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Lab Welcome to Attila sdsu edu filler

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Lab Welcome to Attila sdsu edu filler

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									        ME495




 Lab 2: Rankine Cycle




      Group D:
     David Elting

  Christopher Goulet

   Gerardo Espinoza

   Rodolfo Gonzalez




Professor Sam Kassegne




       11-14-07




          1
                                                Table of Contents

1. Title Page ....................................................................................................................1

2. Table of Contents .......................................................................................................2

3. Objective of the Experiment (David Elting) .......................................................... 3-6

4. Equipment (Rodolfo Gonzalez) .............................................................................. 7-8

5. Experimental Procedure (Gerardo Espinoza) ....................................................... 9-10

6. Experimental Results (Christopher Goulet) ....................................................... 11-19

7. Discussion of Results (Christopher Goulet) ....................................................... 20-21

8. Conclusion (David Elting)........................................................................................22

9. References (David Elting/Rodolfo Gonzalez).........................................................23




                                                              2
                                        Objective
Objective
The objective of this laboratory exercise is to familiarize the student with a Rankine cycle
heat engine. The RankineCycler steam turbine system made by Turbine Technologies
Ltd. is a working model of a steam power plant and will be used for the exercise. The
student shall apply the basic equations for Brayton cycle analysis by using empirical
measurements at different points in the Rankine cycle. The student will also learn how to
select the appropriate transducer in order to detect and measure the physical properties
necessary for calculating the efficiency of a Rankine cycle.


Background
The vapor power plant has wide spread application. Most notably, it is used to drive large
electrical generators in power plants. A simple vapor power plant has four main
components: a pump, a boiler, turbine and a condenser. Basic operation entails
compressing water by pumping it into the boiler. The water is heated at constant pressure
in the boiler. The resulting hot water vapor is directed to the turbine section where it
expands. As the water vapor expands it performs work by turning the turbine. The turbine
is connected to an electric generator by a shaft which, in turn, produces electrical power.
The water vapor then experiences heat rejection at constant pressure in the condenser.




                                             3
                             Figure 1 Rankine cycle diagram


       Water enters the pump at state 1 as a saturated liquid. It undergoes reversible
compression up to the operating pressure of the boiler. Water enters the boiler (also
called a steam generator) at a compressed state as a liquid at state 2. Heat is added to the
water in the boiler at constant pressure. The water leaves the boiler at state 3 as a
superheated vapor. The superheated vapor enters the turbine where it expands
isentropically. The expanding superheated vapor produces work in the turbine as the
turbine turns a generator via a shaft. The expanding superheated vapor cools and the
pressure drops as it goes through the turbine. This reduces the quality of the steam. The
steam, now a saturated liquid- vapor mixture enters the condenser at state 4 and
undergoes heat rejection at constant pressure.




                                             4
                     Figure 2 T-s diagram for a simple Rankine cycle

       The area under the process curve in the T – s diagram represents the heat transfer
for an internally reversible process. The area under the process curve from state 2 to state
3 is the heat transferred to the water in the boiler. The area under the process curve from
state 4 to state 1 is the heat rejected in the condenser. The difference between the two (the
area within the process cycle) represents the net work produced by the cycle.
       To perform the thermodynamic analysis on the cycle each component is modeled
as a control volume. All processes are executed in steady-flow sections and can be
analyzed as a steady-flow process, expressed on a basis of unit mass as q – w = hexit –
hinlet. The boiler and condenser do not involve work and the turbine is considered to be
isentropic. Additionally, there is one flow in to each device and one flow out of each
device. Under consideration of all of these conditions the specific first law analysis for
each device is:
       Pump – (q = 0): win,PUMP = h2 – h1
       Boiler  (w = 0): qin = h3 – h2
       Turbine  (q = 0): wout,TURB = h3 – h4
       Condenser  (w = 0): qout = h4 – h1
                                                                          wnet 1  q out
The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is determined from:  th          
                                                                          q in    q in
Where wnet = qin – qout = wout,TURB – win,PUMP



                                                 5
The RankineCycler used in this lab exercise does not make use of the pump to compress
the water. The boiler is filled to ¾ capacity with water prior to operating the lab. The
water is heated at constant volume by a flame fueled with liquid propane (LP). The heat
addition process under constant volume conditions causes a pressure increase. The high
pressure water vapor is directed to the turbine where it expands and drives the electrical
generator via a pair of spring shafts connecting the turbine and generator. The water
vapor steam mixture experiences constant pressure heat rejection in the cooling tower
where the water condenses into a catch tube.




