TRANS ASIAN RAILWAY-MISSING LINKS

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      WELCOME
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                            BACKGROUND
 The Trans-Asian-Railway (TAR) is a project of the United Nations
  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  (UNESCAP) aiming to create an integrated freight railway network
  across Asia and Europe.

 The project was initiated in the 1960s, with the objective of providing
  a continuous 14,000 km rail link between Singapore and Istanbul,
  Turkey, with possible further connections to Europe and Africa.
  Progress in developing the TAR was hindered by political and
  economic obstacles throughout the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the
  end of cold war and normalisation of relations between some countries
  improved the prospectus of this project.
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                         BACKGROUND contd.
 The ESCAP at its forty-eighth session in 1992, endorsed an integrated
  project on Asia Land Transport Infrastructure Development (ALTID),
  comprising the TAR and the AH (Asian Highway) as a priority project.
 The commission, at its fifty-third session in 1997, reiterated its strong
  support for the ALTID project as a priority item in the regional action
  programme of the New Delhi Action Plan on Infrastructure
  Development in Asia and Pacific (1997-2006).
 The commission at its fifty-fifth session has again reiterated its strong
  support for the priority status of the integrated ALTID project stressing
  its practical importance to the developing countries in Asia.
 In November 2004 Regional Meeting for Drafting the
  Intergovernmental Agreement on the TAR organised by UNESCAP in
  Bangkok, a step forward in implementing the New Delhi Action
  Programme.
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                  ROUTE IDENTIFICATION OF TAR
 The route network were identified by the participating countries in
  accordance with the criteria set out in the document E/ESCAP/864
  “Selected Issues in The Fields of Activity of the Commission and its
  Regional Institutions as well as Reports of Regional Intergovernmental
  Bodies: New developments in Land Transport in Asia”. Accordingly,
  the nominated links had to satisfy one or more of the following
  criteria:
 Capital to capital link – for international traffic
 Connections to main industrial and agricultural centers as well as
  growth zones – links of important origin and destination points
 Connections to major sea and river port – integration of land and water
  transport
 Connection to major inland container terminals and depots– integration
  of rail and road network
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      ROUTE IDENTIFICATION OF TAR contd.
 Using these criteria, two types of railway routes
  have been identified. These are:

