Alabama 4-H Public Speaking - PDF by cib68395


									                                               Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

                             Speak-Up Alabama                      Levels of Competition
                             Informative Public Speaking           For details on eligibility, see the General Event Policy.
                           & Persuasive Public Speaking            • Juniors: 9 – 13 Years Old. Must be 9, 10, 11, 12, or 13
                                                                      years old on January 1 of the current calendar year.
                                                                      (Compete only at local and regional level).
                                                                   • Senior – Level I: 14 – 15 Years Old. Must be 14 or 15
Do you want to stand up for what you believe? Do you want             years old on January 1 of the current calendar year.
to be able to inspire or educate people on important issues?       • Senior – Level II: 16 – 19 Years Old. Must be 16, 17,
Well, the two Speak-Up Alabama events are the 4-H                     18, or 19 years old on January 1 of the current calendar
events for you!                                                       year.

Speak-Up Alabama helps build your leadership, citizenship          One youth from each Senior level will represent the twelve
and communications skills. 4-H public speaking events              4-H Regions at Alabama State 4-H Congress. Selection
have had a powerful impact on dozens of Alabama’s civic            processes will be determined by each 4-H Region.
and business leaders – lawyers, corporate presidents,
ministers, political leaders and Extension staff.                  •   Senior 4-H’ers may participate in Speak Up Alabama
                                                                       every year.
•   Persuasive Public Speaking is all about trying to              •   When you win Persuasive Speaking at Senior Level I,
    change your audience’s attitudes and ways of thinking.             you can’t compete in Level I Persuasive Speaking
    If you want youth to start exercising more, then you               again. You can compete in Informative Speaking at that
    persuade them. If you want your community to build a               level.
    skate park, then you’ll need to persuade people.               •   When you win at Senior Level II in Persuasive
                                                                       Speaking, you can’t compete in Persuasive Speaking
•   Informative Public Speaking is about the facts. If you             again. You can compete in Informative Speaking.
    think that Rosa Parks was an interesting person, then          •   When you win Informative Speaking at Senior Level I,
    tell your audience about her. If you think that technology         you can’t compete in Level I Informative Speaking
    is changing Alabama, inform your audience about those              again. You can compete in Persuasive Speaking at that
    changes.                                                           level.
                                                                   •   When you win Informative Speaking at Senior Level II,
Speak-Up Alabama lets you:                                             you can’t compete in Informative Speaking again. You
• Build your skills as an impressive public speaker.                   can compete in Persuasive Speaking.
• Express yourself clearly and persuasively.
                                                                                             P. S. Rules!
• Become more aware of challenges and opportunities
                                                                   •   Your speech must be new and original. You cannot
   facing young people, families and communities.
                                                                       copy it directly from an existing speech, news article or
                                                                       anything that someone else has written or that you have
What You Will Learn:
                                                                       written prior to the current 4-H year.
• How to choose a topic that fits your audience.
                                                                   •   Visual aids, costumes and props are not allowed.
• How to research a timely and interesting subject.
                                                                   •   Junior speeches must be between 3 and 5 minutes.
• How to write an effective speech.
                                                                   •   Senior speeches must be between 5 and 8 minutes.
• How to deliver your speech before a live audience.
                                                                   •   Participants will present the facilitator of the event a
                                                                       hard copy of their speech.
Who Can Participate
Any Alabama young person may participate in Speak-Up               •   You may use notes, but you may not read your speech.
Alabama or any 4-H competitive event. However, you must            •   Your topic must explore the challenges and
be a member of an Alabama 4-H Club. It’s easy and quick                opportunities of youth, family, and society.
to join – just call or e-mail your county Alabama
Cooperative Extension System Office for information (for           Parents’ and Volunteers’ Guide
contact information, go to                 Like all 4-H projects, this activity is just for young people. It
                                                                   is expected that the young person create an original
If you and your friends are interested, you might wish to          presentation. The role of the adult helper is to support and
start a 4-H Project Club that focuses on developing your           encourage youth in their efforts, to ask and answer
public speaking and communication skills, or it might be a         questions about the project, and to help youth learn specific
club that focuses on public service or building leadership         techniques (such as gestures and voice control) that they
skills. For more information, see Starting a 4-H Club              might use in their project.
                                                                                          Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work,
Speak-Up Alabama is a Junior and Senior 4-H Event. Your                                   acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, and other related
                                                                                          acts, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of
local Extension Office has information on local and regional                              Agriculture. The Alabama Cooperative Extension
Speak-Up Alabama events, as well as other 4-H activities.                                 System (Alabama A & M University and Auburn
                                                                                          University) offers educational programs, materials,
                                                                                          and equal opportunity employment to all people
                                                                                          without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
                                                                                          sex, age, veteran status, or disability.