                                               6
                                    Equipment List




Figure 3 RankineCycler steam turbine system            Figure 4 Propane tank


Turbine Technologies RankineCycler steam turbine system
Dimensions- 58 x 48 x 30 inches
Weight- 400 lbs
Instrumentation
  1. Single Cable DigiDAQTM USB to PC Connection
  2. 20 Analog IN - 16 Digital IN/OUT - 4 Frequency/Pulse IN
  3. Sensors (Preinstalled and Calibrated)
    • Boiler Temperature and Pressure
    • Turbine Inlet Temperature and Pressure
    • Turbine Exit Temperature and Pressure
    • Turbine RPM
    • Fuel Flow
    • Generator Voltage Output & Current Draw
 4. Boiler
 5. Generator
 6. DC Voltage & amperage gauges
 7. Condenser
8. Turbine
9. Mater key



                                             7
10. Burner Switch
11. Load Switch & knob
Operating Conditions / Limitations
1. Boiler
     • Pressure 120 psi (827 kPa)
     •Temperature 482˚ F (250˚ C)
2. Generator
     •15.0 Volts
     •1.0 Amp (Total Load of 15.0 Watts)
Operating Requirements
Power: 120V single-phase 60Hz


600 ml Graduated Cylinder
- Connection hose at the bottom of the tank
- Plastic shutoff valve attached to hose


Propane tank
- Propane




                                              8
                                         Procedure
       First the boiler needed to be filled with water. The steam admission valve was
opened and the filler tube was inserted in the back of the boiler. The boiler was filled
until the water level in the sight glass reached the upper sight glass bezel. After the boiler
was filled to the proper level, the filler tube was removed and the steam admission valve
was closed.
       Next the turbine was checked for proper oil level. The two brass thumbscrews
from the turbine were removed and oil was added to within 1/8 inch from the top of the
fitting. After checking the oil level and making sure the switches were off and that
condensation was removed from the cooling tower catch tube, the power on the strip to
the computer and RankineCycler test bench was turned on. Then, the valve on the Liquid
Propane (LP) tank was opened up. The gas valve knob on the test bench was turned to the
“ON” position. Also, the master power switch and burner switch were turned “ON” and it
was verified that the green indicator light lit up. After the two switches were turned on,
the turbine in the ignition unit started and 20-30 seconds later the LP ignited. A loud pop
was heard, indicating ignition.
       The pressure in the boiler was allowed to build, making sure it did not exceed 130
psig. As the pressure was building the “Virtual Bench” on the computer desktop was
opened. Then, Edit>>Settings was selected and the File Configuration dialog box was
opened. A filename was entered and then a username, comments, field length, precision,
and number of lines to write to the file were entered. Enable logging and begin logging
on start were selected to begin logging to disc automatically when acquisition started.
The OK button was selected and all configured channels were ready to log to the disc.
The timing configuration dialog box was opened and a time interval and a log to disc
every n time interval was selected. The OK button was selected and logging to disc was
enabled. The computer was ready to acquire data.
       The voltmeter was observed as the steam admission valve was opened slowly.
The turbine speed was regulated until the voltmeter indicated between 7 and 10 volts.
This allowed for the turbine components and tubing to preheat. After 20 seconds, the
steam admission valve was closed and the pressure in the boiler was allowed to rebuild.
After the boiler pressure had increased to 120 psig, the steam admission valve was



                                              9
opened and the turbine adjusted until the voltmeter indicated 9 volts. The load switch was
then turned to the “ON” position. The load knob was slowly adjusted along with the
steam admission valve until 9 volts and 0.4 amps were indicated on the voltmeter and
ammeter. Data recording was initiated. The steam admission valve and load knob were
adjusted to maintain steady state indications on the voltmeter and ammeter.
       After around two minutes of data was recorded, the lower sight glass bezel was
moved to the current water level. The steam admission valve was closed and the load
knob turned full counter-clockwise. The load switch, burner switch, and the gas valve on
the test bench were turned off. Also, the valve on the LP tank was shut. The condensate
from the cooling tower was drained into a graduated cylinder and the volume was
recorded. After the boiler pressure reduced to 10 psig via cooling, the load was turned to
full and the steam admission valve was opened until boiler pressure was equal to
atmospheric pressure. Caution was taken not to over spin the turbine.
       The amount of water used during the test run was measured by inserting the filler
tube into the back of the boiler and filling it with water using a graduated cylinder until
the water level in sight glass reached the upper sight glass bezel. The amount of water
replaced in the boiler was recorded. The filler tube was removed and the steam admission
valve was closed. After all the data was recorded, the lab was cleaned up of spilled water
and any oil leaks.




