Phonetics Lesson Henrico County Public Schools tonic

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Phonetics Lesson Henrico County Public Schools tonic Powered By Docstoc
					    Why learn Spanish
Phonics is the set of rules that governs
the way words are pronounced and
spelled. Every language has its own
set of rules and exceptions.

Spanish is a very phonetic language.
That means that Spanish follows a set
of strict rules for pronunciation and
spelling, with very few exceptions.

Learning phonics can help you spell,
read and understand BETTER.

        This lesson was created by Teresa D. Nolte
        Godwin High School – Richmond, Virginia

I take it you already know
Of tough and bough and cough and dough?
Others may stumble, but not you
On hic-cough, through, slough and through?
Well done! An now you wish, perhaps
To learn of less familiar traps?

Beware of heard, a dreadful word
That looks like heard and sounds like bird.
And dead; it’s said like bed, not bead;
For goodness sake, don’t call it deed!
Watch out for meat and great and threat
(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt).
A moth is not moth in mother
Nor both in bother, broth in brother.
And here is not a match for there
Nor dear and fear for bear and pear,
And then –there’s dose and rose and lose –
Just look them up—and goose and choose,
And cork and work and card and ward,
And front and font and word and sword,
And do and go, then thwart and cart,
Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start.

A dreadful language? Why, man alive
I’d learned to talk it when I was five,
And yet to write it, the more I tried,
I hadn’t learned it at fifty-five.
Reprnted from Foreign Language Beacon
 Vowels have only one sound:

      A-     like the a in father
      E-     like the e in bet
      I-     like the sound in beet
      O-     like the initial sound in open
      U-     like the oo sound in boot

   (the Y can also be a vowel after
   another vowel)
 In Spanish, vowel sounds are
very crisp and short in duration.
     Keep the mouth tense.
   The STRONG vowels are

    The WEAK vowels are

 A diphthong is a combination
of a STRONG and WEAK vowel
 or two WEAK vowels. Say the
strong vowel a little louder than
the weak one. If both are weak
  the second vowel is louder.

ai, ei, oi, ay, ey, oy, au, eu, ou
       ia, ie, io, ua, ue, uo
                  iu, ui
Accent the WEAK vowel to
break up a diphtong:
     días, país, frutería, Raúl

Underline the diphtongs in the
following words as you say
them out loud:
  seis,   siete,     nueve,    diez,
  bailar, historia, Guatemala, hoy,
       Europa, ciudad, cuidado

A triphthong is a combination
of a strong vowel between two
weak vowels. You won’t see
these as often, but many
combinations are possible.
iai: limpiáis    uay: Paraguay
iei: estudiéis    iau: miau
More about vowels:
Vowels are fully pronounced
never silent or half sounds, like
these examples in English.

late (e is silent)
    (e is not fully sounded)

The letter U is silent after a Q
and in the two syllables:
  gue and gui.

Add two dots to make the u
sound in güe and güi.

     bilingüe, pingüino
B (be)  softer and less air
        ba, be, bi, bo, bu
        baño, beso, Biblia, boca, buho
C (ce) makes two sounds, according to
the vowel that follows:
        ca = ka
        ce = se      but, que = ke
        ci = si      but, qui = ki
        co = ko
        cu = ku
        once, dieciséis
        Carmen, Colombia, Cuba
Ch (che) no longer considered a
separate consonant in dictionary.
D (de)   softer and less air
         da, de, di, do, du
         dedo, Prado (think”although”)
F (efe)     same as English
            fa, fe, fi, fo, fu
            fácil, feo, enfocar, funeral
G (ge) Makes two sounds, according to
the vowel that follows:

ga (sounds like ga in garage)
ge = je (sounds like English h sound)
gi = ji (sounds like “he”)
          U is silent:
gue       sounds like Gay in Gaylord
gui       sounds like gee in geese

          U is sounded:
güe       bilingüe, nicaragüense
güi       pingüino
H (hache) always silent
          ha, he, hi, ho, hu
          hermana, hijo, hola, húmedo
J (jota)                  same as “h” in English
                          ja, je, ji, jo, ju
                          jamón, jirafa, ajo, jugo
K (ka)      same as English
            ka, ke, ki, ko, ku
used only for foreign words:
            kaiser, kimono, kindergarten,
L (ele)                   same as English
                          la, le, li, lo, lu
                          lápiz, elefante, Lola, Lupita

LL (elle)* same as “y” in English
*No longer separate consonant in dictionary

                          lla, lle, lli, llo, llu
                          llamo, ella, allí, lluvia
M (eme)   same as “m” in English
          ma, me, mi, mo, mu
          A mí me mima mi mamá

N (ene)   same as “n” in English
          na, ne, ni, no, nu
          Nina, nena, no, nunca

