The Underground Railroad The Trail to Freedom by bix18616

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									    The Underground
        Railroad
: The Trail to Freedom
         The Underground Railroad:
                     3rd grade Unit
 By Alison Sharp, Betsy Brown, Nancy Kipler, Kelly Campbell and
                           Lisa Smith


1.   History
2.   People in Societies
3.   Geography
4.   Economics
5.   Government
6.   Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities
7.   Social Studies Skills and Methods
                                  History
*   Benchmark A, Chronology:Use field trip experiences that focus on the Underground
    Railroad to place learned information on a timeline.
    Indicator: Place local historical events in sequential order on a time line.

*   Benchmark C, Growth: Describe and draw house plans for houses used to hide slaves
    compared to our house structures today. Students could draw the layout of their house
    and tell where they would hide slaves today if they needed to.
    Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in physical features&
    architecture.

*   Benchmark C, Growth: Create a lesson plan for a class of slaves based on what they
    needed or were only allowed to learn and a lesson plan of what Caucasian students
    were learning during the time of the Underground Railroad and a lesson plan on what
    the students learn today. Students will then present their lesson plans to the class and
    the class will make a three-ringed Venn diagram based on the characteristics of each
    lesson plan. (The lesson plan could be as informal or formal as the teacher felt the
    students were capable of; a basic description of what would happen in class is
    acceptable.)
    Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in education.
                                     History
*   Benchmark C, Growth: Students will discuss the advantages and disadvantages to
    traveling the Underground Railroad in the winter and the summer. Students will form
    small groups and design a Venn Diagram showing the pros and cons to traveling in the
    winter and summer. Students will discuss their Venn Diagram with the class.As a whole
    group, the students will combine all the ideas on the Venn Diagrams and make a whole
    class display.
    Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in physical features.
*    Benchmark C, Growth: Research the schools created by former slaves to educate their
    children.
    What effect does education have on changing our society?
    Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in education.
                              History
• Websites:
 White House Kids.gov:
 http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/timeline/railroad.html

 Harriet Tubman & The Underground Railroad:
 http://www2.lhric.org/pocantico/tubman/tubman.html

 National Underground Freedom Center:
 http://www.freedomcenter.org/learn/underground-railroad/timeline/timeline.html

 Friends of the Underground Railroad:
 http://www.fourr.org/history_timeline.html

 Discover Ohio’s History
 http://consumer.discoverohio.com/consumer/support/blackhistory/attractions.asp
“The wind blows from the south today”= warning of slave bounty hunters nearby
“A friend with friends” = A password used to signal arrival of fugitives with
underground railroad conductor
“The friend of a friend sent me” = a password used by fugitives traveling alone to
indicate they were sent by the underground railroad network
Load of Potatoes, Parcel, or Bundles of Wood = fugitives to be expected
                    People in Societies
*   Benchmark A, Cultures: Teacher could work with the art teacher to introduce
    and explain to the students what art was like during the Underground
    Railroad. Students could then create pieces of each era and report to the class
    the significance of their art.
    Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of
         people in the local community including artic expression.
*   Benchmark A, Cultures: Using information from visited field trips regarding
    the Underground Railroad students could research which churches the
    families who hid slaves went to. Which denominations were sympathetic
    issue of slavery?
    Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of
    people in the local community including religion.
*   Benchmark A, Cultures : Similar to above, have students describe church
    traditions of slaves, if they were not allowed to attend a service, how did they
    worship their religion and explain/describe their religious beliefs (obviously
    it would be based on the majority of slaves, as religion is an individual
    experience).
    Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of
    people in the local community including religion
        People in Societies
*   Benchmark A, Cultures: Read about the common words slaves used to one
    another and to their owners. Research if slaves had their own language with
    those who hid them. As a class create a list of words that we use now that
    only have significant meaning, or perhaps have a different meaning, when
    we use them with one another.
    Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of
    people in the local community including language.