 Routes of international significance, which will
  facilitate uninterrupted transportation between:
  Southeast Asia and Europe; Southwestern China
  and Europe; Central Asia and Europe; and Central,
  South and Southeast Asia.
 Routes of sub regional significance, which will
  facilitate country to country, or hinterland to port,
  transportation.
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 The TAR network was initially divided into four major
  components. They are:
 The NORTHERN CORRIDOR linking Europe and the Pacific, via
  Germany, Poland, Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and
  the Koreas.
 The SOUTHERN CORRIDOR from Europe to Southeast Asia,
  connecting Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and
  Thailand.
 A sub regional network covering the ASEAN and Indo-China sub
  regions.
 A NORTH-SOUTH CORRIDOR linking Northern Europe to the
  Persian Gulf.
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 This discussion is focused on Missing Link of the Trans
  Asian Railway in general and that of the BIMSTEC and
  Mekong Ganga Cooperation countries in Specific.Missing
  Link in this context could be in terms of:
 Non –availability of railway track (Physical gap)
 Non uniformity of track structure including break of gauge
 Non –availability of common operation and maintenance
  procedures
 Non –availability of common commercial and accounting
  procedures.
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  MEMBER COUNTRIES OF THE MEKONG GANGA
              COOPERATION AND BIMSTEC
 Mekong Ganga Cooperation includes Cambodia, India,
  Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
 The BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral
  Technical and Economic Cooperation including
  Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Nepal
  and Bhutan.
 The portions of TAR located in the above countries fall in
  the Southern Corridor and the Indo-China and ASEAN
  Link.
TAR-SOUTHERN CORRIDOR
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Route ProfileTAR-S1; Main international trunk route, Kunming (China) to
                            Kapikule (Turkey)
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Route ProfileTAR-S2; East-west trunk route between Nam Tok (Thailand)
       and Mandlay (Myanmar) as part of intercontinental route Bangkok
                               to Kapikule
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Rail Route Choices: Bangkok-Europe, Bangkok-Central Asia and Islamic Republic of Iran
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Rail Route Choices: Alternative routes from Kunming to (I) Europe, (ii) Central Asia, (iii) Islamic
                                          Republic of Iran
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                        Rail Route Choices: General Observations
   In the case of Kunming and Bangkok-based shippers, the TAR southern corridor
    is unlikely to provide a competitive means of moving cargo consignments to
    Europe or to a majority of destinations in Central Asia, when there are other
    non-TAR route alternatives available which will provide shorter transit times and
    which do not suffer from a multiplicity of national frontiers and different track
    gauges.
   Such a conclusion would tend to suggest that the TAR southern corridor might
    be advantaged to serve trade within that part of the corridor bounded on the
    west by the eastern part of Turkey and on the east by Bangladesh and
    northeastern India, with the possibility that trade between Kunming, Bangkok
    and Yangon to most locations in South Asia and the Islamic Republic of Iran
    could also be efficiently served by the TAR southern corridor. On the basis that
    much of the trade within this part of the corridor is sourced in the hinterland (i.e.
    at some considerable distance from seaports) and is destined for other
    hinterland operations, the TAR southern corridor is likely to have the strong
    advantage of providing direct connections between these trade focal points.
    Whether this provides a real competitive advantage over the alternative
    combined shipping/land transport services is an issue.
MISSING LINKS IN RELATION TO EXISTING TAR NETWORK IN NORTHERN MYANMAR,
                   BANGLADESH AND NORTHEASTERN INDIA
MISSING LINKS BETWEEN THAILAND AND MYANMAR
        IN THE TAR SOUTHERN CORRIDOR
MISSING LINKS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMARIN THE TAR
                SOUTHERN CORRIDOR
MISSING LINKS BETWEEN INDIA AND MYANMARIN- THE TAR SOUTHERN CORRIDOR
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       Physical Gaps: TAR Network in Southern Corridor and Part of
                                ASEAN
Country         Section                              Gauge Length   Estimated Cost
                                                     (mm) (km)      (million USD)
                                                                    2005 prices
Turkey          Eastern and Western shores of lake   1435   99      N.A.
                Van
                Across Bosphorus Strait              1435   4       N.A.
Iran            Karman -Jahedan                      1435   545     654*
India           Jiribam -Tamu                        1676   180     405
Bangladesh      Jamuna River Bridge -Joydebpur       1676   99
Myanmar         Tamu-Kalay                           1000   135     236
                Thambuzayat-Three Pagoda Pass        1000   110     251
                Lashio-Muse                          1000   232     387
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   Physical Gaps: TAR Network in Southern Corridor and Part of
                        ASEAN Contd.

