Bowel Organisms and Calcification by bahar19852010

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									        ( Bowel Organisms and Calcification )
              Anything about Diseases
These articles are about diseases and symptom of diseases that we encountered every day. It was
written in question and answer format to ease ordinary people to understand more about it.




BOWEL ORGANISMS

What is the commonest organism in the large bowel?
Bacteroides species.


What are commensal and a transit organism in the large bowel?
   Commensal organism:
      -A micro organism normally found in the large bowel that in normal circumstances
       causes no disease in the host and protects the host from colonization by pathogenic
       organisms

      Transient colonization:
       -A micro organism that is occasionally found in the large bowel as the organism traverses
       the alimentary system. In most people it causes no disease but has the potential to do so
       especially in patients who are immunodeficient.


Give example of commensals and transit organisms in the large bowel?
    Commensals:
       -Bacteroides species
       -E. coli
       -Enterococcus species such as faecalis and faecium

      Transient colonization:
       -Clostridium difficile
       -Candida albicans
       -Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Under what circumstances can apparently commensal organisms in the GIT cause disease
in the intact intstine?
Immunodeficient patients:
        -Congenitally immunodeficient patients
        -Iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients
        -Patients with acquired immunodeficiency such as those with leukemia and myeloma.

Patients with immunodeficiency as a complicating factor:
        -Patients with diabetes mellitus
        -Patients with carcinoma, especially when receiving chemotherapy

When an apparent commensal or transit organism becomes pathogenic:
      -Clostridium difficile

Others:
          -Impaired perfusion of the intestine
          -Breach of the wall, such as in diverticulitis
          -Hypotension
          -Primary vascular disease of the GIT
CALCIFICATION

How do you classify calcification in the human body?
Orthotropic and heterotopic.: Calcification is divided into metastatic , dystrophic and age related
( which may be dystrophic in some cases )


Where in the body does calcification occur normally ( orthotropic calcification )?
     -Bones
     -Teeths
     -Otoliths


What is the definition of metastatic calcification?
Metastatic calcification occurs as the result of hypercalcemia with deposition.
       -Around the gastric glands
       -Round the renal tubules
       -In the walls of the alveoli of the lungs


What does each of these sites have in common?
They all excrete acid:
       -Stomach secretes HCL
       -Kidney excretes H+
       -Lung excretes CO2


What is the definition of dystrophic calcification?
Calcification in dead or damaged tissues in the presence of a normal circulating calcium
concentration.:
        -Tuberculosis focus in the lung
        -Atheroma
        -Scars
        -Paracytic cysts such as cysticercosis
        -Calcification in damaged muscle

								
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