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Apoptosis and Appendicitis

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Information about Apoptosis and Appendicitis in a questions and answers way.

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									                 (Apoptosis and Appendicitis)
                   Anything about Diseases
These articles are about diseases and symptom of diseases that we encountered every day. It was
written in question and answer format to ease ordinary people to understand more about it.




APOPTOSIS

What does apoptosis mean?
   Apoptosis is the degradation of cell to balance mitosis in regulating the size and function
      of the tissue, or o eliminate unwanted cells or damage cells with abnormal DNA. This
      process is energy dependant and does not stimulate an inflammatory response. Apoptosis
      may be a physiological or as the result of a pathological process.

      In apoptosis, there is no :
      Failure of normal control and mechanisms; apoptosis is a normal event.
      Passive change; apoptosis requires energy and specific protein synthesis.
      Rupture of plasma membranes.
      Inflammatory reaction.

Give examples of how apoptosis is considered to be a physiological process in the body?
    Embryologically, there is loss of tissues between the digits at certain times in
       development.
    Physiological degeneration of the thymus occurs by apoptosis.
    Cells are removed from the bowel normally by apoptosis hen they are recognized as
       degenerate.
    In the endometrial cycle apoptosis remove cells when there is withdrawal of hormonal
       support.
    Similarly after the menopause and after other withdrawal of tropic stimuli apoptosis
       occurs in the target organs such as the uterus, prostate and breast.
How is apoptosis considered to be involved in the pathological process of the body?
   In cases of duct obstruction, apoptosis occurs in the affected glands such as the pancreas
      and parotid glands (but not the testis after vasectomy).
   In damage to cells fro viruses, irradiation, drugs, other physical agents and T-
      lymphocytes as in graft rejection.
   As a reaction to abnormalities that occur in the normal cell cycle that require that the cell
      should be eliminated.
   In tumors, especially Burkitt's lymphoma, neuroblastoma and other rapidly proliferating
      but not rapidly growth neoplasmas : the rate of apoptosis may be high and almost equal
      to the rate of cell division.


How is apoptosis regulated?
   By genes that promote apoptosis ( such as p53 and c-myc )
   By genes that protect against apoptosis ( such as bcl-2)
APPENDICITIS

Most causes of appendicitis are idiopathic but occasionally a cause is found. How do you
classify the causes of appendicitis?
     As causes in the lumen, in the wall and outside the wall of the appendix.

    In the lumen, causing predominantly mucosal appendicitis:
    Worms :
     -Entrobius vermicularis ( debated - usually incidental but occasionally causally related )
     -Strongyloides stercoralis
     -Ascaris lumbricoides
    Tropical parasites such as oesophagostomiasis
    Foreign material.




    In the wall causing preominantly transmural appendicitis:
    infection:
     -Viral infection ( such as adenovirus and CMV )
     -Bacterial infections such as tuberculosis , yersinial infection and actinomycosis.
     -Amoebiasis
     -Schistosomes and other tropical parasites



      inflammation without known primary infection:
       -Ulcerative colitis
       -Crohn's disease
       -Pseudomembranous colitis

      Ischaemia :
       -Ischaemic colitis
       -Congenital Stricture
       -Iatrogenic causes

      Vascular abnormalities :
       -Angioma
       -Angiodysplasia
       -Vasculities such as SLE and PAN
       -Other congenital abnormalities
   hamartoma :
    -Obstruction by Peutz-Jegher's polyp
   Neoplasia
    -Pseudomyxoma of the appendix
           -Associated with mucocele of the appendix
           -Associated with mucinous and other neoplasms of the ovaries.
    -Adenocarcinoma of the appendix
    -Carcinoid of the appendix
    -Carcinoma of the caecum with obstruction
    -Lymphoma




   Outside of the wall causing predominantly serosal appendicitis:
    -Salpingitis and oophoritis
    -Endometriosis
    -Diverticular disease
    -Generalized acute peritonitis from whatever cause:
            -uremia
            -Gynecological complication
    -So called autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and polyarteritis nodosa.

   Others:
    -Septicaemia
    -( familial tendency )


								
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