quali by erih


									  Qualitative Research
  Unobtrusive Measures
-David Profitt
Qualitative: Compared to
   Quantitative research is considered deductive in
    nature, confirming information gathered.
   Qualitative research is considered to be
    exploratory and inductive in nature.
   The two forms of research should not be thought
    of as an “either/or” decision. Instead, it should be
    realized that both can be thought of through the
    eyes of the other.
Qualitative: Compared to
 Quantitative research can be thought
  about in qualitative terms. Judgments
  about the numbers are often qualitative
  judgments, stating one’s beliefs in what
  the numbers mean.
 Qualitative research can be coded
  quantitatively, leading to a quantitative
  representation of qualitative data.
Types of Qualitative Research
   Grounded Theory
   Grounded theory is considered a “ground-up”
    method of gathering information.
   The basic idea of the grounded theory approach
    is to read, read again, (and re-read) a textual
    database (such as field notes) and "discover"
    and label realized categories, concepts and
    properties and their interrelationships.
Types of Qualitative Research
 Grounded Theory
 This type of research can change, and the
  direction of research can change as
  themes are discovered. It is open to
  moving in the path of knowledge
  exploration, based on what is learned
  along the way.
Types of Qualitative Research
 Ethnography (Naturalistic Research)
 Most used in anthropology, Ethnography is
  used to describe a culture or society
  through naturally unfolding observation.
 This is reporting a segment of the real
  world as the real world happens.
Types of Qualitative Research
   Phenomenology (The study of phenomena)
   This method of research involves trying to
    understand the subject being studied from the
    subject’s point of view.
   The emphasis is on the subject’s subjective
    experiences, and accurately reporting those
    perceptions, rather than your perceptions of the
    subject’s experiences.
Types of Qualitative Research
   Phenomenology (The study of phenomena)
   You attempt to try to look through the eyes of the
   Hegel used the term "phenomenology" to describe the
    science in which we come to know mind as it is in itself
    through the study of the ways in which it appears to us.
   Merleau-Ponty says that "Phenomenology is the study of
    essences." Phenomenology asks the question “What is
    the nature or meaning of something?”
Types of Qualitative Research
   Field Research
   This type of research occurs in the natural
    environment of the subject being studied.
   There are no experimental conditions or
    manipulations of the environment.
   Often this type of research is conducted over
    longer periods of time and as thoroughly as
Methods of Qualitative Research

 Participant Observation
 Here, the researcher becomes a part of
  the group or culture being studied.
 If the researcher can be as one with the
  group, they are more likely to act as they
  normally would around the researcher.
Methods of Qualitative Research

 Direct Observation
 Study is done by directly observing
  behaviors of the subject.
 This is done instead of asking the subject
  about his behaviors. The researcher does
  not rely on self-report, but only trusts what
  is actually seen.
Methods of Qualitative Research

 Unstructured (Intensive) Interviewing
 Open ended questions may be asked.
 Though there may be an initial script of
  questions to be covered, the interview may
  progress along various paths depending
  on what is uncovered earlier in the
Methods of Qualitative Research

 Case Studies
 Any of the past methods can be applied to
  a case study.
 Case studies are good for studying the
  exceptions, as the story of one person
  does not generalize well to an entire
Qualitative Research: Issues
 Reliability is an issue as this type of
  research is nearly impossible to replicate.
 For this reason, the research must be well
  documented and carried out according to
  established procedures. Researchers
  must be trained so that they agree on how
  the research will be gathered and
Qualitative Research: Issues
 Most researchers agree that it is
  impossible to not be subjective when
  interpreting qualitative research.
 To account for this lack of objectivity,
  research is viewed and re-viewed in mass
  detail for thorough analysis.
Qualitative Research: Issues
 Validity is argued through the detail given
  to the study (internal validity, construct
 External validity is hard to obtain, just as
  generalizability is not usually feasible for
  these types of studies.
Unobtrusive Measures
 Unobtrusive measures are measures
  taken without the subject’s knowledge.
 This, of course, raises ethical issues.
 For example, according to a recent un-
  requested email, hidden bathroom
  cameras are often used to gather data via
  unobtrusive means.
Unobtrusive Measures
 Other, less illegal types of unobtrusive
  measures are indirect measurements.
 These include measuring wear marks on
  tiles in front of various museum displays or
  assessing the popularity of radio stations
  by recording the current station tuned to in
  cars taken to auto shops for repairs.
Unobtrusive Measures
   Content Analysis.
   This involves coding and categorizing previously
    recorded or written materials (You can use an
    existing data source).
   In doing this, you can search for the indirectly
    expressed or underlying meanings found in the
   You also give a quantitative summary of
    qualitative data.
Unobtrusive Measures
   Secondary Analysis of Data.
   Also allows you to use existing data sources.
   Here, you organize the data for the unique
    purposes of your study.
   Census data, economic data, and standardized
    testing data can all be used for many purposes,
    and therefore are often used for secondary
    analysis in different studies.
Quick References
 Research Methods Knowledge Base
  M. K. Trochim; Atomic Dog Publishing
 Phenomenology Online
 Introduction to Grounded Theory

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