Country       Section                       Gauge Length   Estimated Cost
                                            (mm) (km)      (million USD)
                                                           2005 prices
China         Muse-Dali                     1435   632     4796
Thailand      Three Pagoda Pass -Namtok     1000   153     476
Cambodia      Poipet – Sisophon             1000   48      69
              Phnom Penh – Loc Ninh         1000   254     417
Laos PDR      Nong Khai - Vientiane         1000   14      N.A.
Vietnam       Loc Ninh – Ho Chi Minh city   1000   129     205
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                    BREAK OF GUAGE
 The portion of TAR, falling in the Southern corridor and
  the ASEAN region suffers most from the break of gauge
  problem.
 The southern corridor of the TAR involves three gauges;
  meter (1000mm), standard (1435mm) and broad
  (1676mm). A continuous rail link on TAR-S1 could have
  up to five inter-gauge transfer points.
 Most of the southeast Asian countries, particularly the
  MGC countries (Mayanmar, Bangkok, Thailand,
  Cambodia, Lao PDR) have meter gauge (1000mm).
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                   BREAK OF GUAGE
The solutions for break of gauge include;
 Gauge Unification: re-gauging (by repositioning
  one rail), new track or new formation,
  dual/composite gauging;
 Gauge Bridging: bogie exchange, variable gauge
  wheel sets; and
 Designing container handling facilities at both
  ends of the routes and at the and at the break of
  gauge points (as close as possible to the main
  trunk line), and well-equipped (availability of
  adequate handling equipment).
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        REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE TAR
  Primary requirement of the TAR network is that it should in
  future permit rail conveyance of shipping containers of all types
  and sizes either currently used or likely to be used in
  international trade, at speeds which are competitive with those
  of alternative transport modes.
The practical implications of this requirement are that:
 The limiting dimensions of structures throughout this network
  should be sufficient to allow unrestricted passage of wagons
  conveying the highest and widest containers used in
  international trade i,e. the structure gauge adopted for the
  network should provide adequate clearance for such containers
  carried at normal speeds.
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         REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE TAR contd.
•   The maximum allowable axle loads throughout the network should be
    sufficient to allow conveyance of such containers in trainloads of
    economic size and configuration. In practice , this would mean that axle
    loads would need to be sufficient for the conveyance on a single wagon
    of the equivalent of two (and in some cases three) twenty foot
    containers loaded up to or near their maximum payload or for the
    operation of locomotives of adequate power rating.
   The maximum allowable line speeds throughout the network must be
    consistent with the realisation of commercial speeds which are
    competitive with those of the alternative transport modes (bearing in
    mind that maximum line speed is only one of the factors influencing
    commercial speed, other important ones being operational and border
    crossing stopping times, signalling system performance, infrastructure
    condition, and motive power and rolling stock condition and
    performance.
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          Technical Requirements- Load and Structure Dimensions

   High cube containers 40ft (l)x8ft (w)x9ft 6 inch (h) are most commenly
    used in the region.
   Use of Super high cube containers 40ft (l)x8ft 6 inch (w)x9ft 6 inch (h)
    is increasing.
   Design of future container wagons and the dimensions of structures
    should satisfy the requirements of super high cube containers loaded
    on conventional container wagons (typical height 1.1 m above the rail.
   Allowance for vertical and lateral movement of wagons due to track
    irregularities or vehicle dynamics on curved track sections (typical
    clearance of 40 cm between the outside dimension of the laoded
    wagons and the inside dimension of structures to be allowed).
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                TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
Load and structure dimensions: conformity with requirements
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                   TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS – AXLE LOAD


The key determinant of axle load requirements for the TAR network is unlikely to
   be the maximum load bearing on track through the axles of a container wagon,
   but rather the maximum axle loading of locomotives used for freight haulage.
• For broad gauge and standard gauge maximum axle load of locomotives
   (diesel) is approximately 19 tonnes.
• The maximum axle load of meter gauge locomotives is not more than 15
   tonnes.
• The maximum axle load of container wagons:
          On B.G. (In India and Pakistan)                     17.5 t
          On S.G. (Iran)                                      20.0 t
          On M.G. (Thailand)                                  15.0 t
• However, certain railway (Malasiya and Thailand) in the region have started
   opting for heavier axle load (20 t) to gain the benefits of increased tonnage
   throughput and reduced operating cost per gross tonne km.
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                      TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS – AXLE LOAD
•   There are compelling arguments in favour of adopting one axle load standard for
    those parts of the TAR network for which interchangeability of rolling stock, and
    possibly of locomotives, between railway systems is a practical option. This will
    generally apply to the standard and broad components of the network. It is
    evident that a 20 tonne axle load will satisfy the needs of international container
    traffic likely to use these components of the TAR network, in terms of
    accommodating the highest loads likely to bear on track through the axles of
    container wagons or of the high horse power locomotives needed to haul
    container trains of economic configuration.

   While it may be argued that axle loadings of this magnitude might never be
    imposed on metre gauge track and structures, it has been assumed that the
    other benefits accruing to metre gauge operators will be sufficient to justify their
    adoption of a 20 tonne axle load in the longer term. However, from the
    perspective of meeting the heaviest axle loads likely to be imposed by
    locomotives and rolling stock, it would be sufficient if the metre gauge
    components of the TAR network could be designed in future to accommodate
    axle loadings of up to 15 tonnes.
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          TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
     Axle Load: conformity with requirements
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                     TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
                    Speed: standards and requirements

   It is established in this study that commercial speeds for international
    freight trains operating in this TAR corridor should be at least 20 km per
    hour in order to provide transit times which are competitive with the
    principal alternative transport modes - in this case mainly shipping.

