U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics and Trends

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					U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics
         and Trends
          Peter W. French
AVP- Safety & Performance Analysis
 Association of American Railroads

          July 29, 2008
         Railroad Safety: Topics
• Safety Statistics & Trends
  –   Train Safety (Train Accidents)
  –   Grade Crossing Safety
  –   Trespassers
  –   Passenger Safety
  –   Employee Safety
  –   Hazardous Materials Safety
        Railroad Safety: Topics
              (continued)
•   RR Initiatives to Improve Safety
•   Improvements in Technology
•   Safety Programs
•   Risk-Based Safety Performance Standards
       U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:
               Main Themes
• Railroads have dramatically improved safety over the
  last two and a half decades.
• Railroads compare favorably with other industries &
  transportation modes.
• The most troubling railroad safety problems arise
  from factors largely outside railroad control.
• Railroads have implemented numerous and effective
  technological improvements and company-wide safety
  programs.
           U.S. Railroad Safety Statistics:

In 2007, U.S. railroads achieved their safest year
   ever by the following major safety yardsticks:
• Train Accident Rate, down 10% from 2006.
• Grade Crossing Collisions and Collision Rates,
   down 6% and 4% from 2006.
Employee Casualties and Rates missed the 2006
   records by 0.8% and 1.4%.
 Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm (Preliminary 2007 data)
        FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 1-2.
        FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1975-1996, Tables 1, 51.
  In 2007, 95% of rail-related fatalities were
     grade crossing users and trespassers.



                                                  Grade Crossing
                                                        Users: 337
               Trespassers: 473                          (39%)
                    (56%)




                                                                  Employees: 17
                                            Passengers: 4      Others: 20

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data).
           FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 1-3.
In 2007, 60% of rail-related injuries were incurred
             by employees on duty.
                                     Trespassers:           Grade Crossing
               Passengers: 1,058          398
                                                              Users: 828




                 Others: 1,254



                                         Employees 5,263




Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data).
           FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 1-3.
Train accidents per million train-miles have dropped
71% since 1980 and 30% since 1990, to a new low.
12
         11.43
10

  8

  6
                                      4.73
                                                             3.54
  4
                                                                                                    3.29
  2

  0
      1980           1985            1990             1995            2000                   2007

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm (preliminary 2007 data).
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 1-2.
         FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.
Train collisions per million train-miles have dropped
       85% since 1980 and 51% since 1990.
   2.0
            1.67
   1.5


   1.0
                                    0.52
   0.5
                                                                                             0.25
   0.0
         1980        1985           1990           1995           2000                2007

    Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm (preliminary 2007 data).
             FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 5-6.
             FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
    Note: Excludes grade crossing collisions.
Mainline train collisions per million train-miles on Class I freight
 railroads have dropped 85% since 1980 and 54% since 1990.

     0.6
              0.54                          0.52

                                                          All Collisions: All RRs
     0.4
             0.37         Mainline & Sidings:
                           Class I Freight RRs
                              All Consists                                                            0.254
     0.2                                0.17
              Frt Trains Only
                                          0.12                                                        0.080
                                                                                                      0.057
     0.0
           1980          1985            1990           1995            2000                   2007

     Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm. AAR Analysis of FRA train
       accident database through 2007. FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005,
       Tables 1-1, 5-6; FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
     Note: Excludes grade crossing collisions. Includes passenger train collisions on Class I freight railroads.
   Derailments per million train-miles have dropped
  74% since 1980 and 33% since 1990, to a new low.
   10
                8.98
     8

     6
                                       3.52
     4

                                                                                               2.38
     2

     0
         1980          1985          1990           1995           2000                 2007

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 5-6.
         FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.
Equipment-caused accidents per million train-miles
have dropped 80% since 1980 and 42% since 1990.
  2.5
          2.03
  2.0

  1.5

  1.0
                                      0.70

  0.5
                                                                                              0.40

  0.0
        1980          1985          1990           1995           2000                 2007

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 5-9.
         FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.
    Track-caused accidents per million train-miles have
dropped 76% since 1980 and 28% since 1990, to a new low.
      5
                 4.84

