Document Sample
Louisiana Powered By Docstoc
					                                             National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

                                             LOUISIANA – 2008 Profile
HIV/AIDS Epidemic
HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of over 550,000 Americans. Today, about 1.1 million Americans are living with HIV, the
virus that causes AIDS, and one fifth of those infected are unaware of their infection.

           Reported AIDS Cases Among Adults and                                       Reported AIDS Cases by Race/Ethnicity,
           Adolescents by Transmission Category,                                        Cumulative through 2007, Louisiana
             Cumulative through 2007, Louisiana                                                       N = 18,612
                           N = 18,480

                                      MSM (39.0%)                                                          White, not Hispanic (36.1%)
                                      IDU (16.2%)                                                          Black, not Hispanic (60.7%)
                                      MSM/IDU (8.0%)                                                       Hispanic (2.4%)
                                      Hemophilia (0.5%)                                                    Asian (0.2%)
                                      Heterosexual Sex (12.7%)                                             American Indian/Alaska Native (0.1%)
                                      Blood Transfusion (1.4%)                                             Unknown/Other (0.5%)
                                      Unknown/Other (22.3%)

Louisiana reported 18,612 AIDS cases to CDC, cumulatively from the beginning of the epidemic through December
2007. Louisiana ranked 11th highest among the 50 states in cumulative reported AIDS cases.

Tuberculosis (TB)
                                                                        Although the overall rate of TB in the U.S. has declined
           TB Cases by Race/Ethnicity, 2007, Louisiana                  substantially since 1992, the rate of decrease among
                               N = 218                                  foreign-born persons has been much smaller than that for
                                                                        U.S.-born persons.
                                   White (23.9%)                        In 2007, Louisiana reported:
                                   Black/African American (57.8%)
                                                                        •	 The 8th highest rate of TB among states in the U.S. (5.1
                                   Hispanic/Latino (11.9%)
                                   Asian (6.4%)                            per 100,000 persons).
                                                                        •	 16.5% of TB cases occurred in foreign-born persons.

Hepatitis A, B, and C Virus (HAV, HBV, HCV)
In the U.S., incidence of acute HAV and HBV in 2006 was                 In Louisiana, between 1997 and 2006:
the lowest ever recorded due to the availability of safe
                                                                         •	 Reported rates of acute hepatitis A decreased by 85%.
and effective vaccines. But there is no vaccine for HCV,
and chronic HBV and HCV account for more than 50%                        •	 Reported rates of acute hepatitis B decreased by 69%.
of new cases of chronic liver disease, a leading cause of               Louisiana began reporting cases of chronic Hepatitis C
death. Approximately 4.5 million people are estimated to                infection to the CDC in 2003.
be living with HBV and HCV infection, and of that number,
approximately 50% are unaware of their status.

                                                                    1     D E PA R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D H U M A N S E R V I C E S
                                                                                                         Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

                   P & S Syphilis Cases, 1998-2007, Louisiana                                      Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases, 1998-2007,
            800                                                                                 24,000

                                                                                                12,000                                                   Chlamydia
            200                                                                                  8,000
                  1998 1999 2000   2001 2002 2003   2004   2005 2006   2007                         0
                                                                                                         1998   2000   2002      2004     2006

Syphilis – Primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (the stages                       In 2007, Louisiana:
when syphilis is most infectious) remains a problem in the                         •	 Ranked 7th among 50 states in chlamydial infections
southern U.S. and some urban areas.                                                   (451.6 per 100,000 persons) and ranked 2nd among
 •	 Louisiana ranked 1st among 50 states, with 12.4 cases                             50 states in gonorrheal infections (259.7 per 100,000
    of P&S syphilis per 100,000 persons.                                              persons).
 •	 The number of congenital syphilis cases increased from                         •	 Reported rates of chlamydia among women (696.4
    8 in 1998 to 36 in 2007.                                                          cases per 100,000) that were 3.9 times greater than
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea – Chlamydial and gonorrheal                                   those among men (180.2 cases per 100,000).
infections in women are usually asymptomatic and often
go undiagnosed. Untreated, these infections can lead
to pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause tubal
infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Program Initiatives Supported by CDC
HIV/AIDS – CDC utilizes a comprehensive approach                                  TB – In Louisiana, CDC funds the health department for TB
to HIV prevention that includes surveillance, research,                           prevention and control activities, including surveillance, case
interventions, capacity building, and evaluation. In                              management, and directly observed therapy. These funds also
Louisiana, CDC supports the state health department                               support the identification and evaluation of persons exposed
                                                                                  to TB, as well as laboratory services, medical consultation for
and 7 community-based organizations to conduct and
                                                                                  complex TB cases, and training for state and local TB control
support HIV prevention programs. Programs are designed                            staff.
to meet the cultural needs, expectations, and values of
the populations they serve, and CDC involves affected                             Viral Hepatitis – In Louisiana, CDC supports a viral hepatitis
communities in the HIV prevention community planning                              prevention coordinator to provide management, networking,
                                                                                  and technical expertise for successful integration of viral hepatitis
process to ensure that funding goes to those who need it
                                                                                  prevention activities into existing public health programs.
most. Research, surveillance, and other prevention efforts
are also supported.                                                                CDC funding to Louisiana, 2008
STDs – In Louisiana, CDC funds the state health department
                                                                                   HIV/AIDS                                   $11,841,910
through the Comprehensive STD Prevention System (CSPS)
grant program. CSPS supports a community-wide, science-                            STDs                                       $2,269,168
based, interdisciplinary approach to STD prevention that
                                                                                   TB                                         $1,542,695
includes behavioral interventions, medical and laboratory
services, disease surveillance, outbreak response, professional                    Viral Hepatitis                            $90,931
development, and STD awareness and education campaigns.
                                                                                  For More Information
As part of its CSPS grant, the Louisiana state health department
receives funding specifically for syphilis elimination. CDC also                  Louisiana: www.dhh.louisiana.gov/
funds extramural research in Louisiana.
                                                                                  CDC: www.cdc.gov/nchhstp

                                                                              2     D E PA R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D H U M A N S E R V I C E S
                                                                                                                                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention