BlipNET Bluetooth by cps1992

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									BLIP Systems A/S
BlipNet Technical White Paper




.




BLIP Systems A/S, Aalborg, Denmark.
http://www.blipsystems.com/
Abstract
This document is a technical white paper about BlipNet. The document contains a technical description of the
product and a description of the various use cases the product can be applied for.



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                     Page 1 of 49
BlipNet Technical White Paper   Page 2 of 49
Table of contents


1 Preface .......................................................................................................................................................................6
  1.1 Purpose of this document ....................................................................................................................................6
  1.2 BlipNet version history .........................................................................................................................................6
2 Bluetooth Wireless Technology ..............................................................................................................................7
  2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................7
  2.2 Use cases ............................................................................................................................................................8
  2.3 Supported profiles................................................................................................................................................9
3 Product Overview ...................................................................................................................................................10
  3.1 BlipServer ..........................................................................................................................................................11
     3.1.1 BlipServer Architecture ...............................................................................................................................12
  3.2 BlipManager.......................................................................................................................................................13
  3.3 BlipServer Modules............................................................................................................................................15
     3.3.1 Web Module................................................................................................................................................16
     3.3.2 Mobility Module ...........................................................................................................................................17
     3.3.3 Wireless BlipNode ......................................................................................................................................17
     3.3.4 Positioning Module......................................................................................................................................18
     3.3.5 Push Module ...............................................................................................................................................19
     3.3.6 Beacon Module ...........................................................................................................................................19
     3.3.7 BlipNet API Module .....................................................................................................................................20
  3.4 Hardware components.......................................................................................................................................20
     3.4.1 BlipNode L1 ................................................................................................................................................20
     3.4.2 BlipNode Micro............................................................................................................................................21
     3.4.3 BlipBeacon..................................................................................................................................................23
  3.5 BlipNet SDK .......................................................................................................................................................23
     3.5.1 BlipNet API..................................................................................................................................................23
     3.5.2 BlipNet API examples .................................................................................................................................24
     3.5.3 BlipNet API documentation package ..........................................................................................................25
     3.5.4 Sample Applications ...................................................................................................................................25
     3.5.5 BlipNet Client Tool ......................................................................................................................................25
4 Understanding BlipNet Bluetooth capabilities ....................................................................................................27
  4.1 Services .............................................................................................................................................................27
    4.1.1 LAP Service (LAN Access Profile) ..............................................................................................................27
    4.1.1.1 WoB interoperability (WAP over Bluetooth).........................................................................................28
    4.1.2 PAN Service (Personal Area Network Profile) ............................................................................................28
    4.1.3 OPP server .................................................................................................................................................28
    4.1.4 FT server.....................................................................................................................................................29
    4.1.5 SPP server..................................................................................................................................................30
  4.2 BlipNet Clients ...................................................................................................................................................31
    4.2.1 Discovery phase .........................................................................................................................................31
    4.2.1.1 Filtering in the discovery phase............................................................................................................32
    4.2.1.2 Power adjustment ................................................................................................................................32
    4.2.2 Establishment of basic link .........................................................................................................................33
    4.2.3 Service discovery on remote device ...........................................................................................................33
    4.2.4 PAN Network Invoked Session (Personal Area Network) ..........................................................................34
    4.2.5 OPP Client Session (Object Push Profile) ..................................................................................................34
    4.2.6 FT Client .....................................................................................................................................................35
    4.2.7 SPP Client Session (Serial Port Profile) .....................................................................................................35
5 Security....................................................................................................................................................................37
  5.1 Passkeys............................................................................................................................................................37
  5.2 Security can be configured per service..............................................................................................................37



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6 Setup and maintenance .........................................................................................................................................38
  6.1 BlipNet ...............................................................................................................................................................38
7 Co-Existences issues .............................................................................................................................................39
  7.1 Bluetooth and 802.11 b/g co-existence..............................................................................................................39
    7.1.1 Radio characteristics...................................................................................................................................39
    7.1.2 Adaptive Frequency Hopping......................................................................................................................39
    7.1.3 Limitations of Adaptive frequency hopping .................................................................................................40
  7.2 Co-existence with other Bluetooth devices ........................................................................................................40
8 Terminology and Abbreviations............................................................................................................................42
9 Related information ................................................................................................................................................44
  9.1 Documents.........................................................................................................................................................44
  9.2 Links...................................................................................................................................................................44
10 Appendix BlipNet API introduction .....................................................................................................................45
  10.1 Connection of an application to the BlipServer ................................................................................................46
  10.2 Performance of actions on a BlipNode ............................................................................................................46
  10.3 Java doc describing the API ............................................................................................................................47
  10.4 Code example..................................................................................................................................................47
11 Appendix Supported devices ..............................................................................................................................48
12 Appendix BlipNet Topology.................................................................................................................................49
  12.1 DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) ..........................................................................................................49




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                                                                 Page 4 of 49
BlipNet is an abbreviation of Bluetooth Local Infotainment Point Network


Six edition (Jan 2005)


This document is published by BLIP Systems A/S, without any warranty. BLIP Systems A/S, may make
improvements and changes to this text necessitated by typographical errors, inaccuracies of current information or
improvements to programs and/or equipment, at any time without notice. Such changes will, however, be
incorporated into new editions of this document. Any hard copies of this document are to be regarded as temporary
reference copies only.
All rights reserved.


© BLIP Systems A/S, 2005



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                      Page 5 of 49
1 Preface


1.1 Purpose of this document
The BlipNet (Bluetooth Local Infotainment Point Network) Technical White Paper is intended to give the reader a
deeper understanding of the technical side of BlipNet. It also provides information about how BlipNet is designed
and how applications can be built on top of it.
People who can benefit from this document include:
       System architects
       IT professionals
       Software developers
       Support engineers
Information about BlipNet may also be found at the site http://www.blipsystems.com.
See chapter 7 for Terminology and Abbreviations.


1.2 BlipNet version history
This document describes BlipNet 3.0.
BlipNet 0.5 was launched ultimo May 2002. Profile LAP. OS Linux
BlipNet 1.0 launch: September 2002. Profiles LAP, OPPc, OPPs. OS Linux
BlipNet 1.1 launch: December 2002 OS Linux and Windows
BlipNet 2.0 launch: June 2003: Profiles LAP, OPPc, OPPs, SPP, PAN
BlipNet 2.5 launch: May 2004: Profiles LAP, OPPc, OPPs, SPPc, FTPc, FTPs, PAN NAP, PAN Mobility (Proprietary)
BlipNet 3.0 launch Feb 2005: Profiles LAP, OPPc, OPPs, SPPc, SPPs, FTPc, FTPs, PAN NAP, PAN Mobility
(Proprietary), Bluetooth 1.2, Wireless BlipNodes.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 6 of 49
2 Bluetooth Wireless Technology
BlipNet is based on Bluetooth Wireless Technology, which operates in a globally available 2.4 GHz radio frequency
band and ensures a fast, reliable and secure communication within a range of up to 100 meter.


2.1 General
Bluetooth Wireless Technology facilitates high-quality voice and data transmissions. It is a low cost and low power
technology, and it makes wireless communication between many different types of devices possible. Bluetooth
Wireless Technology is designed to be fully functional even in very noisy radio frequency environments.
Ericsson developed Bluetooth in 1994. Today the specification is developed, published and promoted by the
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Ericsson is one of the founding partners of the SIG.
Several Bluetooth devices are on the market today, and Ovum expects 557 million Bluetooth-enabled devices to be
on the market in 2006. More than 300 million of these will be mobile phones and PDA’s.
The following lists both Bluetooth devices that are available now and devices expected to be available in the next
few years:


       Headsets for wireless voice transmission and remote call control
       PC’s, laptops, PDA’s and palm pads for data transfer, synchronization, etc.
       MP3 music player
       Mobile phones for exchanging business cards and ring tones, playing games, headset etc.
       Digital still and movie cameras
       Printers, hard disks and other storage devices
       Handheld scanners for text, barcodes and images
       Household appliances with built-in logic, as well as games and entertainment devices
       Nodes in hotel lobbies and airports for connecting to computer networks and the Internet
       Advertisement pillars and infotainment points in shops, at fairs, etc.
       Serial data adaptors
       Wireless pen’s
       Location of objects tagged with a Bluetooth enabled tag




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 7 of 49
                                       Wireless Pen


                                                         Scart-Plug
                                                                             Mobile
                   Bluetooth Tag
                                                                             Phone




           Serial adaptor                                                                  Barcode
                                                                                           scanner




                                                                                      Laptop
                            BlipNode
                                                 PDA




               Figure 1 Examples of the wide range of device types supported by the BlipNode.


2.2 Use cases
The Bluetooth SIG has defined a set of use cases. For each use case, a profile has been defined. The profiles
describe a reference architecture including the communication protocols that should be applied, and they list the
mandatory and optional procedures that should be supported.
BlipNet supports these use cases and many more:
       Access to LAN from Laptop’s, PDA’s, Phones etc.
       Distribution of content like images, video clips to an from mobile phones
       Transfer of serial data from serial adapters
       Location based services (LBS)
       PIM Synchronization of devices
       VoIP
       Real Time Location System (RTLS)




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 8 of 49
2.3 Supported profiles
All these use cases are implemented by various Bluetooth profiles BlipNet supports the following profiles:
       Object Push Profile (Client and Server)
        A BlipNode can receive and send “objects” such as images, video clips, sounds, notes etc. from/to devices
        supporting this profile. This profile is typically supported by mobile phones, PDA’s and PC. From a users
        point of view this profile works just like sending files via infared.
       File Transfer Profile (Client and Server)
        This profile is an extension of the Object Push Profile. The profile enables browsing of folders, enables
        creations of file folders etc.
       LAN Access Profile
        The Lan Access Profile provides access to LAN resources, by establishing a PPP based connection from
        the terminal towards the access point. The profile is now deprecated and it has been replaced by the PAN
        profile.
       Personal Area Network Profile (Network Access Point)
        This profile provides access to LAN resources based simply on encapsulation of Ethernet packets. The
        BlipNode supports the profile as a Level 2 bridge. The PAN profile is more bandwidth efficient than the Lan
        Access Profile, and a session can be established more rapidly. The PAN profile has an optional feature that
        allows the access point to establish the connection towards the terminal. This feature enables PAN
        Sessions to be made without user intervention, to enable complete seamless synchronization. The BlipNode
        supports this feature.
       Serial Port Profile (Client and Server)
        The Serial Port Profile enables transfer of serial data via Bluetooth. The serial data received via Bluetooth is
                                                               rd
        sent to the BlipServer where it can be accessed by 3 party application as a serial stream on top of the
        BlipNet API. The Serial Port Profile can be applied for transfer of data between BlipNet and serial adaptors,
        towards mobile phones with e.g. JSR82 (Bluetooth Java API) or Symbian applications with Serial Port Profile
        support.
       Service Discovery Application Profile
        The Service Discovery Application profile enables the BlipNode to search the capabilities of remote devices.
        This can be applied to check if a remote device supports a specific service, e.g. the PAN profile. The
        Service Discovery Application Profile is applied by the Management Entity in the BlipNode it iself and it is
        accessible on the BlipNode API.


Via the BlipManager, it is possible to enable/disable these services dynamically for each BlipNode, without shutting
down the BlipNode.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 9 of 49
3 Product Overview
Usage of BlipNet can be divided into two categories:
       Using BlipNet for simple access to LAN and object exchange.
        BlipNet can be applied without the need to write any applications. A graphical management interface
        (BlipManager) is included for monitoring and configuration of the System. See chapter 4.
       Using BlipNet as a platform for Bluetooth-aware applications
        BlipNet has a Java API to write Bluetooth Applications. Included on the BlipNet Developers Edition CD is
        sample code and the Application Developer’s Tutorial which makes it easy getting started writing
        applications using the BlipNet API.


The components in BlipNet are shown in Figure 2.

                                                                     BlipManager
                                         3rd party
                                        application


                                     BlipServer




                                BlipNode
                                                                Internet




                                                                 BlipNode
                                BlipNode                    (Connected to the
                           (Bluetooth applied                   BlipServer
                          for Backhaul traffic )             via the internet)




Figure 2 The BlipNet components.

Figure 2 shows a BlipNet based on BlipNodes. The BlipNode in the lower leftmost corner operates without an
Ethernet connection. The BlipNode to the right connects to the BlipServer via the Internet.

BlipNet has been developed to be very flexible and yet easy to use. From the very beginning, the goal has been to
develop a system that can be applied straight out of the box, but at the same to deliver a state of the art Bluetooth
application platform.
The BlipNet product has these main components:



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 10 of 49
       BlipNode
        The Bluetooth Access point
        The BlipNode is an access point to which terminals such as mobile phones and PDAs may be connected for
        receiving information, leaving messages, playing games, controlling other devices, etc.
             o   The BlipNode enables Bluetooth devices to access all services on a LAN, e.g. Internet, fileservers,
                 printers, etc.
             o   The BlipNode also provides access to objects on the BlipServer.
             o   The BlipNode provides access to devices via a Bluetooth enabled serial port.
             o   The BlipNode is a multi-point long range access point with a high throughput that enables Internet
                 surfing from a Laptop, streaming video, etc.
             o   The BlipNode requires a BlipServer to operate. The connection to the BlipServer can be established
                 via local Lan, via the internet or via a Bluetooth link to another BlipNode.
       BlipServer
        The BlipServer is the core component in the BlipNet. The BlipServer provide services such as:

             o   Configuration and monitoring of BlipNet
             o   Software upgrade of the BlipNodes
             o   Feature-rich Java API to application developers.
                     
                                                         rd
                          Gateway for serial data for 3 party applications
                     
                                                    rd
                          Gateway for objects for 3 party applications.
       BlipManager
        The graphical GUI of the BlipServer.



3.1 BlipServer
The BlipServer is the core component in the BlipNet. The functionality of the BlipServer can be extended via
modules, see section 3.3.
Via the BlipServer, it is possible to configure and monitor the entire BlipNet.
The BlipServer is available for both Linux and Windows. The number of BlipNodes connected to the server is only
limited by the bandwidth available on the Ethernet.
Via the BlipServer it is possible to control the security centrally. It is possible to manage users and their security
settings.
The BlipManager, which is the graphical user interface for configuration and management of BlipNet, connects to the
BlipServer. For further information about the BlipManager please refer to section 3.2.
The BlipServer has a feature rich API to listen for events from the system and to send actions towards terminals.
The interface is very generic, and it has been designed for Bluetooth-aware applications developed by third party
developers. IP traffic from PC’s and PDA’s accessing the LAN via Bluetooth bypasses the BlipServer and goes
directly on the LAN. Serial data from devices like RS232 devices and MIDP Java applications on mobile phones is
                                                                           rd
routed via the BlipNode to the BlipServer where it can be accessed from 3 party applications. OBEX data from
                                                                                         rd
devices like Mobile phones is routed via the BlipServer where is can be accessed from 3 party applications. See
Figure 3.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                          Page 11 of 49
                                 IP traffic
                                                                LAN
                                                                             BlipNet Application

                                                                             BlipNet API Client
                       OBEX
                       traffic



                                                        BlipNode        BlipServer

                                   Serial
                                   traffic




Figure 3 Routing of data streams. IP traffic is routed directly to the LAN, Serial and OBEX data is routed to
the BlipServer.


3.1.1 BlipServer Architecture
The architecture of a basic BlipServer (no modules) is shown on Figure 4. The BlipServer is implemented in Java
and stores its settings in a SQL DB.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                    Page 12 of 49
             Java VM

                        BlipManager



                                RMI TCP/IP


   BlipServer VM
   VM       BlipNet Management API


                      BlipServer Core
                                                                SQL
                                                                DB
                     BlipServer Kernel



Figure 4 BlipServer Architecture




3.2 BlipManager
The BlipManager allows users to configure and monitor the entire BlipNet. The BlipManager is the graphical user
interface for BlipNet, and is available for Windows 2000/XP and Linux. The BlipManager connects to the BlipServer
via TCP/IP.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                    Page 13 of 49
Figure 5 The BlipManager

The BlipNet system can be administered from the BlipNet management tool called BlipManager.

The BlipManager can be used to:

      Administrate:
          o User Accounts
          o Allowed BlipNodes
              It is possible to assign BlipNodes to a specific server, this enables multiple servers on the same
              LAN.
          o Allowed Terminals
          o Security (Bluetooth Passkeys)
              Via the BlipManager, it is possible to assign Bluetooth Passkeys (PIN codes) on user level or on
              system level.
          o Software Updates
              The BlipManager can be applied to control a software upgrade of the entire system, including the
              BlipNodes.

      Configure:
          o BlipNode Accessibility
          o Services in the BlipNodes
               The BlipNet has a series of available services: PAN, LAP, SPP, OPP and FTP. Each BlipNode can
               have one or more of these services enabled. Selecting one of the predefined BlipNode
               configurations enables a service.
           o   Configuration grouping
               The BlipManager has a configuration-grouping feature. With this feature a set of different
               configurations can be made. For each configuration a number of BlipNodes can be attached. The
               System comes pre-configured with some default configurations for different use-cases. Just add
               your BlipNodes to the configurations that suit is your use-case and you are ready to go.
           o   BlipNet Modules
               BlipNet Modules can be configured via the BlipManager.



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                    Page 14 of 49
       Monitor:
           o Status of the system
           o Connected terminals
           o Active sessions
           o BlipNode SW versions

The BlipManager is implemented as a thin client. It does not have any local storage. All
Configuration changes are made directly to the BlipServer. The BlipManager is supported on both Windows platform
and Linux platforms. It is not necessary to run the BlipManager and the BlipServer on the same machine.

The BlipManager is well documented and comes with online help and the extensive [BlipNet Administrators Guide].


3.3 BlipServer Modules
The BlipServer is delivered with some optional modules. These modules are :
       Mobility Module
        Seamless connectivity. BlipNet connects automatically, handover between BlipNodes when required.
       Wireless BlipNode
        Enables operation of BLipNodes without an Ethernet cable.
       Positioning Module
        Position engine.
       Push Module
        Push content to devices includes web based GUI.
       Beacon Module
        Handles communication with BlipBeacons.
       Web Module
        The module consist of a web server integrated with the BlipServer. The module enables access to the
        BlipServer via HTTP.
       BlipNet API
                                       rd
        The BlipNet API module allows 3 party applications to be integrated with BlipNet .
The modules are described in details in the following sections.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                     Page 15 of 49
    Java VM                                                              HTTP MIDLET          Web Service
                                                               WEB/                             Client                                WEB/
                 BlipNet Application                           WAP                                                                    WAP
                                                               Brow          BlipNet            BlipNet                              Browser
                 BlipNet API Client                             ser         Application        Application

                                         RMI TCP/IP                  HTTP         HTTP                           HTTP                  HTTP



    BlipServer VM
    VM




                                                                                   Blip Web
                                                                                   Services
                                                                Module



                                                                         Module




                                                                                                                        WEB Module
                                                                                                Blip Web Pages
                                                                 User



                                                                          User
                    BlipNet API
                  Remote Interface

                                                                    BlipNet Web API

                                           BlipNet API Module

                                                             BlipNet API
      Wireless




                              Position

                                           Beacon
                   Mobility




                                                    Push




                                                                             BlipServer Core
                                                                                                                                      SQL
                                                           BlipServer Kernel                                                          DB




                                            BlipNet                 Optional              3rd Party
                                             Basic                  Module                   App


Figure 6 BlipServer Architecture including modules. The orange part of the figure is the optional modules.
                     rd
The green parts are 3 party applications


3.3.1 Web Module
The Web Module extends the BlipServer with an embedded Java web container and Web Server that allows you to
configure and monitor your BlipNet installation from a Web Browser.

The Web Module allows you to write web pages or web applications that takes full advantage of BlipNet. By using
the latest web technologies the Web Module gives you access to the functionality of the BlipNet API from Java
Server Pages (JSP), Servlets, Java Server Faces (JSF) or Web Services (WS) allowing you to write BlipNet server
side web applications.
This opens for a number of new applications:




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                                   Page 16 of 49
       Localized content:
        Use BlipNet to keep track of mobile phone / PDA / Laptop users to display personalized and location based
        content when they access your web/wap pages through Bluetooth or GPRS.
       Tracking:
        Create pages that show the location of Bluetooth devices on a map in web browsers or use web services to
        deliver the information to existing web services or applications.
       Web based configuration of BlipNet, BlipNet Modules and 3rd Party applications.

The Web module has some sub components see Figure 6.

       BlipNet Web Pages
        Contains Web Pages for Configuration of BlipNet and BlipNet modules. Allow you to Monitor your BlipNet
        installation and read the BlipNet Documentation online. The BlipNet Developers Edition also contains the
        BlipNet SDK Documentation, and BlipNet based Web Sample Applications.
       BlipNet Web Services:
        WebService is a XML based communication standard that allow software to interoperate across
        programming languages, platforms and operating systems. The BlipNet WebServices is a premade set of
        WebServices to configure and control BlipNet. This allows other WebService enabled services like existing
        Web Solutions, Microsoft .NET Applications and WebService enabled Mobile Phones and PDAs to use the
        services offered by BlipNet.
       BlipNet Web API
        The BlipNet Web API gives you acces to the standard Blipnet API from a Web Based Application running in
        the BlipNet Web Container. This allows you to write your own BlipNet based Web based applications. The
        BlipNet Web API also comes with custom tag libraries for common BlipNet Actions that makes the writing of
        BlipNet enabled Server side Web pages very easy.

The Web module is mandatory for the following modules: Positioning module, Beacon module, Push module.

For more information please see [BlipNet Web Module]


3.3.2 Mobility Module
The Mobility system offers a scaleable, fast, seamless, and secure mobility solution for the entire enterprise with the
following main features:
       Automatic establishment of connections to subscribed devices when entering range.
       Seamless handover of devices between individual BlipNodes
       Easy configuration through graphical management interface
       Automatic load balancing between BlipNodes within MobilityZones
       Fully scalable architecture
       Security on three levels (Device subscription, Bluetooth Encryption, and Application level security)
       With BlipNet installed in the company, the employees can have easy and efficient access to corporate data
        such as e-mails.
So forget about cradle synchronization, use the Mobility module to go beyond the range of a single access point.
For more information please see [Mobility Module, Product Spec]
3.3.3 Wireless BlipNode
This server module is required to operate the BlipNode without an Ethernet cable. Via this module it is possible to
configure the topology of the meshed network.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 17 of 49
                          BlipServer      BlipNode           Wireless            Wireless
                                                             BlipNode            BlipNode




                                                             Wireless           Wireless
                                                             BlipNode           BlipNode


              Bluetooth interface
              Wired Interface                                                     Wireless
                                                                                  BlipNode


Figure 7 A meshed network topology consisting of a combination of normal BlipNodes and wireless
BlipNodes.

3.3.4 Positioning Module
The Positioning Module is targeted for system integrators of RTLS solutions and for developers of LBS services.

The Positioning module can be applied as a standalone tracking system for locating all sorts of things: children,
asset tracking, trucks, containers, animals, personnel, anything!

The module can also be combined with other BlipServer features to provide a Location Based Service (LBS).
Examples of such services are: museums solutions, fair solutions, dating solutions, etc.

The module is configured via an easy to use graphical user interface. Installation and deployment are simple due to
advanced calibration techniques.

The Positioning module is unique compared to competing solutions because:

       Accuracy can be tailored to the specific case. It ranges from 10 cm to 10 meter.
       Distance between BlipNode and “item” to be tracked can be up to 100 meters.
       Deployment is simple and cheap since Ethernet is not necessarily required at all BlipNodes.
       The technique is scaleable; hundreds of objects can be tracked per BlipNode per second.
       Any Bluetooth device can be tracked, including standard devices like phones and PDA’s.

The module has these interfaces:

       A JAVA API, which enables easy integration between the Blip Positioning module and other Java
        applications.
       HTTP and XML based API (Via the Web module) enables easy integration with other web based
        applications

The Positioning module requires the Web module.
For more information please see [BlipNet Positioning Module]




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 18 of 49
3.3.5 Push Module
The Push module is content distribution module applicable for transfer of images, messages and multimedia clips
etc. to mobile phones.
The Push Module is configurable via a web page. The push module has these services:
       Subscription database
        Terminals can subscribe to the service by sending a business card via Bluetooth.
       Administrators can control the push of content in terms of:
            o   Content based on Location
            o   Content as a function of time
            o   Content as a function of previously received content (flow)
The Push module requires the Web Module.
For more information please see [BlipNet Push Module]


3.3.6 Beacon Module
The Beacon Module is required to implement a BlipNet Beacon solution, for further details about BlipNet Beacon
please see [Blipnet Beacon Technical White Paper].
The Beacon module handles communication with the Beacon Tracker Applications on the mobile phones see Figure
8.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                    Page 19 of 49
    BlipServer VM
    VMBlipNet API Remote Interface
                           BlipServer
                           VM
                       BlipNet API Module

                                                           BlipNet API
      Wireless




                              Position

                                         Beacon
                 Mobility




                                                  Push
                                                                              WEB Module
                                                                           BlipServer Core
                                                                                                             SQL
                                                         BlipServer Kernel                                   DB




                                                                        Mobile
                                                                       Network              Blip
                                                                                          Beacon
                              Blip
                                                                                          Tracker
                            Beacon
                            Tracker




                                BlipBeacon                BlipBeacon         BlipBeacon       BlipBeacon



Figure 8 Architecture of BlipNet Beacon. The Beacon tracker is an application running on the mobile phone
and connects to the Beacon Module on the BlipServer.



