"The Underground Railroad The Trail to Freedom"
The Underground Railroad : The Trail to Freedom The Underground Railroad: 3rd grade Unit By Alison Sharp, Betsy Brown, Nancy Kipler, Kelly Campbell and Lisa Smith 1. History 2. People in Societies 3. Geography 4. Economics 5. Government 6. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities 7. Social Studies Skills and Methods History * Benchmark A, Chronology:Use field trip experiences that focus on the Underground Railroad to place learned information on a timeline. Indicator: Place local historical events in sequential order on a time line. * Benchmark C, Growth: Describe and draw house plans for houses used to hide slaves compared to our house structures today. Students could draw the layout of their house and tell where they would hide slaves today if they needed to. Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in physical features& architecture. * Benchmark C, Growth: Create a lesson plan for a class of slaves based on what they needed or were only allowed to learn and a lesson plan of what Caucasian students were learning during the time of the Underground Railroad and a lesson plan on what the students learn today. Students will then present their lesson plans to the class and the class will make a three-ringed Venn diagram based on the characteristics of each lesson plan. (The lesson plan could be as informal or formal as the teacher felt the students were capable of; a basic description of what would happen in class is acceptable.) Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in education. History * Benchmark C, Growth: Students will discuss the advantages and disadvantages to traveling the Underground Railroad in the winter and the summer. Students will form small groups and design a Venn Diagram showing the pros and cons to traveling in the winter and summer. Students will discuss their Venn Diagram with the class.As a whole group, the students will combine all the ideas on the Venn Diagrams and make a whole class display. Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in physical features. * Benchmark C, Growth: Research the schools created by former slaves to educate their children. What effect does education have on changing our society? Indicator: Describe changes in the community over time including changes in education. History • Websites: White House Kids.gov: http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/timeline/railroad.html Harriet Tubman & The Underground Railroad: http://www2.lhric.org/pocantico/tubman/tubman.html National Underground Freedom Center: http://www.freedomcenter.org/learn/underground-railroad/timeline/timeline.html Friends of the Underground Railroad: http://www.fourr.org/history_timeline.html Discover Ohio’s History http://consumer.discoverohio.com/consumer/support/blackhistory/attractions.asp “The wind blows from the south today”= warning of slave bounty hunters nearby “A friend with friends” = A password used to signal arrival of fugitives with underground railroad conductor “The friend of a friend sent me” = a password used by fugitives traveling alone to indicate they were sent by the underground railroad network Load of Potatoes, Parcel, or Bundles of Wood = fugitives to be expected People in Societies * Benchmark A, Cultures: Teacher could work with the art teacher to introduce and explain to the students what art was like during the Underground Railroad. Students could then create pieces of each era and report to the class the significance of their art. Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people in the local community including artic expression. * Benchmark A, Cultures: Using information from visited field trips regarding the Underground Railroad students could research which churches the families who hid slaves went to. Which denominations were sympathetic issue of slavery? Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people in the local community including religion. * Benchmark A, Cultures : Similar to above, have students describe church traditions of slaves, if they were not allowed to attend a service, how did they worship their religion and explain/describe their religious beliefs (obviously it would be based on the majority of slaves, as religion is an individual experience). Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people in the local community including religion People in Societies * Benchmark A, Cultures: Read about the common words slaves used to one another and to their owners. Research if slaves had their own language with those who hid them. As a class create a list of words that we use now that only have significant meaning, or perhaps have a different meaning, when we use them with one another. Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people in the local community including language. * Benchmark A, Cultures Food: Have students eat a traditional slave meal and write about it, then the next day have students bring and eat a traditional meal they share with their family and write about it. When students write have them include the time and ease of preparing the food, the taste (bland or flavored), etc. Indicator: Compare some of the cultural practices and products of various groups of people in the local community including food. People in Societies • Websites: What We Eat http://burttravels.com/whatweeat/newsletters/Africa.pdf Civil War era recipes: http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodpioneer.html#civilwar Slavery in America: http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/amliterature/amlit_lp_language_slaves.htm Religion of the Slaves: http://www.guyana.org/features/guyanastory/chapter28.html Pathways to Freedom: http://pathways.thinkport.org/about/about13.cfm Black American History, a history of black people in the United States: http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_codewords.htm Bob Gore, African Storyteller http://www.hillhouse.ckp.edu/~bobgore/ Geography * Benchmark A, Location: Have students use a compass and write directions to their home, school, and favorite place (i.e. playground, park, restaurant, church, etc) and design logos or symbols where to indicate these places. Indicator: Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative location of places. * Benchmark B,Places and Regions:Have students research the climate in Africa and the climate where slaves were inhabited in America. The teacher could divide the class into two groups, one group being the slaves in America and the other group in Africa. Each day the teacher would describe the day to the two groups: the weather the two groups are encountering, what food they have that day, what their chores for the day are. Have each student write in a journal about their work and their feelings on their life as either the slave or the African. In their groups student can keep a chart hung in the classroom on the weather, what they ate so they can compare and contrast the two situations. Indicator: Identify and describe the landforms and climate, vegetation , population, and economic characteristics of the local community. * Benchmark A, Location:Students would create a symbol based on their family, like an Icthus (Christian fish sign) or a dog because their family pet is a dog. Students would then transfer the design on black construction paper and poke holes through the paper to create an astronomy like sign. Students could share the design on the overhead with classmates. Students could then create directions or symbols to find and follow or write a song based on their family following their sign to a place the students feel is a safe or favorite place of their family. Indicator: Read and interpret maps using symbols. Geography * Benchmark A, Location: Students will discuss how secrecy was important to the success of the Underground Railroad. Students will discuss the lack of education (inability to read and write) among slaves and why slave owners preferred the lack of education. Students will read, analyze and discuss the symbols used in songs and writings to communicate to the slaves how to follow the Underground Railroad. In small groups, students will make a picture dictionary of items in environment (school, home, playground, etc.) Using only pictures, students will write one letter to share with the class. Indicator: Read and interpret maps using symbols * Benchmark A, Location :Students will be given a map of the eastern half of the United States and calculate the miles the slaves traveled along the Underground Railroad to reach freedom by picking a beginning point in the South and an ending point in the North. Students will relate what they learned about who the slaves were, when they traveled and how they traveled to estimate the time and distance. EX. Families with small children used the Underground Railroad to leave slavery. Traveling could only happen at night when the hunters were not looking for them. Slaves traveled by foot through woods and tough terrain to reach freedom. Indicators:Use political maps, physical maps and aerial photographs to ask and answer questions about the local community. 2. Use a compass rose and cardinal directions to describe the relative location of places. 3. Read and interpret maps by using he map title, map key, direction indicator and symbols to answer questions about the local community. Geography • Websites: River-To-Lake Freedom Trail: http://www.ohioundergroundrailroad.org/Marker_Trail.htm Let your Journey Begin…: http://historyday.crf-usa.org/1830/maps.html Underground Railroad Routes 1860: http://education.ucdavis.edu/NEW/STC/lesson/socstud/railroad/Map.htm Quilt Codes: http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_quilts.htm Songs of the Underground Railroad: http://historyday.crf-usa.org/1830/songs.html Economics * Benchmark C, Markets: Students could research what slaves made and sold or traded with one another. Each student could then decide what they can create to sell or trade to their classmates. On a designated day students would spend the morning time creating their goods and in the afternoon they would run a market trading and selling their goods. For those students whose goods were not selling or being traded with as much the class would discuss why and what could be done to the product to make it more desirable. Indicator: Explain how the local community is an example of a market where buyers and sellers exchange goods and services. * Benchmark A, Scarcity and Resource Allocation:Students could search their classroom or bring form home objects that are equivalent to tools, clothing, and other goods to what slaves had. Each student would describe their item(s) and explain what it resembles from the past and create a Venn diagram to present to the class of the similar and non-similar characteristics of the objects. Indicator: Identify