*   Benchmark A, Cultures Food: Have students eat a traditional slave meal and
    write about it, then the next day have students bring and eat a traditional
    meal they share with their family and write about it. When students write
    have them include the time and ease of preparing the food, the taste (bland
    or flavored), etc.
    Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of
    people in the local community including food.
           People in Societies
• Websites:
 What We Eat http://burttravels.com/whatweeat/newsletters/Africa.pdf
 Civil War era recipes:
 http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodpioneer.html#civilwar
 Slavery in America:
 http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/amliterature/amlit_lp_language_slaves.htm
 Religion of the Slaves:
 http://www.guyana.org/features/guyanastory/chapter28.html
 Pathways to Freedom: http://pathways.thinkport.org/about/about13.cfm
 Black American History, a history of black people in the United States:
 http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_codewords.htm
 Bob Gore, African Storyteller
  http://www.hillhouse.ckp.edu/~bobgore/
                                 Geography

*   Benchmark A, Location: Have students use a compass and write directions to their
    home, school, and favorite place (i.e. playground, park, restaurant, church, etc) and
    design logos or symbols where to indicate these places.
     Indicator: Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative location of places.
*   Benchmark B,Places and Regions:Have students research the climate in Africa and the
    climate where slaves were inhabited in America. The teacher could divide the class into
    two groups, one group being the slaves in America and the other group in Africa. Each
    day the teacher would describe the day to the two groups: the weather the two groups
    are encountering, what food they have that day, what their chores for the day are. Have
    each student write in a journal about their work and their feelings on their life as either
    the slave or the African. In their groups student can keep a chart hung in the classroom
    on the weather, what they ate so they can compare and contrast the two situations.
    Indicator: Identify and describe the landforms and climate, vegetation , population, and economic
          characteristics of the local community.
*   Benchmark A, Location:Students would create a symbol based on their family, like an
    Icthus (Christian fish sign) or a dog because their family pet is a dog. Students would
    then transfer the design on black construction paper and poke holes through the paper to
    create an astronomy like sign. Students could share the design on the overhead with
    classmates. Students could then create directions or symbols to find and follow or write a
    song based on their family following their sign to a place the students feel is a safe or
    favorite place of their family.
    Indicator: Read and interpret maps using symbols.
                                Geography
*   Benchmark A, Location: Students will discuss how secrecy was important to the success
    of the Underground Railroad.
    Students will discuss the lack of education (inability to read and write) among slaves
    and why slave owners preferred the lack of education. Students will read, analyze and
    discuss the symbols used in songs and writings to communicate to the slaves how to
    follow the Underground Railroad. In small groups, students will make a picture
    dictionary of items in environment (school, home, playground, etc.) Using only pictures,
    students will write one letter to share with the class.
    Indicator: Read and interpret maps using symbols
*   Benchmark A, Location :Students will be given a map of the eastern half of the United
    States and calculate the miles the slaves traveled along the Underground Railroad to
    reach freedom by picking a beginning point in the South and an ending point in the
    North. Students will relate what they learned about who the slaves were, when they
    traveled and how they traveled to estimate the time and distance. EX. Families with
    small children used the Underground Railroad to leave slavery. Traveling could only
    happen at night when the hunters were not looking for them. Slaves traveled by foot
    through woods and tough terrain to reach freedom.
    Indicators:Use political maps, physical maps and aerial photographs to ask and answer questions
    about the local community. 2. Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative
    location of places. 3. Read and interpret maps by using he map title, map key, direction indicator
    and symbols to answer questions about the local community.
                             Geography
• Websites:
  River-To-Lake Freedom Trail:
  http://www.ohioundergroundrailroad.org/Marker_Trail.htm

  Let your Journey Begin…:
  http://historyday.crf-usa.org/1830/maps.html

  Underground Railroad Routes 1860:
 http://education.ucdavis.edu/NEW/STC/lesson/socstud/railroad/Map.htm

  Quilt Codes:
  http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_quilts.htm

  Songs of the Underground Railroad:
  http://historyday.crf-usa.org/1830/songs.html
                                   Economics
*    Benchmark C, Markets: Students could research what slaves made and sold or traded with one
     another. Each student could then decide what they can create to sell or trade to their classmates. On a
     designated day students would spend the morning time creating their goods and in the afternoon they
     would run a market trading and selling their goods. For those students whose goods were not selling
     or being traded with as much the class would discuss why and what could be done to the product to
     make it more desirable.
    Indicator: Explain how the local community is an example of a market where buyers and sellers exchange goods
           and services.

*   Benchmark A, Scarcity and Resource Allocation:Students could search their classroom or bring form
    home objects that are equivalent to tools, clothing, and other goods to what slaves had. Each student
    would describe their item(s) and explain what it resembles from the past and create a Venn diagram to
    present to the class of the similar and non-similar characteristics of the objects.
    Indicator: Identify productive resources needed to produce a good or service.

