VIEWS: 22 PAGES: 57 CATEGORY: Emerging Technologies POSTED ON: 6/27/2010
Nano-medicine is developed with nano-biomedical nanotechnology to solve medical problems with discipline. The development of synthetic biology to develop cell or cell biology and computer robot technology, will bring a new nano-technology revolution. Nanotechnology and material of the field of medicine will bring about a profound revolution, mainly in the fight against cancer and cardiovascular disease is important.
Nanomedicine Ryan LeBlanc Stephen Asante-Ansong Shivani Virginia Commonwealth University INFO 664 May 5, 2008 1 Outline ► Define nanomedicine - Ryan ► Explain the science behind nanomedicine - Ryan ► Analyze the nanomedicine industry Commercialized nanomedicine - Ryan Barriers and substitutes - Ryan Businesses and industries impacted - Stephen Business drives and business models - Stephen Discuss why nanomedicine is emerging - Stephen ► Discussethical considerations - Shivani ► Speculate on the future of nanomedicine - Shivani 2 What is nanomedicine? ► “The monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures” ► Application of nanoscale technologies to the practice of medicine Diagnosis Prevention Treatment Medical research 3 Not if—but when? ► “Our near-term ability to structure materials and devices at the molecular scale brings enormous immediate benefits and will revolutionize the research and practice of medicine.” ► “Nanomedicine is poised to revolutionize medical practice, bringing nanotechnologies to clinical reality and enabling clinicians to diagnose, treat and monitor disease with the most advanced, state-of-the art materials and tools.” 4 Science 5 The nanoscale ► 1nm = 10-9 meters (1 billionth of a meter) Fingernails grow at 1nm/sec Pigeon landing on an aircraft carrier ► Size comparisons Carbon atom – 0.22nm Approximate size of a drug – 0.5nm Proteins – 3 to >100nm Viruses – 45 to 100nm Bacteria – roughly 500 to 10,000nm Average human cell is 10,000nm ► In medicine, smaller is better! 6 We’re not alone ► How many cells in the human body? 10 to 100 trillion ► How many bacteria live on us? 500 to 1,000 species 10 times more than human cells ►100 to 1000 trillion 7 Complexity of a cell 8 www.temple.edu/stl/images/SignalTransduction.jpg 9 10 http://www.proteinlounge.com/images/pathways/Antiproliferative-role-of-s.jpg The Inner Life of a Cell http://www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/6850.html 11 Complexity of disease Cancer ► Uncontrollable growth of our own cells Form tumors ► Earlydetection is essential but difficult ► Extremely difficult to distinguish between cancerous and healthy cells Over expression of a receptor Over production of a protein Elasticity 12 Complexity of disease 13 How effective are current treatments? ► Cancer death rates have not changed significantly since the 1950’s Second leading cause of death 554,000 deaths annually (23%) ► Cancer diagnosis and treatment have remained essentially unchanged for decades ► Chemotherapy, radiation, surgery Non-specific 14 How can nanomedicine help? Research Distinguish between cancerous and healthy cells Early diagnosis Imaging Protein concentrations Targeted drug delivery Cancer cell-specific cellular proteins ► Deliver drug directly to the cancer cells Identify rogue DNA in cancer cells ► Replace malfunctioning genes with engineered functioning genes 15 How close are scientists to achieving these goals? 16 The nanomedicine industry 17 Volker Wagner, Anwyn Dullaart, Anne-Katrin Bock & Axel Zweck NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 10 OCTOBER 2006 18 Volker Wagner, Anwyn Dullaart, Anne-Katrin Bock & Axel Zweck NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 10 OCTOBER 2006 19 20 Volker Wagner, Anwyn Dullaart, Anne-Katrin Bock & Axel Zweck NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 10 OCTOBER 2006 Drug delivery today ► Currently no cell-specific drug delivery ► No nanotechnology-enabled gene delivery ► Nanoparticulate formulations NanaCrystal ® technology (Elan Drug Delivery, Inc.) ► Many liposomal formulations of existing drugs ProtoSphere™ technology (Abraxis BioScience) 21 NanoCrystal® Technology 22 Benefits of NanoCrystal® Technology ► Rapamune® (rapamycin) Wyeth 2000 Allowed for tablet More convenient