      4

      3

                                         1.60
      2

      1                                                                                               1.15


      0
          1980          1985             1990            1995            2000                   2007
   Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
            FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 5-9.
            FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
   Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.
 Human factors-caused accidents per million train-miles
  have dropped 61% since 1980 and 30% since 1990.
  3.5
           3.24
  3.0
  2.5
                                      1.80
  2.0
  1.5
                                                                                                1.26
  1.0
  0.5
  0.0
        1980          1985           1990            1995           2000                 2007

Sources: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 5-9.
         FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 19, 36.
Note: Excludes grade crossing accidents.
 Brake equipment-related train accidents have
 dropped 85% since 1980 and 43% since 1990.
200
             187

150


100

                                     49
50
                                                                                      28
  0
      1980         1985           1990           1995           2000           2005
  Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 5-9.
                            FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19.
          AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2007.
  Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive brake defects.
  Brake equipment-related train accident rates have
   dropped 86% since 1980 and 56% since 1990.
Accidents per Million Train-Miles
0.3
        0.261


0.2



0.1

                                      0.080                                               0.035

0.0
      1980         1985            1990            1995            2000            2005
  Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1, 5-9.
                            FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.
           AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2007.
  Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive brake defects.
Wheel equipment-related train accident rates have
 dropped 85% since 1980 and 54% since 1990.
  Accidents per Million Train-Miles
     0.5
              0.411
     0.4

     0.3

     0.2
                                        0.135
     0.1
                                                                                          0.062
     0.0
           1980        1985           1990          1995           2000           2005

     Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1, 5-9.
                               FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.
             AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2007.
     Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive wheel defects.
Axle and bearings-related train accident rates have
 dropped 78% since 1980 and 54% since 1990.
Accidents per Million Train-Miles
    0.3
            0.287


    0.2
                                        0.138

    0.1
                                                                                          0.063

    0.0
          1980        1985          1990          1995           2000          2005

     Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1, 5-9.
                               FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.
             AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2007.
     Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive axle or bearing defects.
  Truck component-related train accident rates have
   dropped 83% since 1980 and 50% since 1990.
Accidents per Million Train-Miles
   0.5
           0.450
   0.4

   0.3
                                      0.153
   0.2

   0.1                                                                                   0.076

   0.0
         1980         1985           1990          1995           2000           2005

    Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1, 5-9.
                              FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 19, 36.
            AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident Database through 2007.
    Note: Includes accidents due to locomotive truck component defects.
Grade crossing collisions have declined 74% since
           1980 and 52% since 1990.
 12,000
             10,611
 10,000

  8,000

  6,000
                                    5,715
  4,000
                                                                                           2,749
  2,000

      0
          1980        1985           1990          1995           2000                2007

    Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1.
             FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
             FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007r01.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
    Notes: Includes collisions involving pedestrians. Includes collisions at private crossings.
Grade crossing fatalities have declined 59% since
           1980 and 52% since 1990.
  1,000
             833
    800
                                       698
    600

    400
                                                                                         338
    200

       0
           1980       1985          1990          1995         2000               2007

 Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 1-3.
          FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
          FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
 Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and collisions at private crossings.
               Grade crossing injuries have declined
               73% since 1980 and 57% since 1990.
4,000
           3,890


3,000
                                         2,407

2,000


1,000                                                                                                 1,031


   0
        1980         1985            1990             1995            2000                   2007
    Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 1-3.
             FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
             FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
    Note: Includes pedestrians, employees, passengers, and collisions at private crossings.
   Grade crossing collision rates have declined for 29
 consecutive years, 77% since 1980 and 63% since 1990.
  Grade Crossing Collisions per Million Train-Miles
     16
              14.79

     12
                                       9.39

       8


       4
                                                                                            3.47

       0
           1980        1985          1990          1995          2000                2007

Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 1-1.
         FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table S.
FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
Note: Includes accidents involving pedestrians and collisions at private crossings.
Since 1980, the total number of public crossings has declined
   35%, while the number with gates has increased 146%.


