Vedarai‖ is a
465 - 05.04.2003
466 - 05.04.2003
467                                                                                                              471
      Cichowicz-Porada T., „Kuchnia ...‖, op. cit., s. 10                                                              Atkinson Catherina – „Kuchnia środkowej i wschodniej Europy―, Warszawa, 2000, s. 6
468                                                                                                              472
      Kołnierska E., Łebkowski M., „Kuchnia Skandynawska‖, Warszawa, 1996                                              ibidem, s.8
469                                                                                                              473 - 05.04.2003                                                                              ibidem, s. 11
470                                                                                                              474 - 09.04.2003                                                                         Szwajdo Jarosław –„Litwa, Łotwa, Estonia―, Pascal, Warszawa, 2002, s. 56
                                                                                   Europe at Present [Spring 2003]
baked pork bowels stuffed with potatoes, ―plokstrainis‖ is some kind of omelette quite similar to the              should try one of famous Sacher‘s cake, necessary with a cup of delicious coffee. When eating the
Polish ―placek zbójnicki‖ however it is not served with goulash but with sour crème.                               Austrians drink beer and wine. The Austrian wines are divided into a few groups according to their
Meat and fish dishes do not differ much from these served in Poland. For example we may find in                    quality – from the most popular and the cheapest ―Tafelwein‖ to ―Qualitats‖ and ―Pradikatswein‖
menu ―karbonadas‖ – Polish ―schabowy‖ or ― kotletas‖ – Polish ―mielony‖.                                           During Autumn people are crazy about ―Sturm‖ which is Heuriger wine but only half fermented. The
                                                                                                                   most popular Austrian beers are: Gosser, Schwechater, Stiegl, and Zipfer.478
When visiting Troki it is necessary to try ―kibinai‖ which is pierogis stuffed with juicy mutton. ―Cebu-
raki‖ a pancake with meat is known and liked in the whole country.                                                 The traditional Hungarian dishes abound in piquant flavours and aromas. Dishes are flavourful,
                                                                                                                   spicy and often rather heavy. Flavours of Hungarian dishes are based on centuries old traditions in
In Lithuania people eat quite a lot of bread which is very aromatic. It often goes together with                   spicing and preparation methods. The exquisite ingredients are produced by local agriculture and
smoked sausage called ―utena‖.475 Other famous cold meats popular in Lithuania are ―lasiniai‖ and                  husbandry.479 The Hungarian cuisine is much different from simple Czech cooking. It is very rich in
―skylandis‖. Vegetarians will not starve for sure. They should try ―vershes aphepas‖ which is kind of              great variety of vegetables. Hungarians cooks add to their meals wine which makes food more so-
pancake with curds. ―Salti – barcini‖ – ―chłodnik‖ is served in summer.                                            phisticated . The story of delicious Hungarian cuisine begins in 1475 when king Maciej Korwin married
As far as alcohol is concerned we should mention great variety of liqueurs made of fruits, herbs and               daughter of Italian ruler from Neopol. Korwin‘s wife brought to Hungary her cooks and Mediterra-
honey. Apart from it beer and vodka is also very popular in Lithuania.                                             nean fruits and vegetables.480 Traditional Hungarian meal is called ―goulash‖. The name ―goulash‖
Latvian cuisine was shaped by German influence. Most of all meals are quite simple but at the same                 comes from the Hungarian ―gulyas‖ – cowboy. Goulash is seasoned with paprika made of special red
time very nutritious. Main dishes are often based on flour. There is very wide choice of bread bake of             peppers. Originally it was a soup but nowadays due to plenty of meat, potatoes and noodles it may
rye and wheat flour: sweet, sweet and sour, with nuts, cumin, raisins and so on. Latvians when                     be also eaten as a main course. The other speciality is ―liptauer‖ which is cheese pasta with butter,
cooking use pod vegetables, in particular so called grey pea. Traditionally grey pea is served during              paprika, onion and cumin.
Christmas to symbolize tears. When you eat it you will not cry during whole new year.476                           Paprika arrived to Hungary in XVII century. Paprika and garlic is to be found everywhere. In the
As far as meat is concerned the Latvians eat more pork than beef or poultry. Favourite dish is pig‘s               autumn, a fascinating view is the strings of red paprika hung on the white walls of the houses in the
leg. Quite often natives eat ―pierogis‖ stuffed with curds or mixed