Ñ (eñe)   same as “ny” in English
          ña, ñe, ñi, ño, ñu
          año, mañana, ñoña

P (pe)    softer, less air
          pa, pe, pi, po, pu
          paso, peso, piso, poso, puso

Q (cu)    sounds like “k” in English
          Used for que and qui
          queso, aquí, quién
          Rarely used for qua or quo
R (ere)    beginning a word, ROLL!
           rápido, ropa, ruso
inside a word, sounds like tt in “butter:
           pero / perro
           aroma / arroz
           Ramón, Rebeca, Ricardo,
           Roberto, Rudolfo

RR (erre) always ROLL
          lla, lle, lli, llo, llu word
          always inside a
          llamo, allí, lluvía
          pizarra, puertorriqueño

S (ese)     same as “s” in English
            sa, se, si, so, su
            sastre, semana, sí, sopa, sus

T (te)      softer, less air
            ta, te, ti, to, tu
            tasa, té tío, Tomás, tuna
V (ve)     softer, less air, like b
           va, ve, vi, vo, vu
           vaso, veo, vi, uva

W (doble ve) used for foreign words
Washington, Westinghouse, Williams

X (equis) sounds like Spanish j or ks
          Mexico or Mejico
          examen, éxito

Y (i griega) as a consonant, same as “ll”
            as a vowel, same as “i”
            ya, ayer, yeso,
            hay, ley, estoy
Z (zeta)   sounds like th in Spain
           like “s” in Southamerica
           za, ce, ci, zo, zu
           No ze or zi:
zapato, cesta, cisne, zoológico, zumo
In Spain: zumo sounds like thumo
in SA:     zumo sounds like sumo

   A       B     C CH D            E
   F       G     H  I J            K
   L       LL    M N Ñ             O
   P       Q     R RR S            T
   U       V     W X Y             Z

      More about consonants:
A consonant blend is a group of
consonants that blend together
and are pronounced as one
sound. Many of these are formed
with the l or r. Observe:
    br - abre   bl - hablar
    cr - creo   cl - clase
    tr - tres   pl – plan

In English, many consonant
blends are formed with
s + consonant but not in Spanish.
The s must have a vowel (often
the e) in front.  Observe:
    school      escuela
    student     estudiante
There are three basic rules for
dividing words into syllables.

Rule 1:     v/v
Divide between two STRONG vowels.

Rule 2:
Divide between two consonants, unless
they form a consonant blend. The LL and
RR are only one consonant. NEVER

Rule 3:     v/cv
A consonant forms a syllable with the
vowel that follows it.
Find and highlight all dipthongs.
Underline all consonant blends.
Practice dividing these words:

 1.   aeropuerto
 2.   microscópio
 3.   continente
 4.   diecisiete
 5.   veintidós
 6.   María
 7.   Mario
 8.   California
 9.   europeo
10.   abstracto

The syllable where you hear the
most emphasis is called the
TONIC SYLLABLE. Listen to the
following words and underline
where you hear the most stress
placed on the word.

1.         mosquito
2.         educación
3.         taxi
4.         popular
5.         estudiante
6.         árboles
mos-qui-to, e-du-ca-ción, ta-xi, po-pu-lar, es-tu-dian-te, ár-bo-les
Notice how some of the words
you just heard have written
accents marks and others don’t?

There are 3 reasons why a word
may have a written accent mark:

1. To change the sound pattern.

2. To separate a diphthong.

3. To distinguish it from another
word spelled the same way.
RULE 1: Let’s talk about the
sound pattern of Spanish words.

that end in N, S or a VOWEL
is the next to last syllable.
Look and listen:


Can you find 3 more examples?
that end in a consonant other than
N or S is the last syllable.
Look and listen.


To help you remember this two
part rule, just ask yourself, “Does
this word need an accent mark,
¿sí o no? GET IT?? “Sí o no”
helps you remember N, S, or
Any word that does not follow the
“Sí o No RULE” will have a written
accent. Look at all of these words
that have written accents. Divide
the words and explain why.

lápiz          (pencil)
RULE 2. We’ve already seen
examples of words that have
diphthongs. Let’s look at some
examples with and without accent
  diario          día
  Mario           María
  historia        frutería
  paisaje         país

Remember that the accent turns
the weak vowel into a strong one,
so it separates from the other
RULE 3. The “clones”
Accent marks are used to
distinguish between two words
that are spelled alike, but have
different meanings. Examples:
  él (he)      el (the)
  sí (yes)     si (if)
  tú (you)     tu (your)
  cómo (how)   como (as, like)

All of the interrogatives have
accents marks for this reason:
  ¿qué? (what) que (that)
  ¿cuál? (which) cual (whichever)
Many more examples to learn…
Want to learn more about this
topic? Check out these web sites:

List of interrogatives:
Great for punctuation:

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