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Alabama by wol78781


									                                                  National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

                                                  ALABAMA – 2008 Profile
HIV/AIDS Epidemic
HIV/AIDS has claimed the lives of over 550,000 Americans. Today, about 1.1 million Americans are living with HIV, the
virus that causes AIDS, and one fifth of those infected are unaware of their infection.

           Reported AIDS Cases Among Adults and                                           Reported AIDS Cases by Race/Ethnicity,
           Adolescents by Transmission Category,                                            Cumulative through 2007, Alabama
             Cumulative through 2007, Alabama                                                              N = 9,091
                            N = 9,015
                                            MSM (45.6%)
                                            IDU (13.5%)                                                          White, not Hispanic (35.9%)
                                                                                                                 Black, not Hispanic (62.1%)
                                            MSM/IDU (8.0%)
                                                                                                                 Hispanic (1.5%)
                                            Hemophilia (0.8%)                                                    Asian (0.1%)
                                            Heterosexual Sex (18.1%)                                             Unknown/Other (0.4%)
                                            Blood Transfusion (1.0%)
                                            Unknown/Other (13.0%)

Alabama reported 9,091 AIDS cases to CDC, cumulatively from the beginning of the epidemic through December 2007.
Alabama ranked 23rd highest among the 50 states in cumulative reported AIDS cases.

Tuberculosis (TB)
                                                                           Although the overall rate of TB in the U.S. has declined
         TB Cases by Race/Ethnicity, 2007, Alabama                         substantially since 1992, the rate of decrease among
                             N = 175                                       foreign-born persons has been much smaller than that for
                                                                           U.S.-born persons.
                            White (32.6%)
                                                                           In 2007, Alabama reported:
                            Black/African American (46.9%)
                            Hispanic/Latino (12.0%)                        •	 The 23rd highest rate of TB among states in the U.S.
                            Asian (8.0%)
                                                                              (3.8 per 100,000 persons).
                            Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (0.6%)
                                                                           •	 21.1% of TB cases occurred in foreign-born persons.

Hepatitis A, B, and C Virus (HAV, HBV, HCV)
In the U.S., incidence of acute HAV and HBV in 2006 was                    In Alabama, between 1997 and 2006:
the lowest ever recorded due to the availability of safe                   •	 Reported rates of acute Hepatitis A decreased by 85%.
and effective vaccines. But there is no vaccine for HCV,
                                                                           •	 Reported rates of acute Hepatitis B increased by 11%.
and chronic HBV and HCV account for more than 50%
of new cases of chronic liver disease, a leading cause of
death. Approximately 4.5 million people are estimated to
be living with HBV and HCV infection, and of that number,
approximately 50% are unaware of their status.

                                                                       1     D E PA R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D H U M A N S E R V I C E S
                                                                                                            Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

                     P & S Syphilis Cases, 1998-2007, Alabama                                      Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Cases, 1998-2007,
                                                                                             28,000                  Alabama
             300                                                                             20,000


             100                                                                              8,000                                                    Chlamydia
                                                                                              4,000                                                    Gonorrhea
                   1998 1999 2000   2001 2002 2003   2004   2005 2006   2007                     0
                                                                                                      1998   2000   2002       2004      2006
                                           Year                                                                       Year

Syphilis – Primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (the stages                        In 2007, Alabama:
when syphilis is most infectious) remains a problem in the                         •	 Ranked 4th among 50 states in chlamydial infections
southern U.S. and some urban areas.                                                   (546.9 per 100,000 persons) and ranked 4th among
 •	 Alabama ranked 2nd among 50 states, with 8.3 cases                                50 states in gonorrheal infections (236.7 per 100,000
    of P&S syphilis per 100,000 persons.                                              persons).
 •	 The number of congenital syphilis cases decreased                              •	 Reported rates of chlamydia among women (809.7
    from 12 in 1998 to 9 in 2007.                                                     cases per 100,000) that were 3 times greater than
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea – Chlamydial and gonorrheal                                   those among men (267.1 cases per 100,000).
infections in women are usually asymptomatic and often
go undiagnosed. Untreated, these infections can lead
to pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause tubal
infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Program Initiatives Supported by CDC
HIV/AIDS – CDC utilizes a comprehensive approach                                   TB – In Alabama, CDC funds the health department for TB
to HIV prevention that includes surveillance, research,                            prevention and control activities, including surveillance,
interventions, capacity building, and evaluation. In                               case management, and directly observed therapy. These
Alabama, CDC supports the state health department                                  funds also support the identification and evaluation of
and 2 community-based organizations to conduct and                                 persons exposed to TB, as well as laboratory services,
support HIV prevention programs. Programs are designed                             medical consultation for complex TB cases, and training for
to meet the cultural needs, expectations, and values of                            state and local TB control staff.
the populations they serve, and CDC involves affected                              Viral Hepatitis – In Alabama, CDC supports an adult viral
communities in the HIV prevention community planning                               hepatitis prevention coordinator to provide management,
process to ensure that funding goes to those who need it                           networking, and technical expertise for successful
most. Research and surveillance are also supported                                 integration of viral hepatitis prevention activities into
STDs – In Alabama, CDC funds the state health department                           existing public health programs and a cooperative
through the Comprehensive STD Prevention System                                    agreement to develop, implement and evaluate viral
(CSPS) grant program. CSPS supports a community-                                   hepatitis networking, education and training.
wide, science-based, interdisciplinary approach to STD
prevention that includes behavioral interventions, medical                         CDC funding to Alabama, 2008
and laboratory services, disease surveillance, outbreak                            HIV/AIDS                           $3,767,851
response, professional development, and STD awareness                              STDs                               $4,624,586
and education campaigns. As part of its CSPS grant,
the Alabama state health department receives funding                               TB                                 $1,180,216
specifically for syphilis elimination. CDC also supports                           Viral Hepatitis                    $242,956
an STD-HIV prevention training center in Alabama and                               For More Information
research projects with the University of Alabama.
                                                                               2     D E PA R T M E N T O F H E A L T H A N D H U M A N S E R V I C E S
                                                                                                                           Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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