productive resources needed to produce a good or service. * Benchmark C, Markets: The class could create a new money system, based on the value slaves had on objects and their availability of having money/currency to purchase things (if at all). Indicators Identify different forms of money used over time, and recognize that money facilitates the purchase of goods, services and resources and enables savings. Economics * Scarcity and Resource Allocation: Read Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt by Deborah Hopkinson. Children will discuss the use of available resources to make items needed- such as a quilt. Children will bring in scraps of cloth and old clothes that can be cut and made into a quilt. Indicator: Identify productive resources needed to produce a good or service. * Scarcity and Resource Allocation : The class will discuss what opportunity cost means. The children will give personal examples showing their understanding of the words. Examples may include, cutting grass at my grandma’s house all summer to save money for a bike, deciding not to share my candy with my sister and having to go to my room, doing my homework for the whole week in one night so I can have extra time to play. The children will now talk about what they think the opportunity cost for a slave to escape might have been. The children will talk about what the pros and cons of running away from slavery and wanting freedom. Indicator: Define opportunity cost and give an example of the opportunity cost of a personal decision. Economics • Websites Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade5/Sweet_Clara.html National Geographic http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/j1.html Putting it in Perspective: The Symbolism of Underground Railroad quilts: http://www.quilthistory.com/ugrrquilts.htm Steal Away: http://www.kimandreggie.com/steal_cd.htm Slavery in the South: http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/civwar/slavery.html Government * Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students would create/write down the rules they have at home. The students will explain the fairness of the rules, having the opportunity to challenge such reasoning. Indicator 5: Define power and authority. * Benchmark A Role of Government : As a class, the students would create class rules and the teacher would create her list of class rules and the two groups would compare they answers. Students will discuss and decided on how fellow classmates should be held accountable for their actions. Indicator 1: Explain the major functions of local government including making laws. * Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students would individually or in pairs create a constitution that would benefit every person in their class, whether it includes race, ethnicity, religion, hobbies, sports and their abilities, restroom rights, etc. Indicator1: Explain the major functions of local government including protecting the rights of individuals. Government * Benchmark A, Role of Government: Students will discuss and decided on how fellow classmates should be held accountable for their actions. Indicator 6: Explain why the use of power without legitimate authority is unjust. * Benchmark A, Role of Government:At the end of the Underground Railroad Unit, students can identify why a system without the proper authority is unlawful, unfair and unjust. Students should be able to give examples of unlawful acts performed during the time of slaves. Children will draw conclusions about their lives today and what would happen if there were not a legal power and authority to maintain order. How would things be different at school, the grocery store, driving a car down the street? Indicator 6: Explain why the use of power without legitimate authority is unjust (e.g. bullying, stealing). Government • Websites Classroom Rules http://gigglepotz.com/expectations.htm Slavery in America http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/ugrr_1860.htm Headbone Zone http://www.headbone.com/derby/escape/ Rails and Trails http://www.railtrails.org/index.html Black Laws of 1807 http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1505 Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities * Benchmark B,Rights and Responsibilities:The class will read about our voting system and our democracy. Students will work individually or in pairs to create a voting system and democracy based on the conditions during the Underground Railroad era. This would include the responsibility each member of the system has to ensure others are receiving their rights. Indicator 3: Describe the responsibilities of citizenship with emphasis on voting. * Benchmark A,Participation: Students could write a joint letter to the owners of Underground Railroad houses explaining their recent learning of the Underground Railroad and their desire to help keep their house involved in the history of the Underground Railroad . Students would decide what they would want to do with or for the owner to the house, whether it be pick up trash on the road in front of the house, make a sign for their yard in honor of the house, plant flowers, etc. Students would each add their own letter explaining their favorite fact of the Underground Railroad for the owner of the house to know the students understand the happenings of history. Indicator 1: Describe how people help to make community a better place in which to live including working to preserve the environment. Indicator 2: demonstrate effective citizenship traits including volunteerism. * Benchmark A,Participation: Because the actual Underground Railroad trail is not accessible to the students, they could work jointly or in groups cleaning the local bike trails in honor to helping people, like Harriet Tubman helping others in her creation of the Underground Railroad. Indicator 2: demonstrate effective citizenship traits including volunteerism and civic- mindedness. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities * Benchmark A,Participation: Each students will write a paragraph on how the people who helped escaped slaves participated in making the country better. Indicator 2 : Demonstrate effective citizenship traits including compassion. * Benchmark B,Rights and Responsibilities: What were the slaves rights and responsibilities? What were the slave owners rights and responsibilities? Have students divide into 2 groups and present this information to the whole class. Indicator 3: Describe the responsibilities of citizenship with emphasis on respecting the rights of others, voting, paying taxes, obeying laws and being informed about current issues. * Benchmark A,Participation: “Follow the Drinking Gourd” using the North Star Students will identify the North Star using the constellation The Little Dipper. Students will discuss how the North Star is a constant in the night sky and why it was used to lead the slaves to freedom. Students will use black or bright blue construction paper and chalk to map the constellation the Little Dipper and the North Star (Polaris). They will also look at the Big Dipper to see how the star in the dipper points to the North Star. Students will analyze why the people in the North made this song to help the slaves. Indicator 2 : Demonstrate effective citizenship traits including compassion and respect for the rights and dignity of each person. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities • Websites: Classroom Bill of Rights http://www.enchantedlearning.com/history/us/documents/constitution/classroomconstitution/ Underground Railroad http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1281.html Underground Railroad resources in the United States http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/themee.htm Underground Railroad http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASunderground.htm Four Routes of the Underground Railroad http://www.state.nj.us/state/history/railrd_t.html Social Studies Skills and Methods * Obtaining Information : Students in the class will create a books of facts on the Underground Railroad, using the internet and books as sources,to place in the school library. This will be informative and formal including citing references and their table of contents will be specific to lead readers to desired areas of the book. This will later be turned into a webpage. Indicator: Obtain information about the local issues from a variety of sources. * Communicating Information:Based on the activity above, students create graphs of the students favorite pieces of information. Students will first tally on a piece of paper under the evidence and as a whole the class will create a bar graph. Indicator: Communicate information using pictographs and bar graphs. * Thinking and Organizing: Students will make a chart listing what the cause of the slaves escape was and the effect that the escape had on the slaves lives. Indicator: Identify possible cause and effect relationships. Social Studies Skills and Methods * Obtaining Information & Communicating Information:Students will research the internet for the number of houses in Ohio that participated in the Underground Railroad. They will look for the places on a map of Ohio and put the number of houses in a particular town on the map. Indicators: Obtain information about local issues from a variety of sources- maps Obtain information about state and local issues from a variety of print and electronic sources, and determine the relevance of information to a research topic. * Thinking and organizing:In small groups, the children will discuss how owners of slaves could have done things differently so the slaves would not want to leave. List five causes that would change the effect on the relationship. What could the slaves and owners have been called other than “slaves” and “owners” that would have changed the way they both looked at their relationships? Indicator 3. Identify possible cause and effect relationships. Social Studies Skills and Methods • Websites Ohio's Underground Railroad to Freedom http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/parks/explore/magazine/sprsum96/UNDERGRR.htm Underground Railroad Ohio History Central http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1518 Runaway Slaves http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=626 Underground Railroad Collections http://worlddmc.ohiolink.edu/OMP/YourScrapbook?user=UGRR Underground railroad Resources http://www.albany.edu/~sg0068/isp523/isp02/resources.htm References • Pictureshttp://www.math.buffalo.edu/~sww/0hist ory/hwny.html • “Words of the slaves” http://www.africanaonline.com/slavery_codewords.htm • Picture: Songs of the Underground Railroad http://www.kimandreggie.com/steal_cd.htm • Picture http://americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/civwar/ slavery.html