The Human Body - PowerPoint by AmnaKhan

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									The Human Body
   Trivia Game

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          Did you Know??!!
• When you sneeze all body functions stop, even your heart
• Your brain is 80% water
• A human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels in their body
• The lining of your digestive system is shed every 3 days
• More than half the bones in your body are found in your
  hands and feet
• Everyone is colour blind at birth
• 1.7 litres of saliva is produced each day
• About 8 million blood cells die in the human body every
  second, and the same number are born each second

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          Body Systems:

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1. How many muscles are there in
   the human body?
•   Answer: 640 Muscles
•   Muscles band together to form muscle groups
    which work together
•   When the muscles contract, they pull on the
    tendons which pull on the bones and cause our
    limbs to move
•   Muscles can be either voluntary or involuntary
    (consider your arm vs. your heart which beats
    60 to 80 beats every minute without you having
    to think about it!)

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• The longest muscle in the body is ___________
• Answer- The Sartorius
• The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and
  across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the
  thigh outwards.

• The smallest muscle in the body is __________
• Answer- The Stapedius
• The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm
  long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in

• The biggest muscle in the body is __________
• Answer- The Gluteus Maximus
• The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the
  leg backwards powerfully for walking and running.

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There are about 60 muscles in the face.

 Smiling is easier than frowning.
        It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown.

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The Skeletal

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• How many bones are there in the human
• Answer: 206 Bones
• When you were born, your skeleton had
  around 350 bones. By the time you become
  an adult, you will only have 206 bones. This
  is because, as you grow, some of the bones
  join together to form one bone.

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Inside a Bone-
• Our bones are alive- they have their own nerves
  and blood vessels, and they do various jobs, such
  as storing body minerals.

• A typical bone has an outer layer of hard or
  compact bone, which is very strong, dense and
• Inside this is a layer of spongy bone, which is like
  honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible.
• In the middle of some bones is jelly-called bone
  marrow, where new cells are constantly being
  produced for the blood.
The Skeleton-
• The Skeleton is the name given to the
  collection of bones that holds the rest of
  our body up. Our skeleton is very
  important to us. It does three major jobs:

1. It protects our vital organs such as the brain, the
   heart and the lungs.
2. It gives us the shape that we have. Without our
   skeleton, we would just be a blob of blood and
   tissue on the floor.
3. It allows us to move. Because our muscles are
   attached to our bones, when our muscles move,
   they move the bones, and we move.

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Healthy Bones
• Most of the calcium in your
  body is stored in your bones
• Exercise and a good diet help
  to keep bones strong
• Vitamin D helps you absorb
  calcium so that your bones
  can stay strong
• Sources of vitamin D include
  milk, salmon, cereal, beef and
• When bones break they can
  heal themselves, and they are
  stronger when they heal than
  they were before they were
•       broken!

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Who discovered the X-ray?
• Wilhelm Roentgen, a physicist at the University of
  Wursburg, Germany, discovered radiation “X-rays” on
  November 8, 1895. This discovery altered the course
  of medicine.
   • Roentgen refused to patent his discovery or realize
     financial gain from it, preferring instead that the world
     benefit from his research.

• Many fields have emerged in Diagnostic Imaging
  since Roentgen’s discovery. The science has
  expanded to include General Imaging, CT Scan,
       Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound and MR1

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• A Medical Radiologic Technologist works with a
  wide range of machines, film processing units, and
  accessory equipment to produce and record
  images for visualizing the extent of disease or
  injury to a patient.

• A radiograph (X-ray) may be a routine film of the
  chest or a broken finger or it may form part of
  the sophisticated examinations used in the
  detection of heart, blood vessel, or brain

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• Check out and find out about
  the different programs offered at SAIT
  that focus on
       –   General Imaging
       –   CT Scan
       –   MRI
       –   Ultrasound
       –   Nuclear Medicine

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The Professionals
• Medical Radiologic Technologist
• TRIVIA! How many months for this diploma?
  – Answer: Medical Radiologic Technology is a 21 month diploma

• Nuclear Medicine Technologist
• TRIVIA! What are the employment statistics?
  – Answer: Graduates enjoyed a 100% employment rate

• Diagnostic Medical Sonographer
• TRIVIA! What are the education requirements?
  – Answer: A High School Diploma, with over 60% in English 30,
       Bio 30, Math 30/31, Physics 30 and Chemistry 20.

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Did you know?!
The average person has 4-5 litres of blood
• The blood is the transport system by
  which oxygen and nutrients reach the
  body's cells, and waste materials are
  carried away.
• In addition, blood carries substances
  called hormones, which control body
  processes, and antibodies to fight
  invading germs.
 Red blood cells carry oxygen from the
 lungs to all the cells of the body while
   White blood cells are like soldiers
          protecting the body.