storage and administration ► Emend® (aprepitant) Merk 2003 Allowed it to be soluble Would not have worked without the new technology ► TriCor® (fenfibrate) Abbott 2004 Can be given with or without food ► Megace® ES (megestrol) Par 2004 Improved bioavailability Increased viscosity 23 ► ProtoSphere™ technology nab™ technology (nanoparticle albumin-bound) ► 130 nanometers 24 http://www.abraxisbio.com/rnd_platform_nab.htm Clinical benefits of nab™ technology ► Made solvent-based paclitaxel more effective Tumor response rate doubled ►11.1% to 21.5% ► Eliminated the need for premedicaiton to prevent solvent-related reactions Difficulty breathing, hives, swollen eyes and lips ► Reduced infusion time 3 hours to 30 miniutes 25 http://www.abraxane.com/benefits-cancer-treatment.aspx Barriers faced by nanomedicine ► Technological challenges ► Commercialization challenges 26 Commercialization challenges Few near-term commercially viable disruptively innovative products Big pharma’s reluctance to embrace nanomedicine Confusion at the Patent Trade Office (PTO) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Large-scale production challenges High production costs Absence of clear regulatory guidelines ►Publicreluctance ►Investor caution A well-established micrometer-scale industry 27 Commercialization challenges ► Patents are important “The critical role of patents to the nanomedicine “revolution” cannot be underestimated.” Patents generally precede funding from venture capitals firms ► Nanomedicine “land-grab” Companies, start-ups, and universities are ascribing high value and importance to patents Obtaining broad protection for new nanoscale materials 28 Annual nanomedicine patents 4000 29 Patent thickets ► “adense web of overlapping intellectual property rights that a company must hack its way through to actually commercialize new technology” Massive patent litigation battles lie ahead Discourages and stifles innovation Discourages investors ► May prove to be the major bottleneck to viable commercialization 30 Nanomedicine industry ► Key Players and Clients ► Business Drivers ► Business Models ► Timelines ► Why is nanomedicine emerging? Key Players 32 Business Drivers for nanomedicine ► Driver 1 – Ineffective current technologies ► Driver 2 – Personalized medicine ► Driver 3 – Informatics ► Driver 4 – Ageing population (baby boomers) ► Driver 5 – Healthcare economics 33 Ineffective current technologies Current research: ► INTRADERMAL DRUG DELIVERY ► Gene therapy ► Genomics ► Proteomics ► Biosensors ► Nano-scaffolds ► Lab-on-a-chip ► Nano-particles ► Clinical diagnostics ► Silicon quantum dots ► Optical analysis ► Terahertz imaging ► Smart drug delivery ► New generation implants ► Biocompatible materials 34 Personalized medicine Increasingly, diagnosis and ► PRE-IMPLANTATION treatment will be GENETIC DIAGNOSIS personalized: ► Personalized medicine – targeted drugs in line with individual patients metabolism. ► Point-of-care genetic diagnostics – immediate patient prognosis will start to occur. 35 Informatics Nanomedicine is creating a ► NANOMEDICINE AND demand for information BIOCOMPUTING technology: ► Bioinformatics ► Electronic records ► Computerized physician order entry ► Wireless technologies – interconnecting medical devices to hospital computer systems ► Telemedicine ► Digital information resources ► Remote patient monitoring ► Alarms via smart wearable devices 36 Ageing population (baby boomers) ► TRANSFORMATION OF HEALTHCARE People’s lifestyles and diet BASED ON HEALTHY LIVING are influencing change: ► People are living longer. ► People over 60 take more medications. ► Population is aging – European Commission predicts a peak around 2023 and start declining. 37 Ageing population (baby boomers) 38 Healthcare economics Nanomedicine is expected to ► POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSTIC TESTING reduce health care costs: ► Proactive prevention rather than reactive treatment ► Early detection approaches ► Decentralizing healthcare – home visits, point-of-care diagnostics. 