                            For More Information, go to:                                                        1
                                      Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

Judging Standards and Hints for
                                                            Appropriate attire for both young men and
Facilitators and Speakers                                   women is dress clothes. That means clothes
                                                            that are dressier than what you would normally
Parents and adult volunteers are encouraged to
                                                            wear to school. Boys should wear a coat and
assist or coach the 4-H member with the
                                                            tie. Girls should wear a dress, suit or
speech, but they must not write or research the
                                                            appropriate pantsuit. 4-H colors are not a
speech for them.
Judging Standards
                                                            Participants should not introduce their speech
Speeches will be judged on content, subject
                                                            by giving their name or county and the title of
matter and presentation.
                                                            their speech.
A. Content:
• How well has the speech been researched?
• Is it clear?
                                                                        Career Connections
• Has correct grammar been used?
                                                            Skills that are developed through this project
• Is it well organized?                                     have direct connections to a number of exciting
                                                            and rewarding careers. Think of all the people
B. Subject Matter                                           who speak in public: Business and political
Junior and Senior 4-H’ers must speak on a                   leaders are often called upon to make public
topic that explores the challenges and                      presentations; Educators talk in front of the
opportunities of youth, families, and society. It           classroom; Attorneys speak before the court.
must be a topic of importance and interest to an            Entertainers, such as actors and athletes,
audience that includes both young people and                speak before cameras or before live audiences.
adults from rural communities or cities and                 Extension staff speak before youth and adult
different backgrounds.                                      audience all of the time.
C. Presentation:
• Was your voice strong and clear?
• Have you used correct grammar and correct
• Did you do a good job of emphasizing
    words and ideas?
• Did you reference someone else’s quotes or
    printed word?
• Did you have good posture?
• Did you display confidence in yourself and
    in your presentation?
• Was your speech within the time limits?

You may use notes, but you may not read your

•   Junior speeches must be between 3 and 5
•   Senior speeches must be between 5 and 8

Three points will be taken off for every 30
seconds that you are under or over the time

                      For More Information, go to:                            2
                                         Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

        Suggestions for 4-H’ers                                B. Body
                                                               The body is where you support your main points,
                  Selecting a Topic                            so it needs to be well organized. Limit yourself to
Don’t wait until the last minute to decide on a                three to five main points.
topic. Start early so that you can get ideas from
books, the Internet, newspapers, and magazines.                The material supporting main points may be
Talk over ideas with other people.                             classified into four general types: testimony,
                                                               statistics, examples, and analogies.
Make a list of topics you are considering. Give                • Testimony: The expression of an opinion on
them the following test:                                           a topic by any person. (John Smith says that
• Does the topic explore a challenge or                            walking an hour a day has made him
    opportunity faced by youth, families, and                      healthier, happier and smarter.)
    society?                                                   • Statistics: Factual numbers provided by a
• Am I really interested in it?                                    university, government agency, or other
                                                                   reliable source (According to the 2004
• Will I be able to find information on it?
                                                                   National Kids Count Data Book, Alabama
• Can the topic be well covered in the time
                                                                   ranks 47th out of the fifty states in overall child
Select the topic you feel will work best and begin
                                                               • Examples: include personal experiences,
to organize your thoughts. Limit the scope of your
                                                                   interviews with knowledgeable people, and
talk so that it can be covered in the time available.
                                                                   library resources. (During my interview with
                                                                   Mayor Jones, the mayor stated that bike paths
                                                                   have significantly reduced traffic jams in our
Your Presentation should Include:
A. Introduction                                                • Analogy: A type of reasoning that suggests
The introduction has two objectives:                               that if two things are alike in ways that you
                                                                   know about, they are probably alike in a way
• to gain your audience’s attention
                                                                   that you don’t recognize. (Catfish and chicken
• to inform the audience of the purpose of your
                                                                   are very tasty and are good sources of
    speech and let them know why they should be
                                                                   protein, therefore they can both produce
    concerned about the subject.
                                                                   agricultural income.)
To gain attention and interest, you might begin by:
                                                               C. Conclusion
• Challenging your audience with a question.
                                                               The conclusion is the part that the audience will
• Giving a startling statement, but not                        remember most. It should be no longer than your
    something offensive.                                       introduction (about ten percent of the total
• Recounting a personal experience or telling a                speech). It summarizes your main points and
    story.                                                     gives your audience one more chance to hear
• Using an appropriate poem or quote.                          what you have to say. Your conclusion may
Be sure your opening relates to the audience and               motivate your audience to action or just provide a
to what you are going to say.                                  smooth ending. Remember that you want your
                                                               speech to come to an obvious conclusion, instead
Good speakers don’t begin with “Good morning.                  of leaving the audience wondering if you have
My name is. . .” because that’s not interesting.               finished.
Your introduction sets the stage for the speech,
so you may want to write this section last. Your
introduction should take up about one-tenth of the
total time of your speech.