3.3.7 BlipNet API Module
Its possible to access the BlipNet API if the BlipNet API module is installed. For more information about the BlipNet
API please see section 3.5.


3.4 Hardware components

3.4.1 BlipNode L1
The BlipNode L1 is a small, easy to install access point that bridges between Bluetooth and Ethernet.
The BlipNode L1 is a Class 1 (long range) high speed Bluetooth data access point.

Network Interface:
RJ-45 Ethernet plug gives 10/100 MBit access to the local backbone



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                                Page 20 of 49
Bluetooth Interface:
Bluetooth 1.2, Class 1 radio that gives Bluetooth coverage up to 100 meter. The Bluetooth coverage can be
adjusted/limited by software configuration to a smaller area.

BlipNode L1 comes in four different configurations:

       L1
       L1 SMA (with external SMA antenna connector)
       L1 Switch (with switch for control of e.g. doors.)
        Via the BlipNet API it is possible to control the state of the switch.
       L1 SMA/Switch (with both external SMA connector and switch)


The BlipNodes support operation without a physical Ethernet cable by using a Bluetooth link towards another
BlipNode. This makes it very easy to deploy BlipNodes. See section 3.3.3.

Bluetooth Access points typically only support the PAN profile. BlipNode L1 supports more Bluetooth profiles than
any other Access point on the market. BlipNode L1 supports these profiles/usecases:

       PAN & LAN , see section 4.1.1and 4.1.2
        For access to LAN.
       OPP (client and server) see section 4.1.3 and 4.2.5.
        For pushing objects via OBEX.
       FTP (Client and server) see section 4.1.4 and 4.2.6.
        For accessing file s via OBEX
       SPP (Client and server) see section 4.1.5 and 4.2.7.
        For industrial applications, mobile applications.




Figure 9 The BlipNode L1.
For further details about the BlipNode L1 please see [BlipNode L1 Data sheet]
3.4.2 BlipNode Micro
The BlipNode Micro is low cost access point with limited functionality compared to BlipNode L1.

The BlipNode Micro has no Ethernet interface; instead the BlipNode Micro is capable of establishing a Bluetooth
connection to a BlipNode L1. Currently the BlipNode Micro can be applied for location of other Bluetooth devices.
Figure 10 shows a picture of BlipNode Micro.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                     Page 21 of 49
                                          Figure 10 The BlipNode Micro.

The BlipNode Micro supports this functionality:

       PANU
        The BlipNode Micro has a PANU implementation. This PANU is applied for the connection towards the
        BlipNode L1.
       Inquiry agent
        The BlipNode Micro can perform inquiries, collect results and forward these via the PANU to a BlipNode L1.
        This is applied for RTLS solutions.

Future version of the BlipNode Micro are expected to support the SPP profile too,




                                                    BlipNode              BlipNode Micro
                                                        L1
                                 BlipServer


               BlipNode L1
                                                                        Wireless           BlipNode Micro
               BlipNode Micro                                         BlipNode L1

               Bluetooth interface
               Wired Interface
                                                                                           BlipNode Micro

Figure 11 A meshed network topology consisting of a combination of normal BlipNodes, wireless BlipNodes and
BlipNode Micro


Figure 11 shows how BlipNode Micro can be applied together with BlipNode L1. The BlipNode Micro is designed to
be applied as the “last step” in a wireless Bluetooth network.

The BlipNode Micro is designed to be applied for tracking applications.

BlipNode Micro comes in two hardware versions.

       BlipNode Micro (See Figure 10)
       BlipNode Micro Cord (Identical to BlipNode Micro, but with a ½ meter power cord.)


BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 22 of 49
For further details about BlipNode Micro please refer to [BlipNode Micro Data sheet]
3.4.3 BlipBeacon
The BlipBeacon is a Bluetooth Beacon to be applied for BlipNet Beacon solutions.

For further information please see [BlipNet Beacon] and [BlipBeacon Data sheet]


3.5 BlipNet SDK
BlipNet can be applied as it is for a wide range of use cases. Sometimes it is however required to extend the
                                 rd
functionality in BlipNet with a 3 party application. BlipNet has been designed to fulfill this requirement from the
beginning. BlipNet has an extensive and easy to use API. The API is on the server, but it can control BlipNodes like
it was a local application.
The advantages of this central API (Application Programming Interface) are as follows:
       The BlipNet API is network-based.
        The networking concept enables a range of applications that could not be constructed using a standalone
        system. Examples include tracking systems, session mobility, etc. With the BlipNet API there is no need to
        make special applications on the access point. With the BlipNet API there is no need to build communication
        protocols between the access point and a central application, because you get this with BlipNet. Although
        the system is network-based, it is of course still possible to write applications using a single node.
       Bluetooth applications can be programmed on a high level of abstraction.
        The BlipNet API provides a set of easy-to-use functions. This speeds up development and allows
        developers to focus on the application it iself since they do not have to spend time implementing the
        Bluetooth profiles.
       There is no need to do a Bluetooth qualification.
        The BlipNet is already qualified for a set of profiles. There is no requirement for qualification of applications
        when using the BlipNet API (Before a Bluetooth product can be marketed as “Bluetooth-enabled”, it must be
        qualified by the Bluetooth SIG. An independent test house must verify that the product is implemented
        according to the specifications. The qualification process involves a lot of work and can be quite expensive).


The BlipNet SDK consists of these elements:
       Access to the BlipNet API
       BlipNet API documentation package
       Sample applications
       BlipNet Client Tool.


The elements are described further in the next sections.

3.5.1 BlipNet API
The BlipServer has a unique, open Java API. Via this API, third party application developers can interface with
BlipNet and make custom applications. The API is based on a Java Technology called RMI (Remote Method
Invocation).
RMI is based on TCP/IP, which means that applications utilizing the BlipServer can be distributed throughout an IP
network. Part of BlipNet is a set of Java classes, which can be applied to connect to the BlipServer. These classes
can be used in an application to create a connection to the BlipServer.
With the BlipNet API it is possible to:



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 23 of 49
           Subscribe to events from the BlipServer. Examples of events could be "terminal in range" or a specific
            BlipNode, received object indications, etc.
           Start and stop inquiry of terminals,
           Specify inquiry filters to search for specific terminals. E.g. phones only.
           Establish and Disconnect Bluetooth links to Terminals.
           Measure Signal Strength between a BlipNode and a Terminal.
           Establish sessions such as Serial data application, Object push, File Transfer and Personal Area Network
            sessions towards remote devices
           Push/pull of objects to/from specific Terminals.
           Send/Receive serial data to/from specific terminals.
The BlipNet API will be explained in details in chapter XX and XX
Section 3.2.1 contains a couple of examples of how the BlipNet API can be applied.
The BlipNet API makes it easy to get started writing Bluetooth aware applications and it has a lot of advantages
compared to, e.g., implementing own profiles and applications on top of a Bluetooth base band-controller.

3.5.2 BlipNet API examples
Figure 12 shows an example of how the BlipNet API can be applied for push of objects.



                  BlipNet Application

                      BlipNet API Client
                                                                        4
                                                                                          6               3
            1     2            5      6


                         BlipServer                                     6                 4



        1       The BlipNode is configured to track devices


        2       The application subscribes to information from the BlipServer

        3       The terminal enters the range of the BlipNode.

        4       The BlipNode detects the terminal and informs the BlipServer

        5       The BlipServer informs the application

        6       The application invokes establishment of a link and pushes an object.



Figure 12 Example of usage of the BlipNet API, The interaction between an application, BlipNet and a
terminal entering range.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                             Page 24 of 49
3.5.3 BlipNet API documentation package
With the BlipNet documentation, it is simple to get started with BlipNet.
       Application Developer’s Tutorial
        The tutorial describes how applications can be built on top of the BlipNet API Complete with sample code.
       BlipNet API JavaDoc
        The BlipNet API comes with complete documentation in JavaDoc format for easy integration with Java
        Development Environments.

