Edel Hackett, Liberty Communications, 13 December 2005 Print least immediate, most permanent Radio immediate and flexible Online also immediate, smaller but influential audiences TV most influential Agencies international and national Main objective is to make a profit Insular Close-knit Subjective Biased Limited research Powerful Treatment Ownership state, plc, private co., trust, co-operative single-medium, multimedia, industrial conglomerate local, national, international Control structures key appointments, balance / separation of powers Market orientation Competition but also . Tradition, ethos Professional values Professional recruitment constraints of time resources staff, money, technologies availability of sources Authoritative Objective best available version of the truth Informative factual Narrative engaging, entertaining Hierarchy of media sources hierarchy of social power content shaped by major institutions Media make a social reality Obliged by competition to find new sources, new kinds of story Constrained to respond, to some degree, to audience demands / needs Unable to function merely as mouthpieces of vested interests Plural and diverse (within limits) Ratings Market research Sources vox pop Readers letters Audience- led campaigns Readers representatives corrections and clarifications Complaints commissions [Media Ombudsman] [Press Council] Legal action or threat of action Media awareness training critical thinking denunciation Media skills training how to tell stories in media-usable form identifying and reaching media niches building relations being available Total media strategy It is a fact of life that there was a time when reporters spent their time on the road. There aren t many reporters now. There is technology. Stuff will be done on the phone and it will be done on a sound bite basis. » Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum There is often a failure to realise that media professionals are constrained both organisationally and editorially in terms of how and when they can cover social exclusion issues. Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum Journalists will always think of whether the story will get through the system and you might do a very worthy story about social exclusion, but if it s lacking a human interest element it may not get through. Journalist participating in the Integra Media Forum Terms like socially excluded make it more difficult for me to tell the story. Quite apart from the fact that it represents the type of language journalists are taught to avoid like the plague, the term itself excludes people. I find it more respectful to use language with a human rather dimension rather than write about them as numbers or as the socially excluded. Where do they get their information? respondents tend to gravitate towards official sources They also consult with some of the better resourced, high profile community and voluntary organisations . This pattern confirms the view that media coverage is usually the result of professional activities that are highly routine. » Integra Survey Lesson 1 - provide good, regular information, get into the contacts book. Journalists - Processors of News Provide good stories to be processed and you have a better chance of making the cut. Number One Rule Understand the media and what makes news and you ll have greater chance of success Understand the workings and constraints of the media. Establish a regular press liaison internally. Present accurate facts, clearly and concisely. Improve public relations, including press release scripting. Offer articulate and compelling spokesperson Provide a list of contacts to every reporter you know and deal with. Identify specific journalists/editors with which to liaise in each media. Relate the issue in a manner which will enable listeners or readers to identify and empathise. Engage in direct personal contact with the media on a regular basis. Drop the attitude that the press is out to get people. Do not bore with statistics. From interview to printed copy How Journalists View Themselves? What Journalists Want From You? Types of Journalists? National Local Your responsibility? What Journalists Look For Journalist briefed by editor Deadlines News editor Sub-editor Final copy may bear little resemblance to original Journalists taking note What you consider news not necessary newsworthy Inundation of great stories Advertising takes precedence TV and Radio - even greater pressure 30 minutes is 3/4 of broadsheet page novelty, originality, event proximity worry, controversy, conflict relevance to 'real life relevance to many people: scale personality (esp. important people) existing news: i.e. 