Frankly, I think this is very compatible with democracies. [...] I personally think it is very necessary for democracies in order to protect themselves and to allow their citizens the greatest amount of personal freedom. [...] to be able to guide military decisions, American intelligence capacity must actually relieve this shift.
q and a | general michael v. hayden (ret.) Naveed Bandali Intelligence in the 21st Century An Interview with General Michael V. Hayden (Ret.) 11 General Michael V. Hayden (Ret.). Photo: C.I.A. G ENERAL Michael V. Hayden (Ret.) served as director of the Central Intelligence Agency (2006–2009), Principal Deputy Director journal of international peace operations | volume 5 | number 3 | november-december 2009 of National Intelligence (2005–2006), and as director of the National Security Agency and Chief of the Central Security Service (1999- 2005). He retired as a Four-Star General from the U.S. Air Force in July 2008. JIPO: You have said before that the objective of One way to do this is through increased richness of capabilities that exist inside the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is to transparency to Congress and our the private sector? protect the American people, yet due to public and oversight bodies. We have to deal with oversight pressures CIA is increasingly challenged the question of legislative oversight as Too often though, this is viewed by some by limitations on its operational space. Can you well as creating more transparency for the as CIA or other intelligence agencies elaborate on this and the major challenges the general public. Otherwise, we will be avoiding responsibility — creating a intelligence community faces? mistrusted. This is a work in progress. carveout. I have said publicly that if Putting aside their individual merits, some anyone is acting as an agent of CIA, General Hayden: CIA is an espionage things that certain members of Congress whether it is a government employee, a service and we do secret things. Frankly, I have recently said are reflective of this contractor or a foreign agent, the director think this is very compatible with more fundamental question of greater of CIA is equally responsible for what democracies. Moreover, I personally think transparency inside our political culture – that individual does on behalf of CIA. So it is very necessary for democracies in as well as the reactions of secret intelli- there is no carveout there. order to protect themselves and to allow gence services. their citizens the greatest amount of However, if you are continually going to personal freedom. JIPO: What are the advantages and disadvan- contractors for particular functions, a fair tages of private contractor support for CIA and question is, “Why are you not building In the West, we now exist inside broader the intelligence community? that capacity inside the agency?” But, as political cultures that demand greater far as the general proposition of going to transparency and accountability from all General Hayden: In this current political contractors for particular activities— I elements of society. However, we have culture it is very fashionable — unfortu- think that is as natural, as American, as not yet arrived at some sort of equilibrium nately in a far too simplistic way — to say, modern and as efficient as I can imagine. as to how to meet this need for transpar- “Government good, contractor bad.” All There should not be any natural pushback ency and accountability while still aspects of our society and all aspects of against contractors. Instead you should maintaining the degree of secrecy needed our government routinely go to the consider building up capabilities in your for organizations like CIA to exist or to private sector for skills, services and own organic workforce. function at all. This is a new phenomenon products. It simply makes sense to go to for us and we have to come to what is, the private sector. Why should we in the Many times when testifying to Congress, I frankly, a new social contract. intelligence community deny ourselves the 12 The author is a Development Associate at IPOA. 11 q and a | general michael v. hayden (ret.) would comment on or relate a particular narrative about something we were doing or about to do, and I would be asked if it was being carried out by contractors or by government employees. And very frequently I would have to say, “You
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