3.5.4 Sample Applications
The BlipNet SDK contains a long range of sample applications.
       Monitor application (BlipNodeSettings)
        Monitor RSSI (Radio Signal Strength Indication) and BER (Bit Error Rate) on active Bluetooth Connections
       Folder Browser application (FTP Client)
        Demonstrates how to Browse Folders and retrieve files from a remote Bluetooth device like a PDA, PC or
        phone.
       Push Application (OPP Client)
        With just a few line of code, you can Push Content to a remote device (Images, games, etc.) and even
        Exchange Business cards.
       Auto Display Images application (OPP Server)
        This is a Full screen application which displays images pushed from remote devices to any of the BlipNodes
        in your system.
       Access point invoked IP connections (PAN)
        Establish a PAN connection from a BlipNode to a remote device, and detect the IP address of the device.
       Chat application (SPP Client and Server)
        Demonstrates a Bluetooth Chat Server that allows chat clients to connect to any of the BlipNodes in your
        system and chat with each other. Includes a BlipNet based Chat Client and a JSR-82 Chat client for mobile
        phones as well.
       Statistics Collector
        Collect statistics including device connection time and amount of data sent and received between any
        BlipNode and remote devices.
All sample applications are described in details in [Application developers Tutorial].l

3.5.5 BlipNet Client Tool
The BlipNet SDK comes with the BlipNet Client Tool. The Client Tool is a GUI based front-end that demonstrates
many of the possibilities that a BlipNet Application can do with the BlipNet API.

Use it to do filter based inquiry, examine the Service Records of your Bluetooth Terminals, Push your Mobile Phone
application to your phone or just use it as an inspiration for ways to improve your own BlipNet Application. Figure 13
shows a screen dumb of the Client Tool.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 25 of 49
Figure 13 The BlipNet Client Tool.




BlipNet Technical White Paper        Page 26 of 49
4 Understanding BlipNet Bluetooth capabilities
BlipNet has a number of services. Services are here defined as something a client invokes a connection towards.
                                                     rd
Most of the services works without the need for any 3 party application, but it is of course possible to apply the
                  rd
services from a 3 party application.
                                                                                            rd
BlipNet has also a number of clients. Operation of these clients requires control from a 3 party application. Clients
are here defined as something where the BlipNode actively connects to a service on a terminal.
This chapter contains a description of the services and the clients supported by BlipNet.


4.1 Services
This chapter describes all the services there are available when installing a BlipNet (no application required).
These services are:
       LAP Service
       PAN Service
       OPP Service
       FTP Service
Common for all these services are that they can be applied out of the box because they do not require any
application development on the BlipServer.
These services will now be described in more detail.

4.1.1 LAP Service (LAN Access Profile)
The LAP Service allows the client device to run Internet applications such as e-mail, Web browsing, etc.




                           LAN


                                       BlipNode




Figure 14 Up to 7 terminals can connect to one BlipNode simultaneously using the LAN access profile. The
direction of the arrow indicates that the session is terminal invoked.
The LAP profile defines how Bluetooth enabled devices may access the services of a LAN using PPP (Point to Point
Protocol).
The LAP profile is supported by various mainstream Bluetooth PDA’s and Bluetooth PC Cards on the market.



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 27 of 49
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11

4.1.1.1 WoB interoperability (WAP over Bluetooth)
BlipNet supports WAP over Bluetooth (WoB). WoB-enabled mobile phones can be applied with no configuration.
BlipNet transfers the WAP settings, WAP gateway, IP address, etc. The WoB interoperability requirements are not
gathered in a formal profile; they are only guidelines for how to make WAP over Bluetooth (based on LAP).
Notice: WoB is not supported by any commercial phones and it is now deprecated in the Bluetooth
specification.

4.1.2 PAN Service (Personal Area Network Profile)
Figure 15 shows how up to 7 terminals can connect to one BlipNode simultaneously for accessing a LAN.
The PAN profile defines how Bluetooth enabled devices can bridge an Ethernet connection over Bluetooth. PAN
access allows the client device to run applications based on IPv4 such as e-mail, Web browsing, etc, but also
application based on other Network Protocols such as IPv6 if supported by the terminal.




                          LAN


                                      BlipNode




Figure 15 Up to 7 terminals can connect to one BlipNode simultaneously using the PAN profile. The
direction of the arrow indicates that the sessions can either be established from the terminal or from the
BlipNode.
The PAN profile makes it is possible to build mobility solutions for a standard PDA (without any software specific
application on the PDA.). This implies that a user can walk between BlipNodes and the PAN session will be
automatically reestablished.
Please notice that the PAN session can be established not only from the client side by also from the BlipNode.
It is possible to retrieve the IP address of a connected PANU via the BlipNet API. This can be applied to establish IP
sessions towards services running on the PANU from the network.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11

4.1.3 OPP server
The Object Push Profile facilitates easy exchange of business cards (vCard) and to push any kind of object, such as
multi media clips, images etc. The profile specifies how objects can be pushed and how business cards can be
pulled. It is important to note that the OPP does not support pull of anything but business cards.
Within the OPP, both a client and a server role have been defined; these roles will be described in the following
sections. BlipNet supports both a client and a server role. This section describes the server role. A description of the
client role can be found in section 4.2.5.


BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 28 of 49
                                                 Business Card
                                                 Mr Smith
      Object File                                Street X
       Storage                                   Town Y
                                                 Denmark
                                                 +4533883388

                                                             2.1 PU
                            Internet



                                             Business Card
                                                           Sound
                                             Blip Systems A/S
                                             Hækken 2         Image          Etc.
                                             9310 Vodskov
                                                                Video
                                             Denmark
                                                                 clip



Figure 16 The BlipNode is the OPP server. The OPP client in the terminal can send an object to the BlipNet
and pull the business card from the BlipNet. The objects are stored on the BlipServer. The BlipNode and the
BlipServer might be connected via the internet or via LAN.
The OPP server in the BlipNodes facilitates exchange of business cards, images or messages. It is possible to
receive objects like a vCard (business card), from devices in range. One use case could be a vCard that applies to
subscribe to the system.
It will only take one click to register for the Bluetooth service because all relevant subscription data are available in
the vCard name, address, e-mail, telephone number, etc.
The BlipNodes receives the objects from Bluetooth interface and the objects are forwarded to the BlipServer where
they are stored. The objects are stored in a central file server, and applications can subscribe to notification events
from the BlipNet API when new objects are received. The BlipServer supports multiple BlipNodes acting as OPP
server.
The OPP is included in almost all Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones on the market today. For further information
about supported devices please refer to section 11.

4.1.4 FT server
The File Transfer Profile is an extension of the Object Push profile. The profile enables creation and browsing of
folders and file transfer.
An FT Client can via this FT server browse folders on the BlipServer and select files for up/download etc.
The FT server can e.g. be applied for distribution of content to mobile phones. It is e.g. possible to browse the
content of a central BlipServer from mobile phones via multiple BlipNodes located in e.g. kiosks. It is possible to
create directories for every phone model and place customized content in these folders. Via a simple application it is
possible to handle authorization, so only paying customers where allowed access.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                          Page 29 of 49
 Object File                                        Folder list
 Storage                                            File list
                                                    Etc.



                                                             2.2 PU
                              Internet


                                                    Sound    Video
                                                       Image clips




Figure 17 The BlipNode is the FT server. The FT client in the terminal can browse folders on the BlipServer
and retrieve files from it. The BlipServer and the BlipNode might be connected via the Internet or via LAN.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11.

4.1.5 SPP server
The SPP Server enables serial clients to transfer serial data to the BlipNet API.
This can be applied with various areas such as:
       Mobile applications, friend finder etc.
       Industrial applications, sensor data etc.




