Edel Hackett Liberty Communications December Print least immediate most

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					      Edel Hackett,
Liberty Communications,
   13 December 2005
Print least immediate, most permanent
Radio immediate and flexible
Online also immediate, smaller but influential
TV most influential
Agencies international and national

       Main objective is to make a profit
Limited research
 state, plc, private co., trust, co-operative
 single-medium, multimedia, industrial
 local, national, international
Control structures
 key appointments, balance / separation of powers
  Market orientation
but also .
  Tradition, ethos
  Professional values
  Professional recruitment
constraints of
    staff, money, technologies
  availability of sources
  best available version of the truth
 engaging, entertaining
 Hierarchy of media
           hierarchy of
social power
  content shaped by major
 Media make a social
 Obliged by competition to find new
sources, new kinds of story
 Constrained to respond, to some degree, to
audience demands / needs
 Unable to function merely as mouthpieces
of vested interests
 Plural and diverse (within limits)
Market research
 vox pop
Readers letters
Audience- led campaigns
Readers representatives
 corrections and clarifications
Complaints commissions
[Media Ombudsman]
[Press Council]
Legal action
 or threat of action
Media awareness training
  critical thinking   denunciation
Media skills training
 how to tell stories in media-usable form
 identifying and reaching media niches
 building relations
 being available
Total media strategy
  It is a fact of life that there was a time
when reporters spent their time on the road.
There aren t many reporters now. There is
technology. Stuff will be done on the phone
and it will be done on a sound bite basis.
         » Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum
 There is often a failure to realise that
media professionals are constrained both
organisationally and editorially in terms of
how and when they can cover social
exclusion issues.
       Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum
  Journalists will always think of whether
the story will get through the system and
you might do a very worthy story about
social exclusion, but if it s lacking a human
interest element it may not get through.
       Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum
  Terms like socially excluded make it more
difficult for me to tell the story. Quite apart from
the fact that it represents the type of language
journalists are taught to avoid like the plague, the
term itself excludes people. I find it more
respectful to use language with a human rather
dimension rather than write about them as
numbers or as the socially excluded.
Where do they get their information?
  respondents tend to gravitate towards official
sources They also consult with some of the
better resourced, high profile community and
voluntary organisations . This pattern confirms
the view that media coverage is usually the result
of professional activities that are highly routine.
          » Integra Survey

Lesson 1 - provide good, regular information, get
into the contacts book.
Journalists - Processors of News
Provide good stories to be processed and
you have a better chance of making the cut.
Number One Rule
  Understand the media and what makes news
  and you ll have greater chance of success
Understand the workings and constraints of the media.
Establish a regular press liaison internally.
Present accurate facts, clearly and concisely.
Improve public relations, including press release scripting.
Offer articulate and compelling spokesperson
Provide a list of contacts to every reporter you know and deal with.
Identify specific journalists/editors with which to liaise in each media.
Relate the issue in a manner which will enable listeners or readers to
identify and empathise.
Engage in direct personal contact with the media on a regular basis.
Drop the attitude that the press is out to get people.
Do not bore with statistics.
From interview to printed copy
  How Journalists View Themselves?
  What Journalists Want From You?
  Types of Journalists?
 Your responsibility?
 What Journalists Look For
Journalist briefed by editor
News editor
Final copy may bear little resemblance to
Journalists taking note
What you consider news not necessary
Inundation of great stories
Advertising takes precedence
TV and Radio - even greater pressure
  30 minutes is 3/4 of broadsheet page
novelty, originality, event
worry, controversy, conflict
relevance to 'real life
relevance to many people: scale
personality (esp. important people)
existing news: i.e. 'olds
Public interest
  Public different in each case
Need to understand the media and tailor
  Other news
Newslist compiled from   other media
inputs of                print (for broadcasting)
  government             broadcast (for print)
  Oireachtas             specialist (for general)
  courts                 foreign
  gardai, emergency
                         news agencies
  corporate PR           specialist correspondents
  established interest   voluntary organisations
(daily newspaper)        evening conference
  morning conference     page plans
  assignment of          cutting
  reporters              headlining
  afternoon conference   page revisions
  new assignments        NB continuous process
  page allocation        of selection,
  see Newslist sources
Specialists' sources
  as above with more emphasis on
    documentation (FoI)
    news cuttings
    selected contacts

                                                Deputy Editor

Assistant Editor             Assistant Editor                   Assistant Editor   Assistant Editor
   Features                       News                            Production           Sports

                                                                Chief Sub-editor
                        News Editor(s)
          Specialist correspondents
                                                                  Page subs
                                                                  Copy subs

