Nontechnological practices are not transferable to or replicable by others. [...] when the procedures of an EBP are technological, the expectation is that others can replicate the practice and achieve the same outcomes as those reported by the originators with a high degree of certainty.
School Psychology Review, 2009, Volume 38, No. 4, pp. 547–553 COMMENTARY Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas Charles R. Greenwood Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas From Peterson, Homer, and Wonderlich tion. In hopes of adding something to this (1982) to the present, the editors and authors comprehensive effort, I decided to provide a of this issue traced the historical precedence of personal reﬂection on the topic based on my treatment integrity in psychology (see Yeaton (and my colleagues’) own efforts to develop & Sechrest, 1981) and its emergence in edu- and scale up use of evidence-based practices cation. They reviewed existing treatment in- in inner-city, urban community schools. As we tegrity frameworks and reported common and face the complexity in the topic just discussed, unique differences in an effort to focus on I do so with the intent that that we do not lose common and unique features. The special is- sight of some big ideas underpinning the role sue addressed themes of (a) assessment, (b) of treatment integrity in our work. relationship to treatment outcomes, and (c) A common characteristic of the highly promotion of treatment integrity in practice. effective disciplines like aviation, engineering, They discussed relevance ranging from the and medicine is that their practices are based control of the internal validity of experiments on the results of empirical experimental sci- to response to intervention and problem-solv- ence, the set of lessons learned from their long ing practices in school-wide prevention. They histories of experimentation. One hundred provided two examples of its use in research. years ago, we did not ﬂy, buildings nearly They concluded that although inclusion and always collapsed in earthquakes, and physi- use of treatment integrity data to make infer- cians offered treatments with no assurance that ences and decisions is emerging in the disci- they would cure (Greenwood & Abbott, pline, it still happens too infrequently in both 2001). Today we ﬂy, live, and work in safer, research and practice. more energy-efﬁcient buildings, and experi- As one concerned with these issues for a ence treatments that cure and prevent most of long time now, I thank the lead editors and the common diseases that killed 100 years authors for making this important contribu- earlier. Research ﬁndings from basic and ap- The author acknowledges his many colleagues over the years who helped develop the treatment integrity conceptual framework through their efforts learning how to develop and validate effective interventions. Correspondence regarding this article should be addressed to Charles R. Greenwood, Juniper Gardens Children’s Project, University of Kansas, 650 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, KS 66101; E-mail: email@example.com Copyright 2009 by the National Association of School Psychologists, ISSN 0279-6015 547 School Psychology Review, 2009, Volume 38, No. 4 plied experiments, accumulated and proven in ago in the late 1960s (e.g., Hall, Schiefel- practice, ground these professions’ high de- busch, Greenwood, & Hoyt, 2006). Seeking gree of effectiveness, and the trust and respect the ability to produce socially desirable out- given them by the general public. comes using effective behavioral practices, The policies of professional organiza- Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) described crit- tions related to aviation, engineering, and ical dimensions that researchers would need to medicine assert that today’s standard practices address if they were to achieve this goal are subject to immediate change when ﬁndings through an experimental, applied science
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