*   Benchmark C, Markets: The class could create a new money system, based on the value slaves had on
    objects and their availability of having money/currency to purchase things (if at all).
    Indicators Identify different forms of money used over time, and recognize that money facilitates the purchase of
    goods, services and resources and enables savings.
                                   Economics
*   Scarcity and Resource Allocation: Read Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt by Deborah
    Hopkinson. Children will discuss the use of available resources to make items needed-
    such as a quilt. Children will bring in scraps of cloth and old clothes that can be cut and
    made into a quilt.
    Indicator: Identify productive resources needed to produce a good or service.


*   Scarcity and Resource Allocation : The class will discuss what opportunity cost means.
    The children will give personal examples showing their understanding of the words.
    Examples may include, cutting grass at my grandma’s house all summer to save money
    for a bike, deciding not to share my candy with my sister and having to go to my room,
    doing my homework for the whole week in one night so I can have extra time to play.
    The children will now talk about what they think the opportunity cost for a slave to
    escape might have been. The children will talk about what the pros and cons of running
    away from slavery and wanting freedom.
    Indicator: Define opportunity cost and give an example of the opportunity cost of a personal
    decision.
                          Economics
• Websites
 Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt
 http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade5/Sweet_Clara.html

 National Geographic
 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/j1.html

 Putting it in Perspective:
  The Symbolism of Underground Railroad quilts:
 http://www.quilthistory.com/ugrrquilts.htm

 Steal Away:
 http://www.kimandreggie.com/steal_cd.htm

 Slavery in the South:
 http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/civwar/slavery.html
                          Government

*   Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students would create/write down the
    rules they have at home. The students will explain the fairness of the rules,
    having the opportunity to challenge such reasoning.
    Indicator 5: Define power and authority.

*   Benchmark A Role of Government : As a class, the students would create
    class rules and the teacher would create her list of class rules and the two
    groups would compare they answers. Students will discuss and decided on
    how fellow classmates should be held accountable for their actions.
    Indicator 1: Explain the major functions of local government including making
    laws.

*   Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students would individually or in pairs
    create a constitution that would benefit every person in their class, whether it
    includes race, ethnicity, religion, hobbies, sports and their abilities, restroom
    rights, etc.
    Indicator1: Explain the major functions of local government including protecting
    the rights of individuals.
                           Government

*   Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students will discuss and decided on
    how fellow classmates should be held accountable for their actions.
    Indicator 6: Explain why the use of power without legitimate authority is unjust.

*   Benchmark A, Role of Government:At the end of the Underground Railroad
    Unit, students can identify why a system without the proper authority is
    unlawful, unfair and unjust. Students should be able to give examples of
    unlawful acts performed during the time of slaves. Children will draw
    conclusions about their lives today and what would happen if there were not
    a legal power and authority to maintain order. How would things be
    different at school, the grocery store, driving a car down the street?
    Indicator 6: Explain why the use of power without legitimate authority is unjust
    (e.g. bullying, stealing).
                           Government

• Websites
 Classroom Rules
 http://gigglepotz.com/expectations.htm

 Slavery in America
 http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/ugrr_1860.htm

 Headbone Zone
  http://www.headbone.com/derby/escape/

  Rails and Trails
 http://www.railtrails.org/index.html

 Black Laws of 1807
 http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1505
           Citizenship Rights and
              Responsibilities
*   Benchmark B,Rights and Responsibilities:The class will read about our voting system and our
    democracy. Students will work individually or in pairs to create a voting system and democracy based
    on the conditions during the Underground Railroad era. This would include the responsibility each
    member of the system has to ensure others are receiving their rights.
    Indicator 3: Describe the responsibilities of citizenship with emphasis on voting.

*   Benchmark A,Participation: Students could write a joint letter to the owners of Underground Railroad
    houses explaining their recent learning of the Underground Railroad and their desire to help keep their
    house involved in the history of the Underground Railroad . Students would decide what they would
    want to do with or for the owner to the house, whether it be pick up trash on the road in front of the
    house, make a sign for their yard in honor of the house, plant flowers, etc. Students would each add
    their own letter explaining their favorite fact of the Underground Railroad for the owner of the house to
    know the students understand the happenings of history.
    Indicator 1: Describe how people help to make community a better place in which to live including working to
    preserve the environment.
    Indicator 2: demonstrate effective citizenship traits including volunteerism.