 250,000
                                                             35% Decrease
 200,000
                        Passive 75%
 150,000
                                                           Passive 54%
 100,000
                                                           Lights 17%
  50,000                 Lights 17%
                         Gates 8%                           Gates 29%
       0
                        1980                              2007
    Sources: AAR Analysis of December 2007 FRA Grade Crossing Inventory Database.
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 9-3.
         FRA Highway/Rail Crossing Accident/Incident & Inventory Bulletin, 1980, Table 46.
Grade crossing warning device upgrades work. Gates cut the
             accident & fatality rates by 93%.
  Grade Crossing Collisions per Billion Collision Opportunities
                             296
    300

     250

     200
                                                                                    No Injury
     150                                                                            Injury
                                           63                                       Fatal
     100
                                                                 21
      50

        0
                Passive        Flashing Lights           Gates
  Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Grade Crossing Incident & Inventory Databases,
           using 1999-2003 incident data and the December 2003 inventory data.
  Note: Collision opportunities are measured here as the average number of trains per hour multiplied
        by the average number of vehicles per hour moving over each crossing. It is useful primarily
        as a measure of relative, not absolute, exposure, since the time period (hour) is arbitrary.
Grade crossing collisions are usually caused by
                motorist error.
                             Stopped,
                               Proceeded
                                   6%


        Stopped on Tracks: 29%
                                              Did Not Stop 41%

                   Other
                   8%              Drove Around
                                   Gate: 16%



  Sources: AAR Analysis of Highway-Rail Incident Database for 2007 (July 2008).
             FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 8-6.
             Note: Motor vehicle highway-rail incidents at public crossings.
Trespasser fatalities continue to be a significant
                safety problem.
 600
                                  543
        457
                                                                                                473
 450


 300


 150


   0
       1980          1985            1990           1995           2000                  2007

       Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2, 10-3.
                FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 13.
                FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
       Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.
But the trespasser fatality rate per million train miles
      was still the lowest in 25 years in 2005.
1.00
                                           0.89

0.80
         0.64
                                                                                                         0.60
0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00
       1980            1985             1990             1995             2000                    2007
       Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2, 10-3.
                FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Table 13.
                FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
       Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.
85% of trespasser fatalities in 2007 resulted from
     being struck by trains or freight cars.
          Train Accidents 3

                                             Other 71




                        Struck by On-Track
                        Equipment 410



      Source: AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2007.
                FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 10-10.
                Note: Excludes "trespasser" fatalities at grade crossings.
Many Trespassers are Killed While Intoxicated.
 • A North Carolina study for the period 1990-1994 found that
   78% of 128 trespassers killed on railroad property were
   intoxicated. The median blood alcohol level for this group was
   2.5 times the legal limit.
 • A 1994 South Carolina study of 24 train-related pedestrian
   fatalities found that 79% were intoxicated.
 • Toxicology results on 78 of 132 railroad trespassers killed in
   Georgia in the period 1990-1996 found 40 (51%) with alcohol
   levels above 100 mg/dL.
 • A 2005 survey of coroners and Chief Medical Examiners found
   that alcohol and/or drugs were judged to be a factor in 530
   (57%) of 929 trespasser fatalities in the period 2002-2004 for
   which the additional data could be obtained.
Sources: Andrew Pelletier, MD, "Deaths Among Railroad Trespassers: The Role of Alcohol in Fatal Injuries,”
    Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 277, No. 13, April 2, 1997, pp. 1064-66.
Center for Disease Control, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 48, No. 25, July 2, 1999.
Bruce George, “Rail Trespasser Fatalities: Developing Demographic Profiles,” presentation to Transportation
    Research Board Annual Meeting, January 15, 2008.
          Passengers are 15 to 20 times as likely to die on the
                        highway as on a train.
       Passenger Fatalities per Billion Passenger Miles
        16
                              Highway

         12


          8

                     Railroads     Airlines
          4


          0
              1980          1985           1990            1995           2000            2005
Sources: BTS, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics, Domestic Sched & Unsched; NTSB, Aviation Accident Data Base;
FHWA, Highway Statistics 2006, Table VM-1. NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts 2006, Early Ed., Table 4, p. 18.
FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 13, 36; RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Tables 1-3, 2-9.
Excludes 232 airline passenger fatalities in the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
   Railroads and airlines have comparable passenger
                      fatality rates.
     Passenger Fatalities per Billion Passenger Miles
       5