   Typically, commercial speeds in the corridor represent about 50 per
    cent of the average running speeds, which in turn represent about 55-
    60 per cent of the maximum permissible speed.

   Therefore, to ensure attainment of a target commercial speed of 20
    km/hour, a maximum permissible speed for freight trains of at least 70
    km/hour should apply throughout the TAR network.
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                     TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
             Speed: conformity of participating railway systems

Existing speeds for freight traffic in the TAR network in:

   China : 80 kmph (mps)
   India : >70 kmph (mps), commercial speed <20 kmph
   Islamic Republic of Iran : commercial speed >25 kmph
   Myanmar: 32 kmph (mps), commercial speed 12-14 kmph
   Pakistan: 55 kmph (mps)
   Sri Lanka: 50 kmph (mps)
   Thailand: 70 kmph (mps)
   Turkey: 65 kmph (MPS)
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                 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
                      Speed: Summary

 Maximum freight train speeds of less than 70 km per hour apply
  throughout a majority of existing links comprising the main
  transcontinental route TAR-S, implying that this route cannot yet
  offer a commercial speed, end to end, of at least 20 km per
  hour.

 A combination of inadequate track and rolling stock standards
  and condition explains this sub-optimal performance.

 Considerable investment in track and rolling stock rehabilitation/
  improvement is likely to be required in order to bring speeds up
  to required levels.
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                     OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    Since the attraction of container traffic to the TAR network depends in
    large measure on rail being able to deliver a cost effective and reliable
    service as compared with its competitors in the corridor, it is essential
    that any operational impediments to realization of these goals be
    removed.

In this context five factors are important:

   Compatibility in terms of the type and design of rolling stock employed
    by neighboring railway systems in international traffic :would ensure
    rolling stock inter-operability when no break-of-gauge is involved.

   Compatibility of train assembly and load scheduling practices between
    neighboring railway systems will be essential in order to avoid the
    necessity of having to readjust train loads at borders.
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                    OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    Contd.

   The presence of adequate route capacity on existing links in the TAR
    corridor will be essential if the corridor is to meet its objective of
    providing a cost effective and competitive means for the international
    transportation of containers; and

    Breaks-of-gauge while not posing a problem currently, are likely to
    become a problem in the future when lines of differing track gauge are
    connected within the territory of one country, Bangladesh, and at two
    borders, China/Myanmar and Islamic Republic of Iran/Pakistan.
    Possible re-gauging of the existing metre gauge network in
    northeastern India would create two additional breaks-of-gauge at
    borders - between India and Myanmar and between Bangladesh and
    India(northeast). Provision of modern, high speed container
    transshipment equipment at all break-of-gauge points will be essential
    to minimize delays.
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                      COMMERCIAL REQUIREMENTS
       There is no guarantee that the mere availability of a through railway route to
       Europe will automatically encourage freight shippers based in Kunming or
       elsewhere throughout the TAR southern corridor to use this route. In making
       decisions about route and mode choices, shippers will always be guided by
       their perceptions of the relative cost, standard and reliability of services
       offered by alternative modes and operators.

