Scalp acupuncture effects of stroke studied with magnetic resonance imaging: different actions in the two stroke model rats by ProQuest


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                                                                                                                                   Original paper

                                  Scalp acupuncture effects of stroke studied with
                                  magnetic resonance imaging: different actions in the
                                  two stroke model rats
                                  Isao Inoue,1 Mari Fukunaga,2 Keiko Koga,2 Hong-Du Wang,3 Makoto Ishikawa2
 Institute for Enzyme Research,   ABSTRACT                                                       appears in 60% of patients with stroke within 10–
Tokushima University,             Background: Scalp acupuncture (SA) therapy on strokes          30 min after an SA treatment, and during the phasic
Tokushima, Japan; 2 Tokushima                                                                    period the muscle force in the paralytic side increases
Research Institute, Otsuka
                                  has been empirically established and widely used in
Pharmaceutical Co, Tokushima,     clinics in China. The evidence from clinical studies           by two grades or more.4–6 Although the mechanisms
Japan; 3 TCM Department,          suggests that SA produces significant benefits for some        are unknown at present, these clinical results strongly
Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou,   patients with stroke.                                          suggest that the stimulation of SA is transmitted to
Sichuan, PR China                                                                                the brain and activates the inherent self-curing
                                  Methods: The effect of scalp acupuncture was studied
Correspondence to:                using MRI for two different stroke models: spontaneously       function. In order to elucidate such effects of SA on
Dr Isao Inoue, Institute for      hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP) rats and rats with          a scientific basis, it is important to reproduce the SA
Enzyme Research, Tokushima        transiently induced focal cerebral ischaemia by middle         therapy in experimental animals that provide reliable
University, Tokushima 770-8503,                                                                  controls and exclude psychological effects. A genetic
Japan;                            cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h (MCAO rats).      Results: Stroke onset in SHR-SP rats was characterised         strain of rats, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-
                                  by a development of vasogenic oedema without any               prone (SHR-SP), is an animal model which develops
                                  appearance of cytotoxic oedema. Scalp acupuncture              spontaneous onset of hypertensive strokes. In many
                                  reduced rapidly neurological dysfunction in SHR-SP rats        aspects, cerebrovascular pathology resembles the
                                  and reduced the volume of the vasogenic oedema during          human disease.7 8 Rats with surgery-induced focal
                                  the same period. In contrast, in MCAO rats, focal cerebral     brain ischaemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion
                                  ischaemia caused an immediate development of cytotoxic         (MCAO) have been used as an animal model of
                                  oedema without any appearance of vasogenic oedema.             ischaemic strokes.
                                  Vasogenic oedema developed after reperfusion. Scalp               MRI is one of the most powerful tools for the
                                  acupuncture had no significant effects on the cytotoxic        detection of cerebrovascular abnormalities, espe-
                                  oedema, vasogenic oedema or neurological dysfunction of        cially for seeking the time-dependent changes in
                                  the MCAO rats within the time span examined.                   abnormalities under non-invasive conditions.
                                  Conclusion: Scalp acupuncture had a rapid and strong           Hence, MRI observations of the brain of SHR-SP
                                  effect on neurological dysfunction only in the hypertensive    and that of MCAO rats have been made rather
                                                                                                 extensively.9–17 Vasogenic oedema that occurs by an
                                  stroke-model by reducing the vasogenic oedema. Our
                                                                                                 increase in the water volume in the extracellular
                                  results suggest that, if there are similar underlying
                                                                                                 space as a consequence of the impairment of the
                                  mechanisms in human strokes, scalp acupuncture may be
                                                                                                 blood–brain-barrier (BBB) can be detected by T2
                                  more beneficial for patients with strokes of hypertension-
                                                                                                 imaging as increased values of the T2 relaxation
                                  caused vasogenic origin than ischaemic origin.
                                                                                                 time. Cytotoxic oedema that occurs by swelling of
                                                                                                 brain cells as the result of energy failure and loss
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