*   Benchmark A,Participation: Because the actual Underground Railroad trail is not accessible to the
    students, they could work jointly or in groups cleaning the local bike trails in honor to helping people,
    like Harriet Tubman helping others in her creation of the Underground Railroad.
    Indicator 2: demonstrate effective citizenship traits including volunteerism and civic- mindedness.
          Citizenship Rights and
             Responsibilities
*   Benchmark A,Participation: Each students will write a paragraph on how the people who
    helped escaped slaves participated in making the country better.
    Indicator 2 : Demonstrate effective citizenship traits including compassion.

*   Benchmark B,Rights and Responsibilities: What were the slaves rights and
    responsibilities? What were the slave owners rights and responsibilities? Have students
    divide into 2 groups and present this information to the whole class.
    Indicator 3: Describe the responsibilities of citizenship with emphasis on respecting the rights of others,
    voting, paying taxes, obeying laws and being informed about current issues.

*   Benchmark A,Participation: “Follow the Drinking Gourd” using the North Star Students
    will identify the North Star using the constellation The Little Dipper. Students will discuss
    how the North Star is a constant in the night sky and why it was used to lead the slaves to
    freedom. Students will use black or bright blue construction paper and chalk to map the
    constellation the Little Dipper and the North Star (Polaris). They will also look at the Big
    Dipper to see how the star in the dipper points to the North Star. Students will analyze why
    the people in the North made this song to help the slaves.
    Indicator 2 : Demonstrate effective citizenship traits including compassion and respect for the
    rights and dignity of each person.
            Citizenship Rights and
               Responsibilities
• Websites:
  Classroom Bill of Rights
  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/history/us/documents/constitution/classroomconstitution/

  Underground Railroad
  http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1281.html

  Underground Railroad resources in the United States
  http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/themee.htm

  Underground Railroad
  http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASunderground.htm

  Four Routes of the Underground Railroad
  http://www.state.nj.us/state/history/railrd_t.html
                 Social Studies
               Skills and Methods
*   Obtaining Information : Students in the class will create a books of facts on
    the Underground Railroad, using the internet and books as sources,to place in
    the school library. This will be informative and formal including citing
    references and their table of contents will be specific to lead readers to desired
    areas of the book. This will later be turned into a webpage.
    Indicator: Obtain information about the local issues from a variety of sources.
*   Communicating Information:Based on the activity above, students create
    graphs of the students favorite pieces of information. Students will first tally
    on a piece of paper under the evidence and as a whole the class will create a
    bar graph.
    Indicator: Communicate information using pictographs and bar graphs.
*   Thinking and Organizing: Students will make a chart listing what the cause
    of the slaves escape was and the effect that the escape had on the slaves lives.
    Indicator: Identify possible cause and effect relationships.
                    Social Studies
                  Skills and Methods
*   Obtaining Information & Communicating Information:Students will research
    the internet for the number of houses in Ohio that participated in the
    Underground Railroad. They will look for the places on a map of Ohio and put
    the number of houses in a particular town on the map.
      Indicators: Obtain information about local issues from a variety of sources- maps
               Obtain information about state and local issues from a variety of print and
                      electronic sources, and determine the relevance of information to a
                      research topic.

*   Thinking and organizing:In small groups, the children will discuss how owners
    of slaves could have done things differently so the slaves would not want to
    leave. List five causes that would change the effect on the relationship. What
    could the slaves and owners have been called other than “slaves” and “owners”
    that would have changed the way they both looked at their relationships?
    Indicator 3. Identify possible cause and effect relationships.
                Social Studies
              Skills and Methods
• Websites
 Ohio's Underground Railroad to Freedom
 http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/parks/explore/magazine/sprsum96/UNDERGRR.htm

 Underground Railroad Ohio History Central
 http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1518

 Runaway Slaves
 http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=626

 Underground Railroad Collections
 http://worlddmc.ohiolink.edu/OMP/YourScrapbook?user=UGRR

 Underground railroad Resources
 http://www.albany.edu/~sg0068/isp523/isp02/resources.htm
                References
• Pictureshttp://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0hist
  ory/hwny.html
• “Words of the slaves”
   http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_codewords.htm

• Picture: Songs of the Underground Railroad
  http://www.kimandreggie.com/steal_cd.htm
• Picture
 http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/civwar/
slavery.html

								
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