       For container shippers, the following service attributes are considered to be
       important in arriving at decisions about mode and route choice:
(i)    Overall costs paid by shippers inclusive of transportation, handling and
       repositioning costs of containers taking into account the shipping logistics;
(ii)   Transit time, representing the time interval between dispatch of a
       consignment from a shipper=s premises and its arrival at the consignee=s
       premises;
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                  COMMERCIAL REQUIREMENTS
Contd.
(iii)Consignment security, or the extent to which consignments will be
    secure from damage or pilferage enroute, since this could affect an
    operators insurance cover and hence the overall transportation cost;
(iv) Reliability of service - specifically the extent to which an operator or
    mode can consistently meet promised delivery times for the shippers
    consignments;
(v) Comprehensiveness of service provided by operators, in terms of the
    extent to which a single operator will arrange and accept responsibility
    for all components of the transportation/handling chain between
    ultimate origin and destination; and
(vi) Availability of real time information on the location of a freight
    consignment or container at any point in its journey between origin and
    ultimate destination.
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   Assumed Technical Standards of new TAR Links
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    Assumed Costs of Missing Link Construction
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                             Threshold Freight Tonnage
           Missing Link              Estimated threshold freight tonnage requirements
                                                   (million tonnes per annum)
Dali-Ruli (China)                                             17.4

Ruli/Muse-Lashio (Myanmar)                                    14.0

NamTok-Three Pagoda Pass                                       7.3
(Myanmar)
Three Pagoda Pass-Thabyuzayat                                  7.1
(Myanmar)
Kalay-Tamu (Myanmar)                                           8.7

Karman-Jahedan(Islamic Repiblic of                             9.9
Iran)
Jiribam-Kalay/Tamu (India)                                     9.2
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Rail hauled international container traffic forecast-all TAR links in India
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Traffic forecasts in relation to threshold tonnage requirements
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         Traffic forecasts in relation to threshold tonnage requirements
                                    Observations
   The forecast data relate to the total tonnage carried across borders by
    all modes. These forecasts were derived by applying the growth
    factors.
   The high order of construction cost influenced by the severity of the
    terrain through which most of these links would have to pass resulted in
    annual threshold tonnages of a high order of magnitude.
   In no case would the threshold tonnage requirement be met by the
    forecast traffic on offer, even in the unlikely event that rail would secure
    100 per cent of this traffic. However, it has to be noted that these
    forecasts do not allow for generated traffic demand, as described
    above. It is likely that the justification of all of the listed missing link
    construction projects would depend heavily on identification of an
    adequate level of generated traffic demand.
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      A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
         REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC


 Most of the earlier discussions on gaps in realisation of the TAR
  were concentrated on the routes of international significance.
  However, as noted during our interactions with the member
  countries of BIMSTEC, a number of projects are being
  implemented/planned towards up gradation of the railway
  system, which will accelerate realisation of the TAR project.

 Majority of these projects would upgrade the railway operation
  on the routes of sub-regional significance.
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   A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN REALISATION OF
                            THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                                 Projects in Bangladesh
Ongoing/Completed:
• Supply of 10 MG locomotives including service contract for 7 years (2001)
• Supply of 3 BG locomotives under Indian line of credit (2004)
• Supply of Diesel Locomotive spares (2004-05)
• Regional Rail Traffic Enhancement Study (ADB Technical Assistance-2004)
Planned:
• Procurement of 10 BG and 17 MG locomotives
• Procurement of 318 BG and 135 MG Hopper
• Feasibility study for conversion and doubling of railway track between Dhaka and
    Chittgaon
• Feasibility study for a new ICD at Dhirasram
• Consultancy services for rehabilitation of locos at central workshop, Parabtipur
• Study for modernization of Carriage and Wagon workshop at Saidpur.
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        A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
            REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                              Projects in Myanmar
Ongoing/Completed:
• Supply of 11 locomotives and 36 coaches (2006)
• Feasibility Study of India-Myanmar (Jiribam-Mandalay) rail link, which part
   of the TAR alignment (2005)
Planned:
• RITES have conducted a technical study for improvement of railway services
   on Yangoon-Mandalay trunk line, which includes up gradation of track,
   workshop and S&T system. The study contemplates investment of USD
   413.75 in three phases.
• Proposal for Detailed Project Report of the Tamu-Kalay new rail link is under
   consideration by the Indian government.
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        A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
            REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                              Projects in Sri Lanka
Planned:
• Sri Lanka Railway have submitted a proposal to the Govt. of Sri Lanka for up
   gradation of Colombo-Galle-Matara railway line (coastal line) under Indian
   Line of Credit. Estimated cost of the project is 187.5 million USD.