                                              10
                                Experimental Results

Table 1 Constants and given values
Initial boiler water volume, V0        2900 mL
Condensate volume, Vc                  150 mL
Re-fill water volume, Vr               2500 mL
Ambient temperature, Ta                24 deg C
Liquid propane HHV                     50.33 MJ/kg
Liquid propane density, rho_propane    0.500 kg/L


Table 2 Experimental values
   Boiler Press   Turb Inlet Press    Turb Exit Press   Boiler Temp   Turb Inlet Temp
        p2               p3               p1, p4             T2              T3
     (PSIG)           (PSIG)              (PSIG)          (Deg C)         (Deg C)
     24.622           12.924               4.042           188.9           129.5
     23.447           14.061               4.017           187.4           129.3
     22.884           13.768               3.999           185.8           128.6
     22.411           13.443               3.971           184.5           128.4
     21.942           13.099               3.937           182.8           127.8
     21.523           12.846               3.904           181.4           127.4
     21.103           12.588               3.869           180.3           126.8
     20.838           12.348               3.833           178.7           126.1
     20.506           12.125               3.784           177.9           126.0
     20.181           11.925               3.725           176.5           125.4
     19.925           11.749               3.688           175.8           125.1
     19.724           11.565                3.66           175.2           125.0
     19.434           11.399               3.634           174.8           124.9
     19.272           11.252                3.61           174.2           124.1
     19.051           11.107               3.588           174.3           124.3
     18.841           10.972               3.562           174.0           123.9
     18.675           10.859               3.527           174.0           123.8
     18.499           10.734               3.496           173.9           123.6
     18.398           10.652               3.469           173.7           123.6
     18.257           10.551               3.455           173.7           123.4
     18.133           10.457                3.44           173.7           123.2
     18.026           10.365               3.426           173.5           123.2
      17.94           10.329               3.413           173.5           122.8




                                            11
Table 3 Experimental values concluded
 Turb Exit Temp     Fuel Flow     Gen. Amprige   Gen. Voltage
       T4         m_dot_propane         I             V
    (Deg C)          (ltr/min)      (Amps)         (Volts)
     124.3             5.969         0.372          2.032
     124.2             5.955         0.362          1.962
     123.8             5.938         0.303           3.87
     123.3             5.966         0.299          8.527
     122.7             5.982         0.326          9.478
     122.3             6.011         0.322          9.357
     121.8             6.019         0.314          9.109
     121.6             6.024         0.311          9.061
     121.2             6.023         0.306          8.878
     120.9             6.020         0.304          8.816
     120.5             6.023         0.298          8.631
     120.3             6.028         0.295          8.555
     120.4             6.021          0.29          8.407
     120.0             6.021         0.291           6.11
     120.2             6.027         0.293          3.802
     120.0             6.031          0.29          4.013
     119.7             6.032         0.285          5.082
     119.7             6.036         0.286           5.09
     119.3             6.036         0.283          5.031
     119.1             6.029         0.282          4.999
     119.0             6.029         0.279          4.967
     119.1             6.034         0.279          4.963
     119.0             6.028         0.277          4.919