       4

       3
                  Railroads      Airlines

       2

       1

       0
           1980          1985            1990            1995            2000             2005
Sources: BTS, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics, Domestic Sched & Unsched; NTSB, Aviation Accident Data Base;
FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 13, 36; RR Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Tables 1-3, 2-9.
Note: 1993 RR fatalities included 42 killed in one Amtrak accident caused by a barge hitting & misaligning
a RR bridge and another 6 killed by a gunman on the Long Island RR. Excludes 232 fatalities in 9/11 attacks.
Railroads have reduced employee casualty rates by
       80% since 1980 and 71% since 1990.
Total Casualties per 100 Full-Time Employees
  12
         11.16
  10

   8
                                    7.59
   6

   4

   2                                                                                          2.19

   0
       1980         1985           1990            1995           2000                 2007
 Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2, 4-1.
   FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13, 36.
   FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r01.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
 Note: Casualties include fatalities as well as injuries and occupational illnesses.
Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do
           other major industry groups.
          Lost Workday Injuries & Illnesses per 100 Full Time Employees, 2006
                       4

                       3

                       2

                       1

                       0
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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb1765.pdf
Railroads have lower employee injury rates than do
            other transportation modes.
            Lost Workday Injuries & Illnesses per 100 Full Time Employees, 2006

                    8

                    6

                    4

                    2

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb1765.pdf
  Railroads have lower employee fatality rates
      than do other transportation modes.
         Fatalities per 100,000 Full Time Employees, 2006
                  40

                  30

                  20

                  10

                    0
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Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2006, Table 2;
And BLS Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages (QCEW) Program for number of employees.
FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2006/r03.htm (preliminary 2006 data).
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Tables 1-1 and 1-2.
          Railroads have about the same injury severity
                     as do other industries.
             Percent of Lost Workday Employee Injuries, 2006
               60
               50
               40
               30
                                                                                 Railroads
               20                                                                Transport
               10                                                                All Industry

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table R49. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses
involving days away from work by nature of injury and industry division, 2006. http://www.bls.gov/iif/
oshwc/osh/case/ostb1841.pdf . AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2006.
See also FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 4-1.
          Railroads have about the same injury severity
                     as do other industries.
             Percent of Lost Workday Employee Injuries, 2006 (Sprains not shown)
               16
               14
               12
               10
                8
                                                                                 Railroads
                6
                                                                                 Transport
                4
                                                                                 All Industry
                2
                0

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Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table R49. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses
involving days away from work by nature of injury and industry division, 2006. http://www.bls.gov/iif/
oshwc/osh/case/ostb1841.pdf . AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2006.
See also FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 4-1.
 U.S. railroads have had lower employee injury rates than
            have most major European railroads.
  Lost Workday Injuries per 100 Employees
 8

                                                                                            Spain
 6                                                                                                      Italy
                                                                                                        Belgium

 4                                                                                                       Austria
                                                                                     France
         Norway                  BR                                                                     Germany
 2                                                                                                       U.S.
                                                         Sweden                                          Britain


 0
     1987         1989         1991          1993         1995         1997          1999         2001
Sources: UIC, Statistics on Accidents at Work, 1993-2001. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 43, 45, 46.
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Reports, 1997-2001, Tables 4-1, 1-1. UIC discontinued these stats after 2001.
Notes: Excludes occupational illnesses. Excludes injuries with no days away from work. Includes fatal injuries.
Data for Sweden & Norway (1993-96) and for U.S. (all years) is per 200,000 hours actually worked, hence higher.
 The safest U.S. RRs have had lower employee injury
       rates than have the safest European RRs.
  Lost Workday Injuries per 100 Employees
    4

                                                         Norway                 Sweden
    3                               BR                                                           IC
                                                                                                 CSX
                                                                                                         UP
    2
                                                                                                      BNSF
    1                                                                                                   NS