•   RITES have made assessments for rehabilitation of various portions of the Sri
    Lanka railways to pre-tsunami level. Six packages have been identified at the
    total cost of 154 million USD.
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        A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
           REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                           Thailand

•   The State Railway of Thailand (SRT) is planning to acquire 2500 HP diesel
    electric locomotives from China. The SRT would supply locomotive to private
    operators on lease basis.

•   The private operators in Thailand are planning to acquire meter gauge
    container flat wagons and diesel electric locomotives from India for which
    preliminary discussions are going on.
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  A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN REALISATION OF
                            THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                                    Projects in Nepal
Completed:
• Construction of three ICDs, one each at the border towns of Biratnagar, Birgunj and
   Bhairhwa (2001). Out of these the ICD at Birgunj is rail based and has a connection with
   BG system of Indian railway through Raxaul and the subregional TAR network.
• Feasibility Study of India-Myanmar (Jiribam-Mandalay) rail link, which part of the
   TAR alignment (2005)
On-going:
• Presently Preliminary Engineering cum Traffic Survey (PETS) for railway connection at
   five locations is underway. These are;
 Nepalgunj road to Nepalgunj
 Jogbani to Biratnagar
 Jayanagar to Bijalpura and Bardibas
 Jalpaiguri to Kakrbita
 Nautanwa to Bhairwah
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        A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
            REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                               Projects in Bhutan
On-going:
• Feasibility Study for railway connection at five locations is underway. These
   are;

   Rangia to samdrupjongkhar-60 km
   Pathsala to Nanglam-40 km
   Kokrajhar to Jelphu-70 km
   Hasimara to Phuensholing-18 km
   Banarghat to Samtse-16 km
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        A STEP FORWARD TOWARDS BRIDGING THE GAPS IN
           REALISATION OF THE TAR PROJECT IN BIMSTEC
                            India

•   The Government of India has sanctioned budget for construction of the
    Jiribam-Tupul railway section (100km long) approximately halfway on the
    Jiribam-Morey/Tamu section (missing link of TAR on Indian Railway).

•   The final location survey of the said railway section is in progress by RITES.
    The construction is likely to be completed by 2011.
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    COMMON OBSERVATIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEVELOPMENT OF TAR


   Some common observations about development of the TAR network, noted
   during the formal as well as informal discussions with the representatives of
   the member countries in BIMSTEC and MCG have been presented below:
Maintenance and Operation Procedures: A common maintenance and operation
   manual should be evolved for the track and rolling stock involved in the TAR
   network. Such O&M manual should include;
 Two independent regulatory bodies, one each to monitor the condition of
   rolling stock and track. These bodies should have representation from all the
   member countries.
 Minimum standards should be evolved for fitness of the track, rolling stock
   and the operation crew.
 The rolling stock and the track should be subjected to periodical preventive
   mentainence. Details of such maintenance should be labelled on the rolling
   stock.
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    COMMON OBSERVATIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEVELOPMENT OF TAR contd.


 The rolling stock dedicated for the TAR network to be registered with the
  regulatory bodies.
Commercial and Accounting Procedures:
 The tariffs should be uniform as decided by the TAR regulatory body for this
  purpose, which should have representation from all the member countries.
 The tariff should be based on distance and principle of telescopic approach.
 The tariff should be commodity based.
 The goods should be examined and sealed at the origin. It should reach the
  destination without rechecking enroute unless the seal is tempered or there is
  information leading to sufficient evidence of doubt or guilt.
 There should be a common documenting procedure for all the member
  countries. Documents prepared at the origin should be acceptable throughout
  the journey.
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    COMMON OBSERVATIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEVELOPMENT OF TAR contd.


    There should be a common accounting procedure. A common computer
     software of accounting would be idle.

Investment and Financial Instruments for Resource Mobilisation:
 Establishment of an institution like the Asian Transport Infrastructure
   Development Bank is a common view. It should have share capital from
   member countries. The could provide part of the fund to respective
   governments for development of Tar, depending on the viability of the project.
   Balance fund to be generated by the governments from other existing lines of
   credit.
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