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									The Canadian Council of
 Professional Engineers

Providing leadership which advances the quality of life
    through the creative, responsible and progressive
 application of engineering principles in a global context
          Today’s Presentation

   The engineering profession in Canada
   Accreditation and Software Engineering
   National Guidelines for Licencing
   One province‟s experiences
   Digvir Jayas, P.Eng.
     Chair, Canadian Engineering Qualifications Committee and
      Associate Vice-President (Research) at the University of Manitoba
   Gillian Pichler, P.Eng.
     Director, Registration at the Association of Professional Engineers
      and Geoscientists of British Columbia (APEGBC)
   Pieter Botman, P.Eng.
     Volunteer with APEGBC and independent consultant
   Deborah Wolfe, P.Eng.
     Director, Education, Outreach and Research at the Canadian
      Council of Professional Engineers
        Engineering in Canada

   There are 160,000 registered
    professional engineers in Canada
   Canada’s system for the formation of
    an engineer is world renowned
   Canada is the 3rd largest exporter
    of engineering services in the world
       A Self-governing Profession
   Section 92 (13) of the Constitution Act, 1867, places
    professions under provincial and territorial jurisdiction.
   Delegation to professions - self-governance
   Licencing, discipline and enforcement
   Associations/ordre formed to protect the public
    and govern the profession
   Legislative framework established
   No industrial exemption: all those practising
    engineerng must be registered
    The Practice of Engineering
        (CCPE Definition)

The practice of Professional engineering means any
act of planning, designing, composing, evaluating,
advising, reporting, directing or supervising, or
managing any of the forgoing,
 that requires the application of engineering principles, and
 that concerns the safeguarding of life, health, property,
  economic interests, the public welfare or the environment.
    Canadian Council of Professional
   federation of 12 provincial and territorial
    associations, representing more than 160,000
    professional engineers
   represents the profession at the national and
    international levels
   accredits university engineering educational
   prepares national criteria and guidelines
             CCPE, continued . . .
   under the Federal Trade-marks Act, the CCPE is
    the owner of the official marks “engineer,”
    “professional engineer” and “engineering”
   the CCPE has the right and duty to protect the
    public from the misuse of the words “engineer”
    and “engineering”
             CCPE Structure

   Board of Directors
   Standing Committees
    Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board
    Canadian Engineering Qualifications Board
    Canadian Engineering Resources Board
    Canadian Engineering International Board
           Canadian Engineering
            Accreditation Board
   1965 - CEAB established. In 2002, 220 programs
    in 35 engineering schools accredited (including
    three software engineering programs).
   Objective: To ensure Canadian engineering
    education programs meet or exceed standards
    acceptable for professional registration/licensure
    in the Canadian provinces and territories.
   Purpose of Accreditation: to identify those
    engineering programs that meet the criteria for
          General Considerations
   applies to bachelor degree programs
   program must include engineering in the title
   all options and electives are examined
   CEAB curriculum content must be met by all
    students (minimum path)
   faculty teaching courses which are primarily
    engineering science and engineering design are
    expected to be professional engineers in Canada
         Benefits of Accreditation

   creditability for program
   graduates meet academic requirements for
    professional registration
   international recognition of engineering credentials
   uniform quality of engineering programs
   fosters self examination and continuous improvement
   improvement or elimination of engineering programs
    which do not meet standards
       Criteria For Accreditation
   Quantitative and Qualitative evaluation
   Accredited engineering programs must contain not
    only mathematics, sciences and engineering
    content requirements, but they must also develop
    communication skills and an understanding of the
    environmental, cultural, economic and social
    impacts of engineering on society and the concept
    of sustainable development
        Accreditation of Software
         Engineering Programs
   CEAB criteria are non-discipline specific
   CEAB developed a sample software engineering
    program that met criteria
   Held a workshop for all team chairs and software
    engineering program visitors in year of first visits
    (Fall 2000)
   Each software engineering program included two
    visitors; one from industry and one from academia
   Consistency report following decisions
Undergraduate Degrees Offered:
 University of Ottawa Example
Undergraduate Studies Program Titles
   Chemical Engineering
    Environmental Engineering Option
    Engineering Management And Entrepreneurship
    Combined Program In Chemical
    Engineering/computing Technology
    Combined Biochemistry / Chemical Engineering
    Program In Biotechnology

    Civil Engineering
    Environmental / Water Resources Option
    Structural And Geotechnical Engineering Option
    Engineering Management And Entrepreneurship
    Combined Program In Civil Engineering And
    Computing Technology
Undergraduate Degrees Offered:
Undergraduate Studies Program Titles
 Mechanical Engineering
 Combined Program In Mechanical Engineering /
 Computing Technology
 Engineering Management And Entrepreneurship Option