         Application                     Internet




                                          Serial link




Figure 18 BlipNet can act as Serial Server. The BlipServer is the gateway for the serial data towards the
application.
The Application can register services on the BlipNode. The terminal can discover services via the SDP protocol, and
it can connect to a specific server and transmit serial data to the application, just as if the application resided locally
on the BlipNode.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                          Page 30 of 49
4.2 BlipNet Clients
Section 4.1 contained a description of how BlipNet works when the initiator if the session is the Bluetooth terminal
and not the BlipNode.
BlipNet is in contrary to most Bluetooth access points on the market also able to invoke various Bluetooth sessions.
An application can be using the BlipNet API control session establishment and transfer data.
The session establishment to a Bluetooth device normally involves these 4 steps:
    1. Discovery phase, Surrounding Bluetooth devices are discovered in this phase.
    2. Establishment of basic link, A link is established in this phase
    3. Service discovery on remote device, Services on a remote device can be discovered in the service
       discovery phase. Services like OPP, SPP and PAN.
    4. Session establishment
The new version of the BlipNet API 3.0 allows all these 4 steps to be completed with a single method call, but
ifdesired it is still possible to control each step via the API.
BlipNet supports that these types of sessions are invoked from the BlipNode (Client roles)
       SPP (Serial Port Profile).
        This session type can be applied to communicate with a device with a Bluetooth enabled serial port.
        Examples of such devices are simple sensors, AT-modems in phones etc.
       OPP (Object Push Profile).
        This session type can be applied to push objects and to pull the business card to/from a device with a
        Object Push Server.
       FTP (File Transfer Profile).
        Possibility to browse, create and delete folders and to upload/download files.
       PAN (Personal Area Network).
        This session type can be applied to set-up an network connection to a remote device. This can be applied to
        make seamless IP connections to e.g. PDA’s.
This chapter contains a description of the functionality related to the 4 steps above.

4.2.1 Discovery phase
Via the BlipNet API it is possible to start/stop a discovery procedure on a specific BlipNode.




                   Application




Figure 19 The BlipNode can discover devices in range (inquiry).




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 31 of 49
This feature can also be used for device tracking applications. Via the BlipNet API, an application can subscribe to
the tracking information. This information could be applied to open doors when users approach, showing user
specific content on a nearby screen when in range, etc.
Via the BlipNet API it is possible to start and stop inquiry on a specific BlipNode on the fly. The inquiry responses will
also contain the RSSI value from the found devices.

4.2.1.1 Filtering in the discovery phase
The BlipNet offers functionality to limit the response in the discovery phase. Within the Bluetooth specification a bit
pattern has been defined to distinguish device types such as phones, computers, mice etc from each other in the
discovery phase.
Via the BlipNet API it is possible to configure what devices the BlipNode should try discover.



                                                       Phone
                                                                                                 Smart Phone


                                                                                                 Laptop
                   Application



                                                                                            PDA


Figure 20 Filtering based on device type.
Figure 20 is an example of mobile phones being allowed on the system while other devices are not. This feature can
be applied to reduce the load on the system. It also ensures that the application only receives relevant events.

4.2.1.2 Power adjustment
By using the BlipNode L1 it is possible to control the power during the inquiry and paging phase. This can be
controlled from both the BlipManager or from an application via the BlipNet API.




Figure 21 The figure shows how the ”Link Establishment Power” (power applied for inquiry and paging procedures
can be applied to decrease the range of the BlipNode during inquiry.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 32 of 49
4.2.2 Establishment of basic link
From the BlipNet API it is possible to invoke link establishment from a specific BlipNode to a remote device.
When a paging is made the Bluetooth address of the remote device must be known. If the initiator of the paging has
knowledge about the value of the clock in the remote device the paging can be completed very quickly. The clock is
obtained as a part of an inquiry procedure. Normally such clock data cannot be shared between Bluetooth access
points. Based on some pseudo clock sync mechanisms in BlipNet we have made it is possible to share clock data
from clients between access points. This implies that connections can be established quickly, down to <350 ms if the
client is in continuous page scan.




                                                   Application

                                            Sequence
                                            1. Inquiry result (Bluetooth adr, Clock info).
                                            2. Page command (Bluetooth adr, Clock info)


Figure 22 The Leftmost BlipNode is applied to make inquiry. The rightmost BlipNode is applied to set up the
Bluetooth link e.g. for pushing a file via OPP profile. By reusing the clock information from the leftmost
BlipNode, it is feasible to make a quick connection establishment from the rightmost BlipNode.

4.2.3 Service discovery on remote device
The BlipNet API supports the Service Discovery Application Profile (SDAP).
The BlipNodes are able to connect to devices and retrieve information about available services. (Which profiles the
remote device supports).
An application can via the BlipNet API gain knowledge about the services available on the remote device. Examples
of such services are OPP, SPP etc.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                      Page 33 of 49
                                                                OPP Client,
                                                                FT Server,
                                                                DUN Gw



                   Application



                                                                OPP Client,
                                                                FT Server,
                                                                DUN Client

Figure 23 The BlipNode can discover services on a remote device.

4.2.4 PAN Network Invoked Session (Personal Area Network)
BlipNet is able to connect to PAN devices that advertise their PANU capabilities. This can be applied to make
mobility solutions, where the PAN session is automatically re-established while the device is moving around.

4.2.5 OPP Client Session (Object Push Profile)
With the OPP client, it is possible to push content to remote devices and to pull business cards from all devices in
range.

                                                                   Business Card
                                                                   Mr Smith
                                                                   Street X
                                                                   Town Y
                                                                   Denmark
                                                                   +4533883388



                                                                               2.3 PU
    Application                             Internet



                                                              Business Card
                                                              Blip Systems A/S
                                                                              2.4 PU
                                                                              Sound
                                                              Hækken 2           Image         Etc.
                                                              9310 Vodskov         Movie
                                                              Denmark              clip



Figure 24 The BlipNode is the OPP client. The application sends objects via the BlipServer to the BlipNode.
The BlipNode and the BlipServer might be connected via the internet.
OPP can be applied to push any kind of object supported by the remote device, e.g. images, notes or movie clips.
The note could for example be an electronic coupon offering a discount in a store.
An application can via the BlipNet API start inquiry and push objects to found devices.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 34 of 49
The Push module in the BlipServer is based on this OPP client.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11

4.2.6 FT Client
An FT Client can via this FT server browse folders on a client and select files for download etc. This can e.g. be
applied for synchronization, push of content etc.



                                                                    Folder list
                                                                    File list
                                                                    Etc.




    Application                            Internet


                                                                       Sound
                                                                              2.5     PU
                                                                          Image       Etc.
                                                                              Video
                                                                               clip



Figure 25 The BlipNode is the FT client. This FTP Client (in reality the application) can get a folder list and a
list of files in the terminal and select one for download. The BlipServer is the gateway for the objects.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11.

4.2.7 SPP Client Session (Serial Port Profile)
BlipNet is able to connect to SPP servers in remote devices via a SPP client. This can be applied to communicate
with simple devices without any IP stack, such as sensors etc. it can also be applied to communicate with the AT
modem in a mobile phone.




                  Application                  Internet




                                                      Serial link




Figure 26 BlipNet can act as Serial Client. The figure shows how the BlipNode can send an AT command to
e.g. a Bluetooth enabled Mobile Phone and how the BlipNode can read data from e.g. a temperature sensor.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 35 of 49
All current Bluetooth enabled Mobile phones supports AT commands via the Bluetooth interface. The AT commands
can be applied to control e.g.: The SMS inbox, Mute, Divert call. For full description of the common supported AT
commands please refer to v.250 and v.250 supplement, see www.itu.org
The SPP Client can also be applied to connect to sensors, barcode scanners etc.
For further information about supported devices please refer to section 11.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                     Page 36 of 49
5 Security
BlipNet has a central security manager. The Bluetooth specification specifies how two devices can make a secure
communication by going through a pairing process. The pairing process involves a known shared passkey on both
sides. During the pairing procedure a link key is established.
The central security manger maintains a database of link keys. This ensures that an arbitrary number of Bluetooth
devices can be paired with the same BlipNode.


5.1 Passkeys
Some profiles within the Bluetooth specification specify Bluetooth devices to be paired with each other. Within
BlipNet, this is the case with the LAN Access Profile (LAP). For other profiles such as OPP, WoB, SPP and PAN this
is optional.
A Bluetooth passkey is the PIN code a user would have to use to make a secure relation between a Bluetooth
device and BlipNet. The creation of this secure relation is called “Pairing” or “Bonding”. With BlipNet pairing can be
configured for each profile.
Bluetooth Passkeys can be assigned in two ways:
       By assigning a default Bluetooth Passkey
       By assigning a Bluetooth Passkey per user
        If a Bluetooth Passkey has been specified for a user, this specific Bluetooth Passkey overrules the default
        Bluetooth Passkey.


5.2 Security can be configured per service
BlipNet makes it possible to configure the security level per service. For example, LAN access requires security,
whereas exchange of business cards does not necessarily require security. This can be controlled from the
BlipManager.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 37 of 49
6 Setup and maintenance


6.1 BlipNet
BlipNet is easy to set up and install, and it has built-in maintenance procedures.
       Plug and play
        The BlipNodes automatically detect the BlipServer on the LAN. This implies that no configuration is required,
        e.g. when adding BlipNodes to the network.
       Installation
        The Installation procedure is performed via an installation wizard. The wizard is easy to use, and no specific
        BlipNet training is required to install the system.
       Alarm generation
        BlipNet generates alarms for fault conditions in the system.
       Automatic software update
        The BlipServer and the BlipNode will constantly be developed, and new features and profiles will be added
        to the system in the future. BlipNet has an automatic software upgrading facility. All that is required to
        upgrade the system is to store the release file from Ericsson in the BlipServer. The BlipServer will then
        perform the upgrade for all the BlipNodes registered in the BlipServer. The BlipServer SW can easily be
        upgraded from the Installation wizard.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                        Page 38 of 49
7 Co-Existences issues
Bluetooth operates in the free ISM band. This band is applied by various other technologies like 802.11 b/g and
Micro ovens.
The chapter describes the following issues:
       Co-existence with 802.11 b/g
       Co-existence with other Bluetooth devices.


7.1 Bluetooth and 802.11 b/g co-existence

7.1.1 Radio characteristics
Both technologies operate in the 2.400 – 2.485 GHz spectrum the ISM band.


                                     Bluetooth                        802.11 b
              Channels               79, f=2402+k MHz, k=0,…,78,      14, but only 3/4 unique
              Channel bandwidth      1 MHz                            22 MHz


Bluetooth jumps between the channels 1600 times per seconds, whereas 802.11b sticks to a predefined channel.
Figure 27 shows how the Bluetooth and 802.11 b/g apply the frequency band.


                                       Bluetooth


                                       ….
                                                                                             Hz
                                       802.11 b/g



                                                                                                Hz



Figure 27 Bluetooth and WiFi Channels, Bluetooth jumps between 79 narrow channels distributed in the
entire band. 802.11 operate at a single broad channel.



7.1.2 Adaptive Frequency Hopping
With the Bluetooth 1.2 specification the “Adaptive Frequency Hopping” feature (AFH) was introduced in Bluetooth.
The goal of AFH is to allow Bluetooth to coexist with other non-frequency-hopping technologies and interferers (such
as IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN devices or Microwave Ovens) in the ISM band. This is accomplished by adapting
the Bluetooth hopping sequence to avoid those frequencies occupied by other users of the ISM band.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                     Page 39 of 49
The Bluetooth devices keeps statistic over “bad” and “good” channels. Bluetooth Channels located at same
frequencies as an 802.11 channel will over time be marked as bad, due to the increased retransmissions rate.
Both the master and the slave can identify bad channels. Figure 28 shows the effect of AFH.



                                           Bluetooth and 802.11
                        2.480

                  GHz
                                                                                             Bluetooth
                                                                                             WLAN
                        2.402
                                                     Time

                                      Bluetooth and 802.11 with AFH
                        2.480

                  GHz
                                                                                             Bluetooth
                                                                                             WLAN
                        2.402
                                                     Time



Figure 28 Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH).

Adaptive frequency hopping is good for reallocation of Bluetooth when frequencies are in continuous use by other
technologies. A fully successful re allocation requires that it is possible to find at least 20 MHz of available spectrum.


7.1.3 Limitations of Adaptive frequency hopping
AFH involves exchange of channel maps between the master and the slave. Such maps can only be exchanged
upon connection establishment. This implies that AFH has not effect on the connection establish procedures such
as inquiry and paging. A train of ID packets are transmitted continuously during inquiry and paging procedures.
Normally paging and inquiry are only performed occasionally when a link is established. BlipNet may, dependent on
the use case, perform periodic inquiries and pagings, e.g. to detect moving devices to ensure handover between
access points. If a BlipNode is applied for such use cases it is recommend to locate the BlipNode at least 2 meter,
from the 802.11 access point.


7.2 Co-existence with other Bluetooth devices
                                                                           1
In general there are no problems in operating multiple Bluetooth piconet within the same area.
The throughput in piconet degrades gracefully as the number of piconet within an area is increased, see Table 1.


1
 A piconet is a master connected with up to 7 slaves. Devices within a piconet are synchronized. So it is the number
of co-located piconets that determines the number of collisions and not the number of devices.


BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 40 of 49
                              Number of Piconets         4      10       20
                              Net efficiency           95 %    89 %     79 %

                       Table 1 Net efficiency of Bluetooth piconet within the same area.
Table 1 indicates a gracefully drop in net efficiency as the number of piconet increases. AFH cannot be applied to
prevent interference from other Bluetooth devices, because the hopping nature of the disturbance.
Disturbance from other Bluetooth devices are only really relevant in case Bluetooth 1.1 SCO (voice) links are
applied. Users of SCO links operated in areas with other Bluetooth pico nets may notice a “popcorn effect” when
SCO packets are lost due to collisions. This problem is solved with the Bluetooth 1.2 specification where Extended
SCO link is introduced. SCO links are not using retransmissions, Extended SCO are able to retransmit voice.
BlipNet allows definition of channels maps via the BlipManager, this make it feasible to control where piconets are
located in the ISM band. The feature is not required for any normal usecases, but it can be applied in some special
cases to improve throughput.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                      Page 41 of 49
8 Terminology and Abbreviations


API         Application Programming Interface
BlipNet     Bluetooth Local Infotainment Point Network
CoD         Class of Device
DHCP        Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS         Domain Name Service
FTP         File Transfer protocol (Obex based profile)
GAP         Generic Access Profile
GOEP        Generic Object Exchange Profile
GUI         Graphical User Interface
HTTP        HyperText Transfer Protocol
IP          Internet Protocol
JDBC        Java DataBase Connectivity
JVM         Java Virtual Machine
LAN         Local Area Network
LAP         LAN Access Profile
LMP         Link Manager Protocol
NAP         Network Node (Role within PAN profile)
NAT         Network Address Translators
OPP         Object Push Profile
OPPc        Object Push Profile client role
OPPs        Object Push Profile server role
PAN         Personal Area Network Profile
PDA         Personal Digital Assistant
PPP         Point to Point Protocol
RF          Radio Frequency
RMI         Remote Method Invocation
SDAP        Service Discovery Application Profile
SDK         Software Development Kit
SDP         Service Discovery Protocol
SIG         Bluetooth Special Interest Group
SPP         Serial Port Profile
TCP         Transport Control Protocol
UDP         User Datagram Protocol
URL         Universal Resource Locator




BlipNet Technical White Paper                             Page 42 of 49
WAP         Wireless Application Protocol
WIM         Wireless Identity Module
WML         Wireless Markup Language
WoB         WAP over Bluetooth interoperability requirements
WTLS        Wireless Transport Layer Security




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                  Page 43 of 49
9 Related information


9.1 Documents
[Application Developers Tutorial]                 BlipNet 3.0, Application Developers’ Tutorial
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2004

[BlipNet Positioning Module]                      Blip Positioning Module
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005
                                                  www.blipsystems.com

[BlipNet Beacon Technical White Paper]            BlipNet Beacon, Technical White Paper
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005

[BlipNet Push Module]                             BlipNet Push Module
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005
                                                  www.blipsystems.com

[BlipNet Web Module]                              BlipNet Web Module
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005
                                                  www.blipsystems.com

[BlipNet Administrators Guide]                    BlipNet Administrators Guide
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2004

[BlipNode L1 Data sheet]                          BlipNode L1 Data Sheet
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005

[BlipNode Micro Data sheet]                       BlipNode Micro Data Sheet
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005

[BlipBeacon Data sheet]                           BlipBeacon Data Sheet
                                                  BLIP Systems A/S
                                                  2005


9.2 Links
http://www.blipsystems.com
http://www.bluetooth.com – SIG official members site
http://www.bluetooth.org




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                    Page 44 of 49
10 Appendix BlipNet API introduction
Please refer to [Application developers Tutorial] for details.
With the BlipNet platform and a custom-made application, interaction between personal devices and the host
environment is made possible. The application interface is written entirely in Java and is build on top of Java RMI to
enable easy development of portable networking applications.
With the BlipNet API it is possible to:
       Control BlipNodes
       Request information from the system,
       Subscribe to notifications from the system,
       Invoke actions towards terminals.