                                        12
Table 4 States from H20 property tables
     State 1          State 2           State 3        State 3       State 4
   Enthalpy, h1     Enthalpy, h2      Enthalpy, h3   Entropy, s3   Enthalpy, h4
     (kJ/kg)          (kJ/kg)           (kJ/kg)       (kJ/kg.K)      (kJ/kg)
      448.1           2844.0            2726.9          7.207        2722.1
      447.9           2841.4            2725.8          7.180        2721.9
      447.8           2838.1            2724.5          7.183        2721.1
      447.6           2835.7            2724.4          7.190        2720.1
      447.4           2832.4            2723.4          7.195        2718.9
      447.2           2829.6            2722.7          7.198        2718.1
      447.0           2827.6            2721.6          7.201        2717.2
      446.8           2824.4            2720.3          7.203        2716.7
      446.5           2822.8            2720.1          7.208        2716.0
      446.1           2820.1            2719.1          7.209        2715.4
      445.9           2818.9            2718.5          7.212        2714.5
      445.7           2817.7            2718.5          7.216        2714.3
      445.5           2817.0            2718.4          7.219        2714.5
      445.4           2815.8            2716.7          7.218        2713.6
      445.2           2816.2            2717.4          7.223        2714.0
      445.1           2815.7            2716.6          7.224        2713.6
      444.9           2815.6            2716.4          7.226        2713.1
      444.7           2815.6            2716.1          7.228        2713.0
      444.5           2815.2            2716.2          7.230        2712.3
      444.4           2815.2            2715.9          7.231        2711.9
      444.3           2815.3            2715.5          7.232        2711.7
      444.2           2814.9            2715.5          7.234        2711.9
      444.1           2815.0            2714.8          7.233        2711.8




                                          13
Table 5 Calculated values
 State 4 Enthalpy   Turbine Isentropic  Heat Addition    Fluid Flow Rate   Heat Rejection
 Isentropic, h4,s       Efficiency     Q_net,in,BOILER        m_dot        Q_net,in,COND
      (kJ/kg)               (%)             (MW)              (kg/s)           (kW)
      2661.1              7.201             2.503             1.045           -2376.2
      2650.6              5.234             2.498             1.044           -2372.9
      2651.6              4.604             2.490             1.042           -2368.6
      2654.0              6.031             2.502             1.048           -2381.1
      2655.6              6.570             2.509             1.052           -2389.6
      2656.7              7.001             2.521             1.058           -2403.0
      2657.5              6.896             2.524             1.060           -2407.4
      2658.0              5.892             2.527             1.063           -2412.1
      2659.2              6.707             2.526             1.063           -2412.6
      2659.4              6.130             2.525             1.064           -2413.6
      2660.0              6.832             2.526             1.065           -2415.0
      2661.2              7.311             2.528             1.066           -2418.1
      2662.2              6.985             2.525             1.065           -2416.2
      2661.7              5.611             2.525             1.065           -2416.5
      2663.3              6.293             2.528             1.066           -2418.8
      2663.4              5.754             2.530             1.067           -2420.6
      2663.8              6.245             2.530             1.067           -2420.5
      2664.4              6.016             2.532             1.068           -2422.1
      2664.9              7.692             2.532             1.068           -2421.7
      2665.3              7.810             2.529             1.067           -2418.5
      2665.5              7.559             2.529             1.066           -2418.1
      2666.1              7.219             2.531             1.068           -2420.8
      2665.7              6.257             2.528             1.066           -2418.2




                                            14
Table 6 Calculated values concluded
  Boil-Turb Loss    Turbine Work      Gen. Power   Gen. Efficiency   Overall Thermal
  Q_net,in,LOSS    W_net,out,TURB       P_gen        eta_gen          Efficiency, eta
        (kW)             (W)             (W)            (%)                 (%)
       -122.4          4944.1           0.756         0.0153               0.197
       -120.6          4105.7           0.710         0.0173               0.164
       -118.4          3494.1           1.173         0.0336               0.140
       -116.7          4448.9           2.550         0.0573               0.178
       -114.7          4686.9           3.090         0.0659               0.187
       -113.2          4887.8           3.013         0.0616               0.194
       -112.4          4687.0           2.860         0.0610               0.186
       -110.5          3904.0           2.818         0.0722               0.155
       -109.2          4344.6           2.717         0.0625               0.172
       -107.4          3894.8           2.680         0.0688               0.154
       -106.9          4260.0           2.572         0.0604               0.169
       -105.7          4466.3           2.524         0.0565               0.177
       -105.0          4178.2           2.438         0.0584               0.165
       -105.5          3291.9           1.778         0.0540               0.130
       -105.4          3631.0           1.114         0.0307               0.144
       -105.7          3265.4           1.164         0.0356               0.129
       -105.9          3502.3           1.448         0.0414               0.138
       -106.2          3326.0           1.456         0.0438               0.131
       -105.7          4217.7           1.424         0.0338               0.167
       -105.9          4216.9           1.410         0.0334               0.167
       -106.5          4028.0           1.386         0.0344               0.159
       -106.1          3803.8           1.385         0.0364               0.150
       -106.8          3280.0           1.363         0.0415               0.130




