Alameda Unified School District Healthy Kids Review (Elementary) Chelsea A. Quann California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) Assessing health-risk behaviors and promoting youth wellness and school success The CHKS is an integral part of efforts to improve student academic performance, enhance youth assets, and promote positive youth development. Alameda CHKS cont. Data collected and compared from surveys taken in 2005 and 2007 Primary level: 5th grade students 2005: 61% participation (463 students surveyed) 2007: 66% participation (500 students surveyed) What’s Working? Table 2. Fifth Grade Results for SDFSCA/TUPE Performance Indicators Recommended by CDE, Two-Year Comparison Spring 2005 Spring 2007 Protective Factors The percentage of students that report high levels of caring relationships with a teacher or other adult at their school 61% 56% The percentage of students that report high levels of high expectations from a teacher or other adult at their school 57% 59% The percentage of students that report high levels of school connectedness at their school (Total School Assets) 47% 50% Wellness Policy What is the Wellness policy? The district’s Wellness Policy was adopted to foster wellness among students and staff in the Alameda Unified School District and provide a coordinated school health program. The Wellness Policy is federally mandated and is comprised of 9 different elements, Comprehensive Health Education; Physical Education, Physical Activity and Athletics; Health Service; Nutrition Services; Mental Health and Social Services; Healthy School Environment; Health Promotion for Staff; Family, School and Community Partnerships; Implementation and Evaluation (BP 5030). The Wellness Policy was written and developed by community members, teachers, staff, parents, and students. The policy was adopted by the Board of Education in June of 2006 and complies with both federal and state mandates, including the California Department of Education Health Framework. Which Areas Need Improvement? SUBSTANCES: Use & Perceptions Lack of prevention & intervention programs Significant Change Comparisondata between 2005 and 2007 survey years Lookingat criteria that had a change of 5% or more Alcohol Use among 5th Graders Ever used alcohol? 2005: 25% 2007: 32% 7% INCREASE over 2 years Perceived Harm of Alcohol Belief that alcohol is very bad for one’s health. 2005: 73% 2007: 64% 9% decrease over two years Perceived Harm of Marijuana Belief that marijuana is very bad for one’s health* 2005: 95% 2007: 89% 6% decrease over two years *Excludes students who answered ―I don’t know what marijuana is.‖ What are the risks? Those who experiment with substances (even once) at such a young age are at risk for later involvement. Students who begin using alcohol/cigarettes/marijuana in elementary school are 5x more likely as their peers to use in middle school. (Wilson et al., 2002) Perceptions of high harm/risk associated with lower rates of use over time Risks Substance use in youth & adolescence associated with: – Declining grades – School absenteeism – Dropouts – Cognitive and behavioral problems experienced by youth/adolescents using substances may affect academic performance – Developmental Problems—use may negatively impact formation of a strong self-identity, emotional and intellectual growth, establishment of a career, and the development of rewarding personal relationships. What can we do? about the potential risks Education and harm of alcohol and marijuana prevention programs at the Primary elementary level Prevention Programs Early use of ATOD is associated with greatly increased odds of later use, which has important implications for the timing of drug prevention programs….Preventive interventions… should commence no later than elementary school. (Wilson et al., 2002) Prevention Programs cont. In general, programs focusing on only one potential influence on adolescent substance use (e.g., media influences, resistance skills) have not proven to be effective. Programs using a broader life skills training approach have been the most successful, such as Project Northland (Perry et al., 1993) and Life Skills Training (Botvin, 1986). Early intervention and prevention strategies that address more general social and behavioral problems in addition to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use issues are most appropriate (Hops et al., 1999). A more comprehensive approach is encouraged for all prevention efforts, whether at the individual or community level. Prevention Programs cont. Social skills promote healthy social engagement with both peers and adults, both of which emerged as significant protectors against adolescent substance use (Hops et al., 1999). Efforts to enhance the social skills of youth are likely to be an effective avenue of prevention at the individual level (Bierman, 1996) Principles of Effective Primary Prevention Programs Comprehensive Varied Teaching Methods Sufficient Dosage Theory Driven Positive Relationships Principles of Effective Primary Prevention Programs, cont. Appropriately Timed Socioculturally Relevant Outcome Evaluation Well-trained Staff Nation et al., 2003. What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 449-456. Grants Currently in place for tobacco use prevention grades 6-8 and 9-12. Consider writing grant proposals to get prevention programs in place at the elementary level where they may be more effective in promoting later success in school. Commitment to keeping AUSD students happy, healthy and successful! References Meschke, L.L. & Patterson, J.M., 2003. Resilience as a theoretical base for substance abuse prevention. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 23(4), 483-514. Wilson, N., Battistich, V., Syme, S.L., & Boyce, W.T., 2002. Does elementary school alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use increase middle school risk? Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(6), 442-447. Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K.L., Seybolt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E., & Davino, K., 2003. What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 449-456. Summary of Findings from the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 99-3328. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1999. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment of Adolescents With Substance Abuse Problems. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 32. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 99-3283. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1999. California Healthy Kids Survey, California Department of Education (Safe and Healthy Kids Program Office) and WestEd (Health and Human Development Department).
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