    0
        1987        1989         1991        1993         1995        1997         1999        2001
Sources: UIC, Statistics on Accidents at Work, 1993-2001. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin, Tables 43, 45, 46.
FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Reports, 1997-2001, Tables 4-1, 1-1. UIC discontinued these stats after 2001.
Notes: Excludes occupational illnesses. Excludes injuries with no days away from work. Includes fatal injuries.
Data for Sweden & Norway (1993-96) and for U.S. (all years) is per 200,000 hours actually worked, hence higher.
In 2007, train accidents and grade crossing collisions
  accounted for less than 4% of employee injuries.


                           All Other Incidents 96.35%




        Train Accidents 1.71%                                Grade Crossing Collisions 1.94%

   Source: FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
              See also FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report 2005, Table 1-3.
 Railroads have reduced employee fatalities by 82%
          since 1980 and 57% since 1990.
100
          97

80

60

40
                                        40

20                                                                                                 17

  0
      1980          1985             1990             1995             2000                    2007

        Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2, 1-3, 4-2.
          FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13. Employee on Duty Fatalities.
          FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
     Railroads employee fatality rates have fallen 51%
                      since 1990.
Employee On-Duty Fatalities per 100,000 Employees
20

16
                                    14.5
12

 8
                                                                                                       7.0

 4

 0
     1980          1985             1990             1995             2000                    2007
  Sources: FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-1, 4-2.
    FRA Accident/Incident Bulletin, 1980-1996, Tables 13, 36.
    FRA website: http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/Prelim/2007/r03.htm & r02.htm (preliminary 2007 data)
   Of 21 employee fatalities in 2007, 12 were due to being
      struck or crushed by moving on-track equipment.

                              Transp,
                               Struck
                                   by MOW Struck by Train - 5
               Switching, Struck Train
               Or Crushed By Cars or
                                     -1
               Locos. (“SOFA”)- 6
                                                     MOW – Other
                                                          -4
                          Road TrainGrade
                          Collision Xing
                            - 2 Collision
                                    - 1


                                                      MOE – Electrocution - 1
                                             MOE – Highway Accident - 1

Sources: News clippings and FRA, Monthly Reports on Employee Fatalities, 2007.
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2.
  Of 16 employee fatalities in 2006, none occurred in train
  accidents, 4 occurred in grade crossing collisions, and 9
  were due to being struck by moving on-track equipment.
                              Transp           MOW Struck
                     Switching, Struck        by MOW Equip
                     Or Crushed By Cars or     -2        MOW In Hwy
                     Locos. (“SOFA”)- 5              Accident - 1
                                                    Other – 1
              Transp in Grade                        Veh struck bldg.
              Crossing Collision           MOE      MOE
                                MOE in Struck or       in Veh
                    -2
                             Grade Xing Crushed by Frt Collision - 1
                             Collision - 2 Cars - 2




Sources: News clippings and FRA, Monthly Reports on Employee Fatalities, 2006.
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2.
   Of 25 employee fatalities in 2005, 11 were due to being
struck or crushed by moving on-track equipment and 8 were
             in train or grade crossing collisions.
                                                                         Transportation,
                                      Switching, Struck                  Not in Train
                                      Or Crushed By Cars or              Accident
                                      Locos. (“SOFA”)- 11