 School Of Information Technology And Engineering -
 Computer Engineering
 Computer Science
 Electrical Engineering
 Software Engineering
       University of Ottawa Software
    Engineering Curriculum (Accredited)
    The program prepares students for work on all types of
     software from real-time to business systems, with special
     emphasis on telecommunications software. The program also
     emphasizes communication and presentation skills, working in
     teams, management techniques and entrepreneurship.
     Students in the program work on industrially relevant
     software projects. They are taught how to use metrics to
     assess the quality of software and their own personal
    The program was reviewed and will be mentored on a
     continuing basis by executives of leading software companies
     - members of the Industrial Advisory Board of SITE
              University of Ottawa
                  SE Program
   First Year
       Principles of Chemistry
       Technical Report Writing
       Engineering Mechanics
       Fundamentals of Engineering Computation
       Calculus I
       Fundamentals of Software Design
       Introduction to Electrical and Computer Engineering
       Calculus II
       Introduction to Linear Algebra
       Fundamentals of Physics for Engineers
       Physics Laboratory for Engineers
             University of Ottawa
                 SE Program
   Second Year
       Data Structures
       Engineering Economics
       Computer Architecture I
       Logic for Computing
       Software Design II
       Three credits of electives 1
       Introduction to Business Management
       File Management
       Elements of Discrete Mathematics
       Probability Statistics for Engineers
       Software Design III
       Three credits of electives 1
             University of Ottawa
                 SE Program
   Third Year
       Computer Architecture II
       Design and Analysis of Algorithms I
       Database Management Systems
       Introduction to Telecommunications Systems and Services
       Software Development for Large-Scale Systems
       Three credits of electives 1

       Operating System Principles
       Professional Software Engineering Practice 2
       Advanced Object Oriented Analysis and Design
       Analysis and Design of User Interfaces
       Telecommunications Software Engineering
       Three credits of electives 1
              University of Ottawa
                  SE Program
   Fourth Year
       Security in Computing
       Software Project Management
       Software Engineering Project (first part) 3
       Nine credits of electives 1
       Real-Time Systems Design
       Higher Layer Network Protocols
       Software Quality Engineering
       Software Engineering Project (second part) 3
       Six credits of electives 1
National Guidelines for Licencing

   Candidate Types:
       CEAB grads
       CEAB recognized grads (MRA and SE)
       Non-CEAB recognized grads
       Related-discipline grads
         Canadian Engineering
         Qualifications Board
   to provide guidelines for admission standards for the
    practice of engineering
   to provide a syllabus for examinations for candidates
    other than CEAB graduates to ensure that they meet the
    educational requirements for licensure
   to encourage the adoption of common standards for
    professional engineering registration in Canada
   to act in a co-ordinating role on matters of professional
   National guidelines on professional engineering
   National guidelines on standards of practice,
    continuing competence and ethical conduct
   Common Professional Practice Exam
   Examination syllabus and list of international
    engineering institutions
   Environmental practice and issues
   Mobility agreement
      Requirements for licensure

   Academic
   Experience
   Professional Practice Exam
   Language
   References
         Academic Assessment

   CEAB accredited or recognized program
   Confirmatory Program
   Examination Program
          Experience Evaluation

   application of theory
   practical experience
   management of engineering
   communication skills
   social implications of engineering
Professional Practice Examination