39 Restructuring commercial R&D Increasingly, large corporation ► NANOMEDICINE FUNDING BY YEAR seek to acquire new technologies from small companies and universities: - Open innovation paradigm - Cost reduction - Optimize innovation ► Funding of commercial R&D is soaring. ► Cost of innovating new drugs has risen by a factor of 10 since 1990s, but who pays? 40 Business model ► Value proposition - Improve patient’s quality of life. - Reduce healthcare costs. ► Revenue generation and margins – sales, leasing, subscription, support, target profit margin, cost structure. ► Robust patent systems develop commercially viable nanomedicine products ► Competitive strategy – cost, differentiation or niche 41 Business models Market Segment ► Tissue Engineers ► Medical device manufacturers ► Academic and research institutions ► Dental community ► Regenerative medicine community ► Surgical tool companies ► Biologic groups ► Veterinary medicine 42 Timelines ► Commercialnanomedicine is at a nascent stage of development. potential of nanomedicine is years or decades ► Full away. ► Just because a drug or medical application is technically feasible doesn't mean it will make it into production and be deployed where needed. 43 Timelines and New Challenges ► Big companies can afford to pay the license for a patent and then commercialize and market the product. ► Smaller companies would rather collect license fees for the patents they possess than embark on the risky and expensive process of introducing a new drug or medical application into the market. ► Long, difficult and research intensive. 44 Timelines and New Challenges ► Displacement of certain classes of drugs – chemotherapy. ► Legal ► Environmental ► Safety ► Ethical ► Regulatory 45 Why is nanomedicine emerging? Nanomedicine – Hype or a real revolution in healthcare? ► Extremely bad conditions (as cancer) will be treated easily by modifying the body’s genetic material. ► Disease elimination will become normal, so we no longer will need to be worry about living with health conditions. ► Diagnose diseases before there are any symptoms. ► Administer drugs that are precisely targeted. ► Use non-invasive imaging tools to demonstrate that the 46 treatment was effective. Ethical principles Non-instrumentalisation: The ethical requirement of not using individuals merely as a means but always as an end of their own. Privacy Non-discrimination Informed Consent Equity Precautionary Principle 47 Precautionary Principle ► The Precautionary Principle is particularly important in this context ► This principle entails the moral duty of continuous risk assessment with regard to the not fully foreseeable impact of new technologies as is the case with nanomedicine 48 Ethical aspects of nanomedicine Short term perspective Nanocosmetic products Nanodelivery vehicles / systems / implants Nanodiagnostic tests Middle term perspective Nanodevices and Nanomedical products Long term perspective: Autonomous nanomachines 49 Legal, regulatory, and insurance issues ► Are we properly regulating new nano materials? ► How will our already strained health insurance system cope with human enhancements? 50 Transdisciplinarity ► A new research Paradigm - “lonely seekers of truth,” ► Example Average life span 51 The future of nanomedicine 52 Respirocytes ► Artificial mechanical red blood cell ► The injection of 5ml therapeutic dose of 50% respriyocytes saline suspension a total of 5 trillion individual nanorobots ► Primary Medical application include transfusable blood substitution; partial treatment for anemia, perinatal/neonatal and lung disorders; enhancement of cardiovascular/neurovascular procedures, tumor therapies and diagnostics; prevention of asphyxia; artificial breathing; and a variety of sports, veterinary, battlefield and other uses. 53 Microbivores ► An artificial mechanical white blood cells of microscopic size ► An infusion of a few milliliters of a microbivores would fully eliminate septicemic infections in minutes to hours. 54 Chromosome replacement therapy ► Medical nanorobots able to intervene at the cellular level ► Inheritive defective genes could be replaced with non-defective base pair sequences permanently curing a genetic disease 55 Future nanomedicine ► Nanorobot replacing neurons http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-2Xw- GNkUQ ► Nanobots killing a virus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyThoRCiw qc&feature=related 56 57
Pages to are hidden for
"Nanomedicine_5_"Please download to view full document