                   Road Train
                   Collisions                              MOW Struck by Train - 2
                                    Grade
                     -7
                                    Xing
                                                         MOW
                                  Collision
                                                          In Hwy            Maint. of Way
                                   - 1
 Transportation:                                             Accident
 Train Accident                                                -2
                                                         Explosion - 1
                                              Electrocution - 1
                                                              Maint of Equip.
Sources: News clippings and FRA, Monthly Reports on Employee Fatalities, 2005.
         FRA, Railroad Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 1-2.
     Hazmat accident rates have declined 87% since 1980
                   and 34% since 1990.
     Train Accidents with a Release per Thousand Hazmat Carloads
     0.16
               0.143
     0.14
     0.12
                                                                         99.996% of Carloads
     0.10
                                                                         are Accident Release Free
     0.08
     0.06
     0.04
     0.02                                                                                                   0.018
                                              0.027
     0.00
            1980            1985              1990             1995             2000             2005
Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Table 6-1. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin,
  Table 26. AAR Analysis of 2006 FRA Train Accident Database. Carloads from ICC/STB Waybill Sample, 1995-2006.
 Terminated carloads adjusted to counter known hazmat underreporting. Prior to 2003 terminated carloads overestimated
  by 10% to 15% due to inability to exclude duplicates associated with rebilling.
                 Accidents with a hazmat release have
                      declined 61% since 1980.
 Reportable Train Accidents with a Hazmat Release
 140
         119
 120
 100
  80
  60
                                                                                                       46
  40
                                          35
  20
    0
        1980           1985            1990             1995             2000                   2007
Sources: FRA, RR Safety Statistics Annual Report, 1997-2005, Tables 6-1. FRA, Accident/Incident Bulletin,
 Table 26. AAR Analysis of 2007 FRA Train Accident Database.
Note: An accident may involve releases from more than one car.
 Hazmat incident release rates have declined 72%
        since 1980 and 58% since 1990.
Incidents per Thousand Hazmat Carloads
   1.6
             1.52
   1.4
   1.2
                                         0.99
   1.0
   0.8
   0.6
   0.4                                                                                        0.42
                                                             99.96% Incident Free
   0.2
   0.0
         1980          1985           1990            1995           2000            2005
Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents
by Year & Mode. http://hazmat.dot.gov/files/hazmat/10year/10yearfrm.htm for 1997-2006.
Includes releases in train accidents as well as non-accident releases. ICC/STB Waybill Sample.
1995-2006. Terminated carloads adjusted to counter known hazmat underreporting. Prior to 2003 terminated
carloads overestimated by 10% to 15% due to inability to exclude duplicates associated with rebilling.
Over the last 10 years, about 1.1% of train accidents have
       resulted in a release of hazardous materials.

                        No Hazmat Cars Present
                        23,715 75.5%
                                                          Hazmat Cars in
                                                          Consist 3,997 12.7%
                                                     Hazmat Cars
                                                       Derailed or
                                                        Damaged 3,360
                                                           10.7%




                                                           Hazmat Released 354 1.1%
     Source: AAR Analysis of 1998-2007 FRA Train Accident Databases, July 2008.
     Note: Includes grade crossing train accidents meeting dollar threshold.
In 2007, about 1.6% of reportable train accidents
   resulted in a release of hazardous materials.


                    No Hazmat Cars Present
                    2,098 73.3%
                                                       Hazmat Cars in
                                                       Consist 416 14.5%
                                                 Hazmat Cars
                                                   Derailed or
                                                    Damaged 302
                                                       10.6%




                                                    Hazmat Released 46 1.6%
 Source: AAR Analysis of Year 2007 FRA Train Accident Database, July 2008.
 Note: Includes grade crossing train accidents meeting dollar threshold.
          Rail freight transport incurs about 12% of the
          fatalities that trucks do per trillion ton-miles.
            4,000                             3,761                   3,207
            3,500
            3,000
            2,500
            2,000                                                                   Fatalities
            1,500             720      391                                          Fatality Rate

            1,000
              500
                 0
                           Rail Freight               Tractor-Trailers

Sources: AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2006. Rail Ton-Miles in 2006 from
  RR Facts, 2007, pp. 27, 32. USDOT, FMCSA, Large Truck Crash Facts, 2006, Table 13,
  http://ai.volpe.dot.gov/CarrierResearchResults/PDFs/LargeTruckCrashFacts2006.pdf (p. 19)
  Tractor-trailer net ton-miles in 2002 estimated at 1.14 trillion from 2002 USDOC,Vehicle Inventory
  & Use Survey (VIUS), updated to 2006 based on VMT from same Table 13.
          Rail freight transport incurs about 6% of the
          injuries that trucks do per trillion ton-miles.
         60,000                                56,000                   48,000
         50,000

         40,000

         30,000                                                                        Injuries
                                                                                       Injury Rate
         20,000
                            5,419     2,942
         10,000