'olds Public interest Public different in each case Need to understand the media and tailor message Timing Other news leaders celebrities rich famous 'knowns Newslist compiled from other media inputs of print (for broadcasting) government broadcast (for print) Oireachtas specialist (for general) courts foreign gardai, emergency news agencies services corporate PR specialist correspondents established interest voluntary organisations groups (daily newspaper) evening conference morning conference page plans assignment of cutting reporters headlining afternoon conference page revisions new assignments NB continuous process page allocation of selection, prioritisation see Newslist sources Specialists' sources as above with more emphasis on documentation (FoI) news cuttings and selected contacts Editor Deputy Editor Assistant Editor Assistant Editor Assistant Editor Assistant Editor Features News Production Sports Chief Sub-editor News Editor(s) Specialist correspondents Page subs and Copy subs Production Reporters Nothing off the record Reporters don t work for you Never say no comment Never lie Return phone-calls promptly Supply information asap Don t let reporter put words in your mouth Keep answers short and to the point Never lose your temper Courtesy and consideration Interview is live until reporter is gone Media dos Have a story to tell Be full informed Work out three key points in advance Provide photo opportunities if appropriate Make issues generic Keep deadlines Answer questions directly Monitor media to know their style Respond promptly Establish good personal relations with journalists Be regarded as reliable Be contactable whenever needed. And don ts Guess or speculate Respond to hypothetical, what if questions Every say no comment Fail to call back Assume too high a knowledge Use jargon, initials or acronyms Be afraid to correct yourself Argue Ignore questions Hype or over promote your story Talk off the record Assume journalists are irresponsible Comment superfluously merely to fill silences Repeat the negative words of a question Don't be overawed ask for questions in advance waffle go on- and off-the-record repeatedly say: no comment seek the interviewer's sympathy Do commit yourself Journalists' principal means of gathering information Journalists looking for new angles on existing stories confirmation of own assumptions reaction to statements of others provocation to others above all, quotable quotes Interview preparation Identify and list all facts Define key messages Anticipate questions Draw up danger list Practice responses Telephone No need to answer immediately Ask what topics are Write down key points Choose ground Avoid speaker phone Beware of conference calls No interruptions - turn off mobiles Listen carefully to questions Stay simple. Don t assume journalists and listeners have tables, photos, diagrams Radio Determine if informal, taped or on air Make sure name and position understood Present main points and conclusions first Ask for direction of questions in advance Repeat your message Avoid jargon Make statements you can support factually TV Be yourself! Remember 70% impression comes from how you look 20% impression comes from how you sound 10% impression comes from what you say . .. Unless you say the wrong thing! TV Appearance Look at interviewer. Don t worry about camera Talk with your normal vitality Remember, smallest gesture is magnified Be alert to signals to wind-up interview Be open, friendly and relaxed. Never talk down Average TV news piece is 40-60 seconds. You may occupy 20 seconds. Make the most of it. When appearing on TV . Be careful about choice of clothes and accessories Take a tissue Accept studio make-up Refuse alcohol Year long plan overall, and sometimes general communications map for the year Campaign plan more specific plan for campaigns within the year Event plan planning for key events Overview Objectives Strategy Audiences Media Activities Budget (Money, Time and Personnel) Set out communications objectives for your organisation, eg. To raise awareness of child poverty To promote needs of people with disabilities Be specific Prioritise Don t have too many objectives 2-3 plenty Be realistic - time, resource restraints Strategy describes how you are going to achieve your objectives, eg. You want to influence child poverty policy: Target media which policy makers read and listen to You want to assure families living in poverty that you are working for them: Concentrate on local radio Who do you want to reach? Don t always stick with the usual suspects Have something for everyone in the audience The most important audience Keep up to date with Ireland s changing media Utilise all types of media just because your story doesn t appear in the Irish Times doesn t mean it isn t a success Media goes beyond national radio, tv and newspapers local media, magazines, free-sheets Activities give legs to strategies No point in re-inventing the wheel add value to events, campaigns etc. already planned by your organisation Cross check for success does this activity achieve objectives and reach target audience Creativity essential it s a crowded market. Stand out. Utilise wide variety of media Use variety of media tools Match different angles to different audiences Be prepared to say the unexpected Have good, interesting interviewees at hand Use human interest A picture tells a thousand words Co-ordination an advantage when possible and appropriate, co-ordinate media activity with similar organisations No point in two organisations working on similar themes at same time Invite others to come on board - impact strengthened if there is alliance Common objectives can be met more economically Know your budget Know your resources Know your limits - statutory, NGO funding consequences etc. Radical or redundant doesn t always pertain Press releases Interviews Press releases Interviews Press releases Interviews To Re-cap Know what you want to achieve Know how you can best achieve it Know your audience Know your media Be creative Be realistic and practical This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com. 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