                                         15
Figure 5 T-s diagram for actual process




Figure 6 T-s diagram for process with isentropic turbine




                                           16
Data Reduction
1. Steam loss rate
                        kg
Ta  24C    997
                        m3
Vr  2500 mL  0.0025 m 3

                kg 
                                  
m s  Vr   997 3  0.0025 m 3  2.49 kg
                m 
         ms 2.49kg          kg
ms 
                  0.0143
          t   174s           s


2. Provide a first law analysis of each stage of the actual process.
Assume steady state, constant pressure heat rejection, water exits condenser as saturated
liquid
Sample calculations for first data point
State 1, condenser outlet - boiler inlet, saturated liquid:
                                                        kJ
p1  4.042 psig  129 .1kPa _ abs  h1  h f  448 .1
                                                        kg
State 2, boiler outlet, superheated steam:
                                                                        kJ
p 2  24 .622 psig  270 .9kPa _ abs, T2  188 .893 C  h2  2844 .0
                                                                        kg
State 3, turbine inlet, superheated steam:
                                                                      kJ               kJ
p3  12 .924 psig  190 .3kPa _ abs, T3  129 .46 C  h3  2726 .9      , s3  7.207
                                                                      kg              kg  K
State 4, turbine outlet – condenser inlet, superheated steam:
                                                                      kJ
p 4  4.042 psig  129 .1kPa _ abs, T4  124 .325 C  h4  2722 .1
                                                                      kg
Process 1-2, boiler:

    mh1  mh2  Qnet,in  Wnet,out  0  Qnet,in  mh2  h1 
dE                                      
                                                  
dt




                                               17
                                                                         MJ        kg      L 
                                                                   50.33
                                                                             0.500  5.969
                                                                                                  
                                                                         kg         L     min 
Qnet,in , BOILER  HHV m propane  HHV  propaneV propane
                                                             
                                                                                     s
                                                                                 60
                                                                                    min

Qnet,in , BOILER  2.50MW


     
     Qnet,in , BOILER             2500kW             kg
m
                                             1.04
        h2  h1                    kJ      kJ         s
                            2844.0  448.1
                                   kg      kg
Process 4-1, condenser:
dE                             
      mh4  mh1  Qnet,in  Wnet,out  0
               
dt
                                  kg              kJ 
Qnet,in ,COND  mh1  h4   1.04  448.1  2722.1   2.38MW
                                           kJ
                
                                   s     kg       kg 

Process 2-3, boiler outlet – turbine inlet:
dE                               
      mh2  mh3  Qnet,in  Wnet,out  0
                
dt
                                   kg               kJ 
Qnet,in , LOSS  mh3  h2   1.04  2726.9  2844.0   122.4kW
                                             kJ
                 
                                    s      kg       kg 

Process 3-4, turbine:
dE                              
     mh3  mh4  Qnet,in  Wnet,out  0
                
dt
                                   kg               kJ 
Wnet,out ,TURB  mh3  h4   1.04  2726.9  2722.1   5.02kW
                                             kJ
                   
                                    s      kg       kg 

Generator power
Pgen  IV  0.372 Amp 2.032 V   0.756 W


3. Calculate the efficiency for the turbine.
For an isentropic turbine
State 4, turbine outlet – condenser inlet, saturated mixture:




                                                   18
                                                      kJ
p 4  4.042 psig  129.1kPa, s 4, s  s3  7.207
                                                     kg  K
s f  s 4, s  s g  saturated _ mixture
                         kJ             kJ
                        7.207   1.384
   s 4, s  s f         kg  K         kg  K
x                                            0.989
   sg  s f              kJ             kJ
                  7.274         1.384
                        kg  K         kg  K
                                                                   kJ 
h4, s  h f  xhg  h f   448.1          0.989 2686.8  448.1   2661.1
                                        kJ                  kJ                  kJ
                                                                      
                                        kg                 kg      kg         kg

Turbine isentropic efficiency
                                      kJ           kJ
                                  2726 .9 2722 .1
            h  h4                    kg           kg
 TURB     3          100                           100  7.29 %
           h3  h4, s                 kJ           kJ
                              2726 .9     2661 .1
                                      kg           kg
Overall thermal efficiency
      