                0
                           Rail Freight                 Tractor-Trailers
Sources: AAR Analysis of FRA Casualty Database for 2006. Rail Ton-Miles in 2006 from
  RR Facts, 2007., p. 27, 32. USDOT, FMCSA, Large Truck Crash Facts, 2006, Table 15,
  http://ai.volpe.dot.gov/CarrierResearchResults/PDFs/LargeTruckCrashFacts2006.pdf (p. 22)
  Tractor-trailer net ton-miles in 2002 estimated at 1.14 trillion from 2002 USDOC,Vehicle Inventory
  & Use Survey (VIUS), updated to 2006 based on VMT from Large Truck Crash Facts Table 13.
      Railroads incurred 17 fatalities in the last 10 years
           due to hazmat while trucks incurred 124.

     140
     120
     100
       80
       60
       40
       20
        0
                           Rail                                  Truck
Source: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents
by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr.pdf for 1998 through 2007,
as of 6/11/2008.
   Railroads now have less than 5% of the hazmat incidents
  that trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.
            18,000
            16,000
            14,000
            12,000
            10,000
                                                                                        Truck
              8,000                                                                     Railroad
              6,000
              4,000
              2,000
                   0
                    1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents
By Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/10yearfrm.htm for 1998 through 2007. 6/11/2008
In 2005, the truck and rail modes hauled about the same number of hazmat net ton-miles, estimated at 114 billion
for trucks and 111 billion for rail. USDOC, 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), Table 1a, for truck hazmat
ton-miles, updated using combination truck VMT from FHWA Highway Statistics,Table VM-1.
STB Waybill Sample for rail ton-miles.
       Railroads now have 21% of the serious hazmat incidents that
         trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.
              500
              450
              400
              350                                                                         (New definition
                                                                                           of “Serious”)
              300
              250                                                                         Truck
              200                                                                         Railroad
              150
              100
               50
                0
                 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials Incidents
by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr_new_serious.pdf, as of 6/11/2008.
PHMSA’s new definition defines serious incidents as those involving a fatality or serious injury due to
a hazmat release or evacuation of 25 or more people as the result of a hazmat release or fire.
In 2005, the truck and rail modes hauled about the same number of hazmat net ton-miles, estimated at 114 billion
for trucks and 111 billion for rail. USDOC, 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), Table 1a, for truck hazmat
ton-miles, updated using combination truck VMT from FHWA Highway Statistics,Table VM-1. STB Waybill Sample.
   Railroads now have less than 18% of the hazmat accidents
  that trucks have, despite roughly equal hazmat ton-mileage.
        400
        350
        300
        250
        200                                                                                    Truck
        150                                                                                    Railroad

        100
         50
           0
               1994    1996       1998      2000      2002       2004      2006
Sources: USDOT, Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Hazardous Materials
Incidents by Year & Mode, from http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/inc/data/tenyr_accd.pdf. 6/11/2008
In 2005, the truck and rail modes hauled about the same number of hazmat net ton-miles, estimated at 114 billion
for trucks and 111 billion for rail. USDOC, 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS), Table 1a, for truck hazmat
ton-miles, updated using combination truck VMT from FHWA Highway Statistics,Table VM-1.
STB Waybill Sample for rail ton-miles.
Technological Improvements to Railroad Safety:
             Track & Equipment
Improved Track
• Rail steels
• Welded rail
• Fasteners
• Detection of flaws, weak spots
Improved Equipment
• Heat treated curved plate wheels
• Hot box detectors, roller bearings, acoustic detection
  systems
• Air brake control valves & air brake tests
• Advanced Technology Safety Initiative (ATSI), to
  identify and repair high impact wheels & other flaws.
 Over 3.6 years, ATSI has prevented an estimated 160
 broken rail and broken wheel accidents on main track.
      Main Track Accidents per Million Freight Train Miles
0.4
                                                        Without ATSI (Estimate)

0.3

                                                      With ATSI (Actual)
0.2
                                        “Before” Period           “After” Period
                                         (Pre-ATSI)                 (ATSI)
0.1