Nothing off the record
Reporters don t work for you
Never say no comment
Never lie
Return phone-calls promptly
Supply information asap
Don t let reporter put words in your mouth
Keep answers short and to the point
Never lose your temper
Courtesy and consideration
Interview is live until reporter is gone
Media dos
  Have a story to tell
  Be full informed
  Work out three key points in advance
  Provide photo opportunities if appropriate
  Make issues generic
  Keep deadlines
  Answer questions directly
  Monitor media to know their style
  Respond promptly
  Establish good personal relations with journalists
  Be regarded as reliable
  Be contactable whenever needed.
And don ts
  Guess or speculate
  Respond to hypothetical, what if questions
  Every say no comment
  Fail to call back
  Assume too high a knowledge
  Use jargon, initials or acronyms
  Be afraid to correct yourself
  Ignore questions
  Hype or over promote your story
  Talk off the record
  Assume journalists are irresponsible
  Comment superfluously merely to fill silences
  Repeat the negative words of a question
  be overawed
  ask for questions in advance
  go on- and off-the-record repeatedly
  say: no comment
  seek the interviewer's sympathy
Do commit yourself
Journalists' principal means of gathering
Journalists looking for
    new angles on existing stories
    confirmation of own assumptions
    reaction to statements of others
    provocation to others
above all, quotable quotes
Interview preparation
  Identify and list all facts
  Define key messages
  Anticipate questions
  Draw up danger list
  Practice responses
  No need to answer immediately
  Ask what topics are
  Write down key points
  Choose ground
  Avoid speaker phone
  Beware of conference calls
  No interruptions - turn off mobiles
  Listen carefully to questions
  Stay simple. Don t assume journalists and listeners have tables,
  photos, diagrams
  Determine if informal, taped or on air
  Make sure name and position understood
  Present main points and conclusions first
  Ask for direction of questions in advance
  Repeat your message
  Avoid jargon
  Make statements you can support factually
 Be yourself!
     70% impression comes from how you look
     20% impression comes from how you sound
     10% impression comes from what you say .
      .. Unless you say the wrong thing!
TV Appearance
  Look at interviewer. Don t worry about camera
  Talk with your normal vitality
  Remember, smallest gesture is magnified
  Be alert to signals to wind-up interview
  Be open, friendly and relaxed. Never talk down
  Average TV news piece is 40-60 seconds. You
  may occupy 20 seconds. Make the most of it.
When appearing on TV         .
  Be careful about choice of clothes and
  Take a tissue
  Accept studio make-up
  Refuse alcohol
Year long plan
  overall, and sometimes general
  communications map for the year
Campaign plan
  more specific plan for campaigns within the
Event plan
  planning for key events
Budget (Money, Time and Personnel)
Set out communications objectives for your
organisation, eg.
  To raise awareness of child poverty
  To promote needs of people with disabilities
Be specific
Don t have too many objectives 2-3 plenty
Be realistic - time, resource restraints
Strategy describes how you are going to
achieve your objectives, eg.
  You want to influence child poverty policy:
  Target media which policy makers read and
  listen to
  You want to assure families living in poverty
  that you are working for them: Concentrate on
  local radio
Who do you want to reach?
Don t always stick with the usual suspects
Have something for everyone in the
The most important audience
Keep up to date with Ireland s changing media
Utilise all types of media
  just because your story doesn t appear in the Irish
  Times doesn t mean it isn t a success
Media goes beyond national radio, tv and
  local media, magazines, free-sheets
Activities give legs to strategies
No point in re-inventing the wheel
  add value to events, campaigns etc. already
  planned by your organisation
Cross check for success
  does this activity achieve objectives and reach
  target audience
Creativity essential
  it s a crowded market. Stand out.
Utilise wide variety of media
Use variety of media tools
Match different angles to different audiences
Be prepared to say the unexpected
Have good, interesting interviewees at hand
Use human interest
A picture tells a thousand words
Co-ordination an advantage
  when possible and appropriate, co-ordinate
  media activity with similar organisations
  No point in two organisations working on
  similar themes at same time
  Invite others to come on board - impact
  strengthened if there is alliance
  Common objectives can be met more
Know your budget
Know your resources
Know your limits - statutory, NGO funding
consequences etc.
 Radical or redundant doesn t always
Press releases
Press releases
Press releases
To Re-cap
  Know what you want to achieve
  Know how you can best achieve it
  Know your audience
  Know your media
  Be creative
  Be realistic and practical
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