Simulation of a Start-up Manufacturing Facility for Nanopore Arrays

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					                                    Simulation of a Start-up Manufacturing Facility for
20                                  Nanopore Arrays
The Journal of Technology Studies




                                    Dennis W. Field


                                    Abstract                                              times, and equipment. Boundary values for
                                         Simulation is a powerful tool in developing      process flows, times, and equipment capacities
                                    and troubleshooting manufacturing processes,          were derived from discussions with nanotechnol-
                                    particularly when considering process flows for       ogy researchers and from reading published
                                    manufacturing systems that do not yet exist.          reports (Argonne National Laboratory, 2004; Ba
                                    Simulation can bridge the gap in terms of setting     & Li, 2000; Hu, Gong, Chen, Yuan, Saito,
                                    up full-scale manufacturing for nanotechnology        Grimes, & Kichambare, 2001; Jessensky, Müller,
                                    products if limited production experience is an       & Gösele, 1998; Knaack, Redden, & Onellion,
                                    issue. An effective use of simulation software is     2004; Liang, Chik, Yin, Xu, 2002; Nam, Seo,
                                    identified when analyzing a typical manufactur-       Park, Bae, Nam, Park, & Ha, 2004; Nasirpouri,
                                    ing process flow for anodic aluminum oxide            Ghorbani, Irajizad, Saedi, Nogaret, 2004; Zhang,
                                    (AAO) nanopore arrays. Simulation models,             Chen, Li, & Saito, 2005). Regarding quantitative
                                    using the ProModel simulation software, were          values, however, model outputs were found less
                                    developed based on production flows, projected        important than the activities involved in setting
                                    process times, and equipment. An attempt was          up the models, as powerful “what if ” capability
                                    made to realistically estimate process times and      in the software allows process times, capacities,
                                    capacities, however model outputs, in terms of        and yields to be easily updated.
                                    quantitative values, were found less important
                                    than the activities involved in setting up the mod-   Background
                                    els. The ability of simulation to help link theory         Nanotechnology refers to applications
                                    and practice in the classroom may be useful in        involving products or materials with one or more
                                    leading students toward higher levels of intellec-    features in the one to one-hundred nanometers
                                    tual behavior as educators strive to build stu-       range. For comparative purposes, most individual
                                    dents’ abilities to apply, analyze, evaluate, and     atoms are between one-tenth and one-half of a
                                    create, rather than simply to remember and            nanometer in diameter.
                                    understand.
                                                                                               Initially, the technologies and process flows
                                    Manufacturing Simulation                              involved in the production of AAO nanopore
                                         Simulation is a powerful tool in developing      arrays are discussed. These arrays offer cost-
                                    and troubleshooting manufacturing processes,          effective approaches to create nanoscale features
                                    particularly when considering process flows for       over large areas, and they can be applied to the
                                    manufacturing systems that do not yet exist. As       development and production of other nanotech-
                                    noted by Mebrahtu, Walker, and Mileham (2004,         nology devices, including sensors, memory
                                    p. 245): “The lack of clear understanding of the      devices, and filtration and flow membranes.
                                    dynamics and interaction of components of mod-
                                    ern manufacturing systems calls for the use of             The base simulation model is then defined,
                                    simulation as an essential support tool.”             and the advanced simulation software is explored
                                    Simulation can bridge the gap in terms of setting     including, among other things, the impact of
                                    up full-scale manufacturing for nanotechnology      
				
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