0.0
       1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


        Sources: AAR Analysis of FRA Train Accident and Train-Mile Data, 1997-2007,
                   All U.S. Railroads.
Technological Improvements to Railroad Safety:
             Tank Cars and SNF

• Head shields and shelf couplers
• Thermal insulation
• Bottom outlet protection
• Enhanced safety requirements of hazmat tank cars >263,000
  lbs or carrying environmentally sensitive chemicals
• Enhanced standard for cars carrying spent nuclear fuel and
  high level radioactive waste.
• A new performance standard for TIH tank cars.
   Railroad Industry Safety Programs:
          Hazardous Materials

• AAR North American Non-Accident Release (NAR)
  Program
• Transportation & Community Awareness & Emergency
  Response (TRANSCAER)
• ACC Responsible Care
• Operation Respond
• TTCI's Emergency Response Training Center
• TTCI's BOE Hazmat Inspections
• TTCI's BOE Hazmat Safety Information
         Railroad Industry Safety Programs:
          Operations, Training, Crossings
•   Individual Railroad Employee Safety Programs
•   Crew Resource Management (CRM)
•   Peer Observation Programs
•   Fatigue Countermeasures
•   Remote Control Operations
•   Locomotive Simulators
•   Interactive Video Individual Training
•   Operation Lifesaver
•   Grade Crossing Upgrade (Section 130) Program
                   Railroad Security

• After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the AAR & its member
  railroads voluntarily conducted a comprehensive risk
  assessment and implemented a security action plan with
  four alert levels.
• The Security Plan encompasses over 1,300 critical
  facilities (tunnels, bridges, yards, dispatch centers, etc.)
  over a 142,000-mile nationwide rail network.
• Execution of the Security Plan depends on timely receipt
  of threat & warning information from the federal govt.
• Former DHS Secretary Ridge cited this plan as a model
  for other U.S. industries.
                    Railroad Security:
                 Countermeasures include:
• Employee and customer awareness and training: e.g. to thwart
  terrorist intelligence gathering, facilitate warning & recovery.
• Sharing of Intelligence on Threats:
     – AAR Operations Center (24/7) collects, evaluates, and disseminates
       information to railroads thru the Railway Alert Network (RAN)
     – The Surface Transportation Information Sharing & Analysis Center (ST-
       ISAC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on physical and
       cyber-security threats to providers and users of surface transportation.
•   Vetting employees & contractors.
•   Controlling access to critical facilities and shipment info.
•   Special operating measures to safeguard hazmat.
•   Securing communications and data and ensuring message
    integrity and best IT practices.
Since 1980, U.S. Class I railroads have spent $396
         billion on track and equipment.
Capital Expenditures and Maintenance Expenses, Minus Depreciation, in Billions of Dollars
12.0

10.0
                                                       Equipment
 8.0

 6.0
                                                Track & Structures
 4.0

 2.0

 0.0
       1980          1985             1990             1995            2000                    2007
Sources: AAR, Analysis of Class I Railroads, 1980 - 2007, based on R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I
railroad to the ICC/STB. Equipment: Lines 382+158-151-154-157. Track: Lines 378+149-147.
Note: Current year dollars.
 Since 1991, U.S. Class I railroads have accelerated
           capital spending on new rail.
  Billions of Current Dollars
2.5

2.0
                                   Capital Expenditures on Rail
1.5

1.0

0.5
                           Operating Expenses for Rail & Other Track Material
0.0
      1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007

        Source: R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I railroad to the ICC/STB, 1987-2007.
        Schedule 330, line 8, column e; Schedule 410, lines 1, 14, and 15, column h.
 In the last 10 years, U.S. Class I railroads have laid
              5.9 million tons of new rail.
0.75 Million Tons of New Rail Laid



0.50



0.25



0.00
       1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
         Note: Includes new rail laid in replacement and in addition, excludes relay rail.
         Sources: AAR, Analysis of Class I Railroads, 1980 – 2007, Lines 366+369+371,
         based on R-1 Reports submitted by each Class I railroad to the ICC/STB.