Physical Geography 101 Second Exam 100 points total ____________________________ NAME – Please Print Note: Clearly indicate your answers on the test. PART I – Multiple choice (2 points each) 1. Which of the following characteristics is NOT shared by both hurricanes and mid- latitude cyclones: (a) convergent air flow at the surface (b) an inward directed pressure gradient force (c) frontal precipitation (d) large-scale release of latent heat 2. The type of front formed by the merger of a cold front and a warm front (neither moves) is called an _______________. (a) occluded front (b) advection front (c) stationary front (d) polar front 3. The most important factor that explains the aridity of the LARGEST areas of deserts in the world, as a whole, is: (a) distance from the sea (b) rain shadow situations (c) the presence of offshore winds and cool ocean currents (d) the fairly continuous presence of settling air from high pressure cells 4. In which climate does a shift in wind direction serve as the most important controlling factor? (a) Tropical monsoon (b) Tropical steppe (c) Tropical savanna (d) Tropical rainforest 5. Which of the following is not a mechanism to cause precipitation: (a) convectional mechanism (when air is heated near surface, it expands and rises) (b) cyclonic mechanism (the zones of contact between warm and cold air masses) (c) orographic mechanism (the air mass is forced to rise above land barriers) (d) inversion mechanism (a layer of cool air is trapped on surface by the warm air) 6. Which of following has the least influence on the climate of United States _______. (a) maritime polar air mass. (b) continental polar air mass. (c) maritime tropical air mass (d) continental tropical air mass. 7. Temperatures at the Antarctic are often below -50°C in July. Which thermometer is the right one to use? a. Mercury thermometer b. Alcohol thermometer c. Water thermometer 8. The best definition of climate is: (a) the fluctuation of weather through time (b) the average annual rainfall and average annual temperature (c) based on geographic regions (d) a function of latitude and longitude 9. The temperature scales: which one is not internationally popular and is not preferred by scientists? a. Fahrenheit (°F) b. Celsius (°C) c. Kelvin (°K) 10. Which one has a higher specific heat? a. Land, b. Water, c. Tree, d. Clouds 11. A cloudy night is _____ a clear night a. Warmer than, b. Cooler than, c. about the same as 12. Where is the location of least annual T ranges? a. Equator, b. North Pole, c. Las Vegas, d. New York 13. Mid-latitude cyclones: (a) usually move across North America from east to west (b) are generally only found over the ocean (c) generally bring clear skies and little precipitation (d) usually move across North America from west to east 14. Which of the following is not a low pressure system? (a) cyclone (b) thunderstorm (c) anticyclone (d) hurricane 15. In the midwest of the United States, record-setting cold temperatures often result when a __________ air mass invades the region. (a) cP (Continental polar) (b) mP (Maritime polar) (c) cA (Continental arctic) (d) mT (Maritime tropical) 16. The replacement of warmer surface water by colder waters from below is referred to as __________. (a). Drifting (b). Circulating (c). Rechanging (d). Upwelling 17. Hurricanes: (a) form at the equator (b) are not as large as tornadoes (c) develop over warm ocean areas (d) tend to intensify when they move over land (e) all of these 18. Closely spaced isobars on a map indicate: a. Strong pressure gradient b. Northerly winds c. Winds of low velocity d. Weak breezes 19. The side of something that faces the direction from which the wind is blowing to is called the __________ side. a. Leeward b. Prevailing c. Windward d. Open 20. Air pressure __________ with elevation. a. Varies irregularly b. Increases c. Decreases d. Is constant 21. The circulation of water from one part of the general Earth system to another is known as the: a. Condensation cycle b. Hydrologic cycle c. Environmental cycle d. Evaporation cycle 22. As the temperature of a parcel of air increases, its ability to hold water vapor __________. a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains constant d. Increases, then decreases 23. The direction of land and sea breezes is: A. from land by night B. toward land by night C. from land by night and day D. toward sea by night and day 24. The amount of water vapor in the air at any one time and place is called: a. Capacity b. Saturation deficit c. Humidity d. Precipitation potential 25. The process by which plants give up moisture to the air is: a. Evaporation b. Transpiration c. Evapotranspiration d. None of these 26. The rate of evaporation is affected by: a. Temperature b. Relative humidity c. Wind speed d. All of these 27. A cloud type formed by strong convection currents is: a. Cirrus b. Lenticular c. Stratus d. Cumulonimbus 28. The term nimbus, when used in describing clouds, means: a. Precipitation b. Ice crystals c. Highest d. Lightning and thunder 29. The passage of a cold front is indicated by: a. An increase in temperature, decrease in pressure b. An increase in temperature, increase in pressure c. A decrease in temperature, increase in pressure d. A decrease in temperature, decrease in pressure 30. The upper groundwater zone above the water table where pore spaces may be filled with air as well as water is termed the zone of: a. Aeration b. Artesian water c. Precipitation d. Saturation Part II – True or False Questions (2 points each) 31. A front is a zone where air masses of different temperature and moisture characteristics meet. (a) True (b) False 32. The dew point temperature is the temperature that a parcel of unsaturated air must be warmed to before the air becomes saturated. A. True B. False 33. In tropical rain-forest climates the daily range of temperature is often greater than the annual range in temperature. (a) True (b) False 34. Groundwater can easily be polluted and easily cleaned up. (a) True (b) False 35. Surface pressure in a cyclone decreases towards the center. (a) True (b) False 36. In general, the polar regions have low precipitation. (a) True (b) False 37. An El Ni¤o event is most likely to begin in July or August. (a) True (b) False 38. Evaporation keeps the sea surface temperature below 31°C. (a) True (b) False 39. Urban centers tend to be warmer than their outlying rural areas and are sometimes referred to as heat islands. (a) True (b) False 40. Rain is by far the most common form of precipitation on the earth. (a) True (b) False Part III – Matching Terms (2 points each) – Pick out the term that best fits the definition from the numbered list below. WRITE THE NUMBER OF THE TERM in the space provided. Some terms may be used more than once. Some terms may not be used at all. TERMS a. equator e. easterly wave b. advection c. lightening d. El Nino 41. weak tropical disturbance in the trade wind belt __e___ 42. the horizontal movement of air in response to differences in pressure __b__ 43. events appear to be getting stronger and occurring more frequently in recent years_d_ 44. an intense discharge of electricity ___c_ 45. the Coriolis effect does not exist ____a_ a. Condensation nuclei b. Air mass c. Water Table d. Temperature e. Tornadoes 46. at the top of the zone of saturation. –c-- 47. a large parcel of the atmosphere, sometimes subcontinental in size, that may move over Earth's surface as a distinct, relatively homogeneous entity. –b-- R48. minute particles in the atmosphere that provide a surface upon which condensation can take place. –a-- 49. is a measure of average kinetic energy (motion) of individual molecules in matter. –d- 50. winds in high altitude flow faster than the surface winds due to the friction with ground and cause updrafts with the rotation axis perpendicular to the ground. –e-- Bonus questions 51. In the northern hemisphere the wind circulation in a low is: a. Counterclockwise, spiraling inward b. Clockwise, spiraling inward c. Clockwise, spiraling outward d. Clockwise, spiraling inward and outward e. Counterclockwise, spiraling outward 52. Make a question which you know well, but it is not on the test.
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