"The Balance Sheet and Its Analysis"
The Balance Sheet and Its Analysis Chapter 5 Purpose and Use of a Balance Sheet A balance sheet is a systematic organization of everything “owned” and “owed” by a business or individual at a given time. Assets – anything of value owned by the business or individual Liability – any debt or other financial obligation Net Worth – the amount the owners have invested in the business Balance Sheet Format Assets Current Assets Noncurrent Assets Liabilities Current Liabilities Noncurrent Liabilities Owner’s Equity Asset Valuation and Related Problems A cost basis balance sheet is required when following basic accounting principles. It values all assets using the cost, cost less depreciation, or farm production cost methods. A market basis balance sheet would have all assets valued at market value less estimated selling costs. Balance Sheet Example Asset Section Liability Section Owner Equity Section Balance Sheet Analysis Analyzing Liquidity Current Ratio = Current Asset Value/Current Liability Value Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities Balance Sheet Analysis Analyzing Solvency Debt/Asset Ratio = Total Liabilities/Total Assets Equity/Asset Ratio = Total Equity/Total Assets Debt/Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities/Owner Equity Summary of Analysis Measure Market Basis Liquidity: Current Ratio 1.27 Working Capital $23,640 Solvency: Debt/Asset Ratio 0.50 Equity/Asset Ratio 0.50 Debt/Equity Ratio 0.99 Ratios calculated from page76 -- Table 5-4