Dissection of the Rat - An Exploration of the Various Organs Systems

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					Dissection of the Rat

An Exploration of the Various
      Organs Systems
      Day 1: Guiding Questions #1
1.   Make a list of instruments you’ll be using and the number of
2.   After reading the objectives of the lab, how many organs for
     each system are you required to know and identify.
3.   Name the two major regions of the integumentary system.
     Name three functions of this system.
4.   Name the four key parts to the skeletal system. What does
     Hemopoiesis mean?
5.   What is the only function of the muscular system? Name the
     three parts of the body mentioned that the muscular system
     plays a role.
6.     Name the three parts of the nervous system. Which parts
     make up the central nervous system?
7.   Name two functions of the endocrine system. What chemical
     is produced by the glands that make up this system? How is
     this system different from the nervous system? Name the eight
     types of organs that make up this system.
           Guiding Questions #2
1. What purpose does the circulatory system serve?
   What is it primarily composed of?
2. Name the six key structures that make up the
   respiratory system. What purpose does this system
   serve? Name the minute little sacs in the lungs that
   help with gas exchange.
3. Name the six parts of the digestive system. Where
   does digestion begin? Which part of the system is
   used to remove water from the food?
4. What roles do the pancreas and liver play in the
   digestive process?
5. Name one of the key waste products excreted by the
   Urinary system. Name the four main organs of this
6. Name the key structures of the male and female.
       Initial Procedures to Begin the
•   Dissection Guide: turned to the appropriate pg.
•   Instruments: see list
•   Paper towels
•   Water cup (half-filled) & dropper
•   Lab coat (optional)
•   String tied to each limb to immobilize the rat.
•   Freezer Bag: Names of lab partners (2-3)
       -Preliminary (male & female) names for your rat
             Guiding Questions #3
1. From your dissection guide which chapter discusses the
    muscular system?
2. Before identifying the muscles the rat must be skinned.
    The first incision to be made begins on the     -
       surface of the _____ and continues down to the point
    just anterior to the ______.
3. Circumvent cuts are made to the (right,left) by the
    genetials and mouth. How does the guide suggest that
    you separate the skin from the body?
4. Before separating the muscles and identifying them you
    first need to remove the tough white connective tissue
    that surrounds the muscles. Name this tissue.
5. Using Figure 14 (lateral view) list all of the muscles
    labeled in the diagram. You will ID these in your rat
               General Rules
• No Food or Drink at your Station at all times
• Remain at your station at all times unless
• Keep track of all instruments (do a count everyday)
• No open toed shoes
• Do not cut anything unless instructed
• Always follow your Dissection guide
•   1 dissecting pan
•   1 Lg. Freezer Bag
•   4 pieces of string (25 in each)
•   2 forceps (fine & blunt)
•   1 scapel
•   2 blunt probes
•   4 sharp probes
•   12 pins
•   2 scissors (tissue & paper)
•   Water dropper & cup
•   Ruler
•   Index card (labels)
                  Basic Procedure
1.    Ventral Incision & Extension to the limbs
2.    Separating skin from the underlying muscles
3.    Separate the fascia off the muscle
4.    Identify the indicated muscles
     -Make labels for structures listed on overhead
Separate & ID these Muscles (10 muscles)
  -Masseter              -Sternomastoideus
  -Spinodeltoideus       -Latissimus dorsi
  -Triceps               -Brachialis
  -Biceps femoris        -Gluteus Maximus
  -Tensor fascia Latae -Semitendinosus
    Please use the following in your guide:

       Lateral View (Pg. 16, Fig 14)
Lateral View of the Muscles
  Muscles to locate & ID from
   Ventral view (14 muscles)
-Pectoralis major   -Biceps brachii
-Pronator teres     -Flexor carpi radialis
-Palmaris longus    -Triceps
-Pectoralis minor   -Rectus abdominus
-External oblique   -Sartorius
-Gracilis           -Gastrocnemius
-Vastus medialis    -Semimembranosus
Ventral View of the Muscles
              Guiding Questions #4
             (Ch. 4 Digestive system)
1.   Name the three pairs of salivary glands commonly found in the
2.   Within the mouth cavity if you were to look inside you would
     observe a hard and soft palate. Where are they specifically
3.   After opening the abdominal cavity you should be able to
     locate the esophagus and follow it to the stomach. Name two
     structures that would be located next to the stomach.
4.   On page 28 of your guide sheet the diaphragm separates two
     cavities. Name them.
5.   How many lobes is the liver is divided into? Name them.
6.   Name the three regions of the stomach. How is the great
     omentum different from the lesser omentum?
7.   Where is the spleen located with reference to the stomach?
8.   Name all of the structures discussed from #11 to #19.
          Guiding Questions #4
      (Ch. 4 Digestive system cont’d)
Tasks to still complete:
    Finish separating the intestinal tract from the mesentery
    Transect the intestine from STOMACH end off the
    -Measure the length of the intestines (____ cm.)
    -Make a cross section of the stomach and make
    -Label all key structures
 Be sure you have the following labels
       and pin these on your rat
 Set #1                             Set #2
-Liver (left lateral lobe)          -Ureter
-Heart (atrium & ventricle)         -Jugular (left)
-Small intestine                    -Trachea
-Spleen                             -Vena Cava
-Kidney (right)                     -Aorta (abdominal)
-Lung                               -Iliac artery
-Diaphragm                          -Renal artery & vein
-Thymus gland                       -Carotid (right)
-Mesentery                    *(2) male or two female struct.
-Large intestine (caecum)
Contents of the Abdominal & Thoracic Cavities
Digestive System
            Guiding Questions #5
     (Ch. 5 Circulatory system-Pgs 31-36)
1.    What was injected into the veins and arteries of your rat? Why
      was this done?
2.    The pericardial membranes surround the            . Name the two
      types of membranes present. How are these two membranes
      different from each other?
3.    Which area (chamber) does blood enter the heart? Name the
      vein that drains blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
4.    Name the structure that divides the two ventricles of the heart.
5.    How many branches come off the aortic arch? Name them.
6.    Where are the following arteries found?
     -coronary, carotid, subclavian, hepatic, gastric, femoral, caudal and intercostal?
7.    Is the jugular a vein or artery?
8.    What is the difference between an artery and a vein? Which one
      moves blood away from the heart?
 Tasks to complete for the Circ.
• Find the FIVE major vessels off the aorta
• Cross section of the heart
• Trace major blood vessels in the arms and
Internal Chambers of the Heart
Thoracic Cavity
Arterial System
             Guiding Questions #6
1. Name the five branches that come off the aortic arch.
2. How many chambers does the heart have? (After
   splitting the heart in two).
3. Find the following blood vessels in your rat and label
   them: Carotid artery, Pulmonary artery, Vena Cava,
   Aorta, Renal, and iliac arteries (left & right).
5. Name the gland that sits on top of the kidney. (see
   Chapter IV.
6. The kidney are said to be “retroperitoneal” what does
   this mean?
7. Name the small tubular structure that comes out of the
   kidney and into the urinary bladder
  Tasks to Complete for Urinary
• Trace the three main structures that come to
  and from the kidney
• Trace the ureters from the kidney to the
• Locate adrenal glands
• Cross section of the kidney
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Tasks to Complete for Reproductive
• Determine sex
• Find major structures to verify the sex

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