In recent years, the idea that development is solely a matter for governments has been replaced by a clear recognition of the role of both the private sector and civil society. The UN Global Compact has played a pioneering role in encouraging PPPs. UNESCO's 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions enshrines the principle of PPPs in the cultural sector. In addition, through its Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity launched in 2001, UNESCO has explored many different facets of PPPs in support of cultural industry projects in developing countries. UNESCO's experience in fostering PPPs for the cultural and creative industries shows that they should be seen as investments in human development rather than mere subsidies.