   3 hour examination
   Professionalism
   Engineering Law

   French in Quebec, French or English in
    New Brunswick, English in all other

   technical competence in the application of
    engineering principles and theory
   ability to exercise professional judgment
   ability to communicate effectively in the
    language of the jurisdiction
   ability to work on a team
   character
             Role of Associations
   setting standards (academic, experience,
    references) for admission to the profession and
    issuing licences to those who qualify
   enforcement activities for those practising
    engineering who are not licensed or those
    claiming to be engineers who are not licensed
   investigation of complaints against Members
     Role of Associations, continued...
   discipline activities against members who perform
    incompetently, breach the Code of ethics, code of
   preparation of guidelines relating to various
    practice issues for the benefit of the public or the
   continuing competency programs
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   1998 – Chairman of leading aerospace
    company challenged APEGBC to recognize
    software engineering as „true engineering‟
   Forum held with representatives from
    industry, academia, IEEE, CCPE, to
    explore issues and propose the way forward
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   Issues Identified
    Majority of practitioners are not professional
     engineers because:
       • Have engineering degrees, but do not feel that
         practice is „professional engineering‟
       • Have computer science or other degrees but have
         moved into engineering
    Profession had failed to recognize software
     engineering as „true engineering‟
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   Issues Identified
    Large sector of practitioners in „applied
     computer science‟: software and hardware
    Designs affect public interest and safety
    Many P.Eng. Practitioners registered through
     computer and electrical practice software
     engineering; however …
       History of Licencing in B.C.
   Issues Identified
     Failure of profession to recognize software engineering
      resulted in formation left to employers, learned
      societies, individuals
     Marketplace does not recognize value of registering
      practitioners, qualified or not
     Evolution resulted in lack or professional engineers as
      mentors, traditionally required for registration
     Marketplace has strong support system of professional
      development and certification
      History of Licencing in B.C.
   Issues Identified
    Profession would need to make a major
     commitment to develop strategies that
     recognize that a community and practice had
     established, with certification bodies and
     infrastructure germane to its practitioners
    Strategies would need strong support within
     the industry and present a value proposition to
      History of Licencing in B.C.
   Task Force Established
   Responsibilities:
    Develop Qualification Process
    Develop Profession‟s Message to Industry and
     the Public
    Partner with Local Firms, Industry Support
     Groups, and Industry to ensure full
     professional commitment to registered
      History of Licencing in B.C.
   Task Force
     Developed White Paper for publication on website for
      feedback from industry groups, current and potential
     Developed Qualifications Process including academic
      and experience requirements;
     Received Council‟s approval to establish Software
      Engineering as a discipline and established a pilot
      applications process in April 1999 (no application fee)
     Advertising on web site, press releases, industry
      publications, industry meetings
     Established Computer & Software Engineering
      Division as Member Interest Group
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   Task Force
    Consultation & Liaison/Involvement with other
       •   Members in Industry
       •   BC Technology Industries Association
       •   IEEE Computer Society
       •   SWEBOK
       •   Texas State Board for Engineers
  History of Licencing in B.C.
 69 applications received
 First software engineer registered September 2000
 Feedback prolific with mixed opinions
    • No intention of becoming registered versus
    • Finally someone is taking action to formally regulate
      standards of practice
 Those seeking registration
    • Didn‟t feel they would have qualified (or been interested in
      qualifying) before software engineering recognized;
    • Other disciplines who had moved into software engineering
      and wished professional recognition;
    • Computer Science/Math graduates needing professional
      recognition to differentiate their qualifications from others
      History of Licencing in B.C.
   Evaluation of Applicants
     Recognized:
        • Non-traditional, growing discipline
        • Continuing evolution of knowledge, technology and theory
        • Combination of academics, in-house training, professional
          development and experience make up qualification „whole‟
        • Lack of P.Eng. References in some, but surprisingly few,
     Software Engineering Syllabus and first Experience
      Guidelines used as Guidelines
     Interviews used as a tool in many cases
     Details of evaluation written up for each applicant, to
      ensure consistency of evaluation
          APEGBC Criteria:
    Software Engineering Experience
   Include, but extend general requirements for
    “satisfactory Engineering experience”
   Basic software knowledge *assumed*
   Requires Breadth and Depth
   Should demonstrate increasing level of
    responsibility, usually multiple roles
    APEGBC Criteria: SW Eng’g
     Experience Capability Areas
   Software requirements management
     Elicitation, capture, tracing
     Analysis, specification, validation
   Software design and construction
     Architecture: Views, patterns, components
     Design methods, modeling, notations...
     Implementation methods and tools
    APEGBC Criteria: Experience
      Capability Areas (cont.)
   Software quality and testing
     Defect metrics, assessment of quality,
      Conformance to requirements
     Testing methods
     V&V
   Software assets management
     Configuration Management
     Change Control
     Release Management
    APEGBC Criteria: Experience
      Capability Areas (cont.)
   Software project management
     Different lifecycle models,
     Estimation and metrics
     Risk management
   Software process engineering
     Process metrics
     Software process improvement
     Process engineering
    Criteria: Experience in optional
            capability areas
   Safety-critical systems
     Transportation, nuclear industry, biomedical,
   Legal issues
     Licencing, IP, etc...
   Security: privacy, authentication, etc.
   Telecommunications
   Human factors, ergonomics
        Exclusions: Not Software
   Network design or management
   System administration
   Just use of software
   Multimedia design
   Pure technology investigation
   Work lacking software elements
   Work lacking engineering duties or
    Evaluating SW Engineering
     experience - pragmatics
 4 years is needed but may be insufficient!
 Evaluate experience within applicant‟s

  environment (terminology, standards)
 Look for an awareness of standards

  technologies, and current best practices
Above all, demonstrate application of
  principles, and understanding of many
  engineering trade-offs
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   Computer & Software Engineering Division
    Main focus is professional development
    Professional Development Streams at Annual
     Conference for past two years (2000 and 2001)
    Partner with other groups (INCOSE, IEEE) for
     this purpose
      History of Licencing in B.C.
   Current Picture:
     Of 19,000 members and members-in-training
     31 Registered as Software Engineers
     200 Registered as Computer Engineers
     Other practitioners in Electrical Engineering
     For Example, those who list their industry segment as
      Software Development, list their Primary Expertise as
        •   103 Computer Software
        •   11 Systems/Systems Integration
        •   10 Telecommunications
        •   6 project management; 5 Information systems
        •   4 Administration/Management; 2 Microelectronics
        •   2 Electromechanical systems
      History of Licencing in B.C.

   Current Picture:
    Other industry segments represented, including
       •   Communication & Telecommunication
       •   Computer
       •   Education
       •   Electrical/Electronic
       •   Systems Integration
       •   Utilities

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