The impact of UN sanctions and their panels of experts by ProQuest

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Sanctions applied against Sierra Leone and Liberia by the UN security council are phased and have fared differently. UN sanctions were first imposed on Sierra Leone in 1997 and on Liberia in 1992 and were mostly symbolic in nature. This changed in 2000 through proactive monitoring by expert panels - individuals hired by the UN as consultants for a limited time to provide advice and counsel to the appropriate sanctions committee. Experts dedicated to the Sierra Leone and Liberian sanctions regimes played an important role in improving the implementation of the sanctions, and, in the case of the panel for Sierra Leone, provoked a new sanctions regime against Liberia. Indeed, the Liberia sanctions regime represented the first time the council applied sanctions against a state for interference and support of rebels in another. Arguably, had it not been for the compelling information provided by the Sierra Leonean panel of experts, sanctions against Liberia for interference in Sierra Leone would not have been changed as dramatically as they were - from an arms embargo only to a series of targeted measures aimed at disrupting the funding and travel of the president of Liberia and his supporters.Whereas the security council has only placed one, albeit changing and continuous sanctions regime on Sierra Leone, it has created three separate sanctions regimes against Liberia, each with very different objectives and a different sanctions committee. The first regime imposed an arms embargo blanketing all of Liberia from 1992 until 2001 to end the Liberian civil war between [Charles Taylor], his National Patriotic Front of Liberia, and then-President Samuel K. Doe. As conditions on the ground deteriorated, including attacks against the ECOMOG and the UN observer mission troops that were on the ground, the security council invoked chapter VII, imposing sanctions pursuant to resolution 788 in 1992 to achieve "peace and security" and to quell the violence that was threatening "West

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									Alex Vines and Tom Cargill


The impact of UN
sanctions and their
panels of experts
Sierra Leone and Liberia


Sanctions applied against Sierra Leone and Liberia by the UN security council
are phased and have fared differently. UN sanctions were first imposed on
Sierra Leone in 1997 and on Liberia in 1992 and were mostly symbolic
in nature. This changed in 2000 through proactive monitoring by expert
panels—individuals hired by the UN as consultants for a limited time to
provide advice and counsel to the appropriate sanctions committee. Experts
dedicated to the Sierra Leone and Liberian sanctions regimes played an
important role in improving the implementation of the sanctions, and, in the
case of the panel for Sierra Leone, provoked a new sanctions regime against
Liberia. Indeed, the Liberia sanctions regime represented the first time the
council applied sanctions against a state for interference and support of
rebels in another. Arguably, had it not been for the compelling information



Alex Vines is director of regional and security studies at Chatham House and a part-time
lecturer at the school of international studies and social sciences of Coventry University.
Tom Cargill is the assistant head of Chatham House’s Africa program. This chapter
expands on part of a report written for Chatham House on the effectiveness of panels of
experts in Africa, and the authors are grateful to one of the contributors to that report, E.J.
Hoogendorn, for his contributions.

                                           | International Journal | Winter 2009-10 | 45 |
| Alex Vines and Tom Cargill |




provided by the Sierra Leonean panel of experts, sanctions against Liberia for
interference in Sierra Leone would not have been changed as dramatically
as they were—from an arms embargo only to a series of targeted measures
aimed at disrupting the funding and travel of the president of Liberia and
his supporters.
     This article outlines the events that led to the application of sanctions
by the security council, assesses the contribution of panel experts to the
stabilization of the conflicts, and outlines the reasons for their diminished
utility over the life of the sanctions regimes. The article also highlights
that sanctions regimes have different phases and that their impact can
vary over time. This is influenced by politics but also by the priorities and
professionalism of the individuals appointed to UN expert groups and the
support provi
								
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