     Wnet,out ,TURB               5.02kW
                       100            100  0.200%
     Qnet,in , BOILER             2500kW

Generator efficiency
              Pgen                   0.756W
 gen                      100            100  0.0151%
           
          Wnet,out ,TURB             5020W




                                                    19
                                    Discussion of Results
        The thermal efficiency of this Rankine cycle is very small compared to the
efficiencies obtained in power plants that use the Rankine cycle. The thermal efficiencies
for the cycle ranged from 0.129% to 0.197%, whereas a power plant might have
efficiencies of around 25-30%. The generator efficiency was even smaller than the
thermal efficiency, suggesting that the generator is not producing much power from the
shaft rotation. The turbine isentropic efficiencies were around 6-7%, suggesting that
there is much heat loss and friction in the turbine, resulting in much irreversibility.
        There are many other possible explanations for the small efficiencies obtained. It
may not be accurate to compare a Rankine cycle of this size to a power plant cycle. The
small size of the Rankine cycle test device is probably not the proper or ideal size for a
practical Rankine cycle engine. It is possible that much of the heat of the propane
combustion is wasted since the boiler may not be large enough to facilitate the efficient
transfer of heat from the combustion to the water and steam. Heat and pressure losses
from the boiler are probably significant, although there was no apparent way to measure
these losses, so the analysis assumes that they do not occur. It is also likely that the fuel
may not entirely combust, or the density and heating value of the propane used in the
experiment may be different from the values used in the analysis. Significant pressure
losses probably also occur in the cooling tower, although constant pressure heat rejection
is assumed in the analysis. The assumption that the water leaves the condenser as a
saturated liquid may not be valid if the cooling tower does not efficiently reject the heat.
Heat and pressure losses also likely occur in the pipes and valves connecting the prime
movers. The significant drop in temperature from the boiler outlet to the turbine inlet
exemplifies these losses, which result in lost work potential and lower efficiency.
Contaminants in the water, such as oil, may have altered the properties of the water,
affecting the work output and efficiencies.
        The large steam loss from the cooling tower and other components decreases the
mass flow rate, which decreases the work produced by the turbine and reduces the
thermal efficiency of the cycle. The lower mass flow rate is probably not the optimum
flow for the boiler or turbine, resulting in irreversibilities and less efficiency for the
components. The steam loss made it difficult to achieve the desired generator power



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output since the turbine was producing less shaft work. The steam loss rate is probably
smaller than the calculated value since the cycle was losing steam before data collecting
began. The cycle had to achieve a relatively steady state before the data collecting could
begin.
    Other possible sources of error may relate to the calculation or measuring
instruments. Precision limitations of the thermocouples, fuel flow sensor, or graduated
cylinders limited the accuracy of the first-law calculations and the steam loss rate.
Interpolations and rounding of values using property tables also contribute to precision
errors.




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                                          Conclusion
   At very least the Rankine cycle did manage to function. Each component of the cycle
definitely showed signs of functioning to an extent. However, the efficiencies of the cycle
were much lower than the theoretical values of a normal Rankine cycle. Two of the most
likely causes of the inefficiency can be attributed to either an undersized cycle, or a
significant loss in pressure before data recording. Not advised by the procedure, the
steam admission valve was opened all the way before we even began recording data. This
resulted in an initial pressure drop of 40-60psi, as well as a loss of a significant amount of
steam. After this, it became very difficult to stabilize the system at the requirements set
out by the procedure. Because of this miss-step, the efficiency of the cycle could have
been drastically reduced.
   Even though the resulting figures of the experiment did not match up with what we
initially expected, it was a valuable learning experiment. It strengthened our
understanding of what a Rankine cycle is and how it functions by letting us see it in
action rather than relying on thermal cycle graphs and written descriptions.




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                                 References

1. Kassegne, Sam. "Rankine Cycle." Blackboard. SDSU Engineering.
   13 Nov 2007 <https://blackboard.sdsu.edu>.

2. Bhattacharjee, Subrata. “The Expert System for Thermodynamics.”
   13 Nov 2007 < http://thermo.sdsu.edu>.

3. “RankineCycler Specifications.” 13 Nov 2007
   <http://www.turbinetechnologies.com/specifications/
   RankineCyclerSpecifications.pdf>




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