   • ARTERIES are vessels that carry
            AWAY FROM
     blood ____________ the heart.
   • VEINS are vessels that carry blood
     _________ the heart.
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The Heart
• Your heart is a muscle about the size of your clenched fist.
• It is located in the left side of your chest, behind your rib
  cage and between your lungs
• It has thick muscular walls and is divided into two pumps.
• Blood from the right side pump is dark red (bluish) and low in
• This dark red blood travels along pulmonary arteries to the
  lungs where it receives fresh supplies of oxygen and
  becomes bright red.
• The bright red blood then flows along pulmonary veins back
  to the heart's left side pump
• Blood leaves the left side of the heart and travels through
  arteries which gradually divide into capillaries.
• In the capillaries, food and oxygen are released to the body
       • The blood then travels in veins back to the right side of the
         heart, and the whole process begins again.

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Did You Know??!!
Blood is a liquid organ
 The heart beats around 3 billion times in
  the average person's life
• Your blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood as
  it flows through the arteries of the cardiovascular system

  Within a tiny droplet of blood, there are
  some 5 million red blood cells, 300 000
  platelets and 10 000 white cells.
• It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the
  whole body.

               » Microscopic View of Blood Cells
About how many red blood
cells are there in one drop
         of blood?
• There are about 5,000,000 Red
  Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.

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The Professionals
• Medical Laboratory Assistants
  – Collect, Prepare and process patient specimens
• TRIVIA! What does phlebotomy mean?
  – Answer: Collecting Blood

• Medical Laboratory Technologists
  – Responsible for a broad spectrum of lab testing and
    procedures to diagnose, treat and prevent disease
• TRIVIA! This is Canada’s ___ largest
  group of health care professionals
  – Answer: They are Cananda’s 3rd Largest group of health care

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The Digestive System

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 What have you EATEN today??

• Food provides us with fuel to live, energy
  to work and play, and the raw materials to
  build new cells.
• All the different varieties of food we eat
  are broken down by our digestive system
  and transported to every part of our body
  by our circulatory system.
         –We eat about 500kg of
              food A Year!
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• The main part of the digestive system is
  the digestive tract.
• This is like a long tube, some nine metres
  in total, through the middle of the body.
• It starts at the mouth, where food and
  drink enter the body, and finishes at the
  anus, where leftover food and wastes leave
  the body
• Every day 11.5 litres of digested food,
  liquids and digestive juices flow through
  the digestive system, but only 100mls is
  lost as waste.
• The Mouth- Teeth bite off and chew
  food which mixes it with watery
  saliva, from 6 salivary glands around
  the mouth and face
• The Oesophagus- A muscular tube
  that takes food from the mouth to
  the stomach.

  – Food moves through the oesophagus by a
    muscular movement know as
         » This means that even if you stand on your
           head, food will still reach your stomach!
    The Stomach
•   The stomach has a thick muscular wall that contracts to mash up
    the food
•   Stomach acids and enzymes begin to break down the nutrients in
    the food we eat, particularly the proteins
•   The liquefied contents of the stomach enter the small intestine
    for further processing
•   As the food is digested in the small intestine it is dissolved into
    the juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine,
•   The contents of the intestine are mixed and pushed forward to
    allow further digestion and absorption of nutrients by the walls of
    the intestine.
•   The waste products of this process include undigested parts of
    the food, known as fiber, and older cells shed from the lining of
    the stomach and intestine.
•   These materials are propelled into the colon, where they remain,
    usually for a day or two, until the feces are expelled by a bowel

             – It takes about 20-30 hours to digest
              food completely
The Respiratory System
 •The primary function of the
 respiratory system is to supply
 the blood with oxygen.
 •The respiratory system does
 this through breathing.
 •When we breathe, we inhale
 oxygen and exhale carbon
 •When we inhale oxygen, it goes
 into our lungs and is absorbed by
 the blood stream
 The Lungs-
• Inside each of your sponge-like lungs, tubes,
  called bronchi, branch into even smaller tubes
  much like the branches of a tree. At the end of
  these tubes are millions of tiny bubbles or sacs
  called aleoli.
• They exchange the oxygen for waste products,
  like carbon dioxide, which the cells in your body
  have made and can't use.
• Once they receive the oxygen, red blood cells
  turn from purple to that beautiful red color as
  they start carrying the oxygen to all the cells in
  your body.                           *The branching out
                                         of the aleoli
                                         creates more
                                         surface area which
                                         in turn allows for
                                         more oxygen to be
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• When we eat, a flap called the
  ________ -- flops down to cover the
  windpipe so that food doesn't go
  down the wrong tube.

• ANSWER- ___________

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