                                                          Application

                                                                                  BlipNet API Client
                          OPP         FTP       SPP        PAN



                                     ProfileHandler       ConnectionHandler       InquiryHandler
     An application can take
     a BlipNode handle and
     get exclusive access to
     a BlipNode. Only
     specific actions like
     inquiry, paging requires                              BlipNodeHandl
                                                            BlipNodeHandl
     a BlipNode handle.                                           e                   A username and password
                                                                   e
                                                             BlipNodeHandle           is created per application in
                                                                                      the BlipManager. An
          BlipServer-Connections can                                                  application must use this
          be defined, but only one per                                                data when connecting to the
          application. A creation of a                    BlipServerConnection        Blip-Server.
          BlipServerConnection
          requires BlipServer Access.




Figure 29 shows the architecture of in a 3rd party application.



BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 45 of 49
This figure will be explained in more detail throughout this chapter. Only the main objects are displayed. These are:
       BlipServerConnection
        This interface defines the methods working on the BlipServer level. This interface contains methods that can
        be called to get status information about the BlipServer, obtain BlipNodeHandles or attach BlipServer
        Eventlisteners.
       BlipNodeHandle
        A BlipNode handle is a unique handle to a BlipNode. Before performing any action on a BlipNode, the
        application must invoke the lock method of the corresponding BlipNode Handle. When the handle is
        released the BlipNode will return to it is default settings configured from the BlipManager. Actions on a
        BlipNodeHandle are Dynamic Settings, inquiry, connection and session actions as described below.
       InquiryHandler
        With the InquiryHandler you can e.g. start/stop inquiry and set Inquiry Filters. It is possible to add an Inquiry
        Event listener to receive e.g. inquiry events and friendly name lookup events.
       ConnectionHandler
        The ConnectionHandler enables actions like link establishments, RSSI measurements and Service
        Discovery. By adding a ConnectionEvent listener you can receive events about a link e.g. when a link has
        been established or lost.
       ProfileHandlers
        Each Bluetooth Profile supported by BlipNet has it is own session specific handler to perform profile actions.
        E.g. with the OppClientHandler you can push, pull and exchange obex objects. With the PanNapHandler
        you can establish a PAN session to a Ternimal. For each ProfileHandler you can add event listeners to
        receive notifications about e.g. ongoing Object transfers.
       BlipNodeSettings
        The Application can dynamically change and read BlipNode settings like BlipNode Friendly Name, Terminal
        Name Lookup, BlipNode Output Power, etc.
       BlipServerEventListener
        If you do not need to perform actions on specific BlipNodes, but just need to receive events from a large
        group of BlipNodes, e.g. Terminal Detected events or when a terminal has pushed an object to the BlipNet
        System, you can use the BlipServer EventListeners.


10.1 Connection of an application to the BlipServer
The BlipNet API is IP based and can be accessed from remote PC’s (depending on firewall settings). To ensure that
the system administrator has full control of the BlipNet, applications can only gain access to nodes if they have a
password and a username. This ensures that unauthorized applications cannot connect from remote,
The connection procedure for a new application that wants to subscribe on events from the BlipNet is like this:
1. A login is defined via the BlipManager.
2. The login is inserted into the application.
3. The application constructs a “BlipServerConnection” using the login data entered in the BlipManager.
4. At this point the application can obtain all information and all events from the system.


10.2 Performance of actions on a BlipNode
In case the application wants to change some of the settings in a node, or push objects via the node, the application
must perform some extra steps to gain access to the node. These steps ensure that only one application at the time
has the right to push to terminals, change certain configuration items etc.
These steps are:


BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                         Page 46 of 49
1. With use of the BlipServerConnection interface the application can get a “BlipNodeHandle”.
2. When the handle is returned from the BlipServer, the application can call the lock method.
3. All the methods in the BlipNodeHandle interface can now be used by the application.
When an application has acquired a BlipNodeHandle and invoked the lock method, that application has exclusive
access to the physical BlipNode until the handle is released.


10.3 Java doc describing the API
The BlipNet API Javadoc, with an in-depth API description is available on request. Please contact
sales@Blip Systems A/S.com
The API contains the following main packages:
       com.Blip Systems A/S.blipnet.api.blipserver
        The BlipServer package contains classes to create a connection to the server. The package also contains a
        series of methods to gain information about the status of the BlipNet and to obtain a BlipNodeHandle for a
        specific BlipNode.
       com.Blip Systems A/S.blipnet.api.blipnode
        The main interface in this package is the BlipNodeHandle interface. Via this interface it is possible to change
        configuration of a BlipNode, set-up Bluetooth links, etc.
       com.Blip Systems A/S.blipnet.api.event
        This package contains a list of all the events the BlipNet can generate.
       com.Blip Systems A/S.blipnet.api.profile
        Contain packages for each BlipNet supported profile. From here it is possible to establish profile sessions.
        Perform session dependent actions like pushing objects, etc.


10.4 Code example
These few lines are enough to push a file on a specific terminal.
   try {
      handle.getOppClientHandler().addEventListener(this);
      ObexPushObject opo = new ObexFile(“image.jpg”);
      handle.getOppClientHandler().push(connectData, opo, this);
   } catch (...




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                       Page 47 of 49
11 Appendix Supported devices
BlipNet support more devices and more use cases than any other access point on the market.
Normally an access point would support IP access to the LAN via either the LAN Access profile or via the Pan
profile. BlipNet offers on top of these basic profiles support for transfer of serial data via the “Serial Port Profile”,
transfer of Objects via the “Objects Push Profile” and the “File Transfer Profile”. This implies that the range of
devices which can be applied with BlipNet is very broad.

The site http://qualweb.bluetooth.org/Template2.cfm?LinkQualified=QualifiedProducts contains a complete list of all
qualified devices. On the site it is possible to search for devices with specific capabilities (profile support) The list
below contains a list of profiles supported by BlipNet.. For each profile a corresponding terminal capability is listed. If
this “terminal capability” is applied on the web site it is then possible to deduct a complete list with relevant devices.
Please notice that all items are not real end-user products; please check that “Product type” is set to “PROD”.
All Bluetooth devices complying with these profiles can use the BlipNode:

       LAN Access Profile (LAP)
        Required terminal capability “LAN-DT”
       Personal Area Network Profile (PAN),
        Required terminal capability “PAN-User”
       Serial Port Profile, Client
        Required terminal capability “Serial-DevB”
       Serial Port Profile, Server
        Required terminal capability “Serial-DevA”
       Object Push Profile, Client
        Required terminal capability “OPP-Server”
       Object Push Profile, Server
        Required terminal capability “OPP-Clientr”
       File Transfer Profile, Client
        Required terminal capability “FT-Server”
       File Transfer Profile, Server
        Required terminal capability “FT-Client”
       GAP profile
        Any Bluetooth device will support this. The BlipNode can tack any Bluetooth device.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                            Page 48 of 49
12 Appendix BlipNet Topology
BlipNet can be applied in various different set-ups. This appendix contains some examples of configurations.



               Application



               Application                          Internet




               Application             Internet




               Application             Internet                          Internet



               Application



Figure 30 BlipNodes and BlipServer on same LAN


12.1 DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol)
The BlipNode requires a DHCP server (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) server on the LAN for allocation of IP
addresses.
After the BlipNode has received an IP address it is possible to set the address to a static one via a Telnet command.
If the BlipNode is applied for the LAP profile, a DHCP Server is always required for allocation of IP addresses to the
connecting terminals. The BlipNode acts as a DHCP relay agent.
If the BlipNode is applied for the PAN profile, it is the connecting clients own responsibility to allocate an IP address.
This implies that it is feasible to run without a DHCP server on the LAN in this specific case if both the BlipNode and
the connecting devices are configured with a static IP address.
A DHCP server is provided within a standard Red Hat Linux distribution or Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Edition.




BlipNet Technical White Paper                                                          Page 49 of 49

								
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