                        For More Information, go to:                                 3
                                          Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

                      Outline                                   Tips for Writing Your Speech
A written outline helps you organize your                       • Use your own words; if your speech sounds
thoughts. Here is a simple outline that you can                    the way you normally talk, then your speech
change to fit your needs.                                          sounds more natural.
                                                                • Try not to use long sentences. They are harder
I. Introduction                                                    to follow.
A. Opening phrases to get audience’s attention.                 • Simplify main points so that the audience can
B. State subject or purpose and why the audience                   understand and remember them.
should be concerned.                                            • Use examples, stories, dialogue, or anything to
II. Body                                                           help your audience visualize what you are
A. Main point                                                      telling them.
B. Main point                                                   • Avoid phrases that are used all the time ("good
C. Main point                                                      as gold", "big as a house", "red as a beet") and
1. sub-point                                                       words that are hard to pronounce.
a. detail
b. detail                                                                       Before You Speak
2. sub-point                                                    • The audience will notice you as soon as you
III. Conclusion                                                   start to walk to the front.
A. Summary of main points                                       • Be well-groomed and appropriately dressed.
B. Closing statement
                                                                • Be an attentive listener until it is your turn to
                                                                • Rise and walk naturally to the front of the
Four common ways of organizing your speech
are: logical, topical, spatial, and chronological.
                                                                • Establish eye contact with your audience and
A. Logical: You give the problem and then                         smile. Let them know that you have a friendly
present possible solutions. (Problem:                             feeling toward them.
Methamphetamine use in Alabama is destroying                    • Remember to breathe.
lives. Solution: Reduce access to some over-the-                • Pause before beginning to speak. Don’t hurry,
counter cold medicines used in making the drug.)                  and be confident.
                                                                • Still remember to breathe.
B. Topical: Divide the speech into general areas                • If right-handed, stand with your right foot about
which become main headings.(The 4-H Clover                        one inch ahead of your left, with your feet two
represents head, hands, heart and health. Each                    to four inches apart. If left-handed, reverse.
leaf represents a personal characteristic that is                 This allows you to step forward easily, and
important in 4-H).                                                keeps you steady.
                                                                • Stand straight with your arms at your sides
C. Spatial: Use this plan when your subject                       until you are ready to gesture.
involves places or objects that fit into a physical             • Use good posture at all times.
arrangement. (When visiting the Guggenheim
Museum, you are awed by the great circling
stairway. Off the stairs are a series of exhibit

D. Chronological: The time order in which events
took place. (The first man in space was Russian
cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The first American in
space was Alan Shepherd….)

                         For More Information, go to:                             4
                                        Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

Delivery is important. It includes how well you use           Breathe slowly and deeply, and let your muscles
your voice and your body.                                     relax. Even professional actors worry if they are
                                                              not a little nervous before going on stage. They
A. Vocal Expression                                           use this tension to their advantage so they won’t
    • Voice Quality: clear, steady, rich and full.            sound dull and listless.
    • Force of Speaking: volume and intensity.
      Your voice should vary according to what                You can overcome your “butterflies” by:
      you are saying to avoid monotony. It                    • Practice! Practice! Practice!
      should be pleasant and loud enough to be                • Pause before your start
      heard.                                                  • Be self-confident!
    • Rate of Speech: speed at which you                      As you gain experience, you will gain self-
      speak. Your rate will change with the effect            confidence. It will become easier to speak
      you want to give. By slowing down, you                  because you know that you can handle it.
      can think ahead and give the audience a
      chance to absorb what you are saying.                   F. Use of Notes
      Pauses can be used effectively. But don’t               Using notes is allowed, but not encouraged. If you
      let them appear to be memory problems.                  feel you need notes, try putting your outline on a
    • Enthusiasm: You believe in your topic and               card. You can then refer to it, but not read it. Do
      you are interested in what you have to say.             not gesture with your cards, but don’t try to hide
                                                              them either. If you forget what you wanted to say
B. Enunciation and Articulation                               next, you can refer to the main points and easily
    • Pronounce all words so that the audience                recover. Don’t read from a manuscript.
      hears them.
    • Look up words if you are not sure of their              G. Using a Microphone
      pronunciation.                                          When speaking to a very large audience, you may
    • Most of us have a tendency to slur words                need a microphone.
      together, but over-precision is                         • Before the speech, check the microphone by
      undesirable, too.                                           talking into it to see if the height and volume
                                                                  are correct.
C. Breathing                                                  • Speak directly into the “mike” (About four to
Relax. Breathe deeply and evenly and you can                      eight inches away is usually best) but do not
overcome a little of your nervousness and feel                    lean toward it or away from it.
more comfortable.                                             • Use a lapel mike if possible. This allows you
                                                                  to move around more.
D. Gestures                                                   • Don’t rustle papers. Sounds will be magnified.
Your body actions tell your thoughts almost as
effectively as words. How you feel is always                  H. Acknowledging Your Sources
communicated to the audience through your body                When using materials written or spoken by
language. To convey your ideas, use your whole                someone else, be sure you acknowledge the
body. Use facial expressions and direct eye                   source. For instance, a poem, quote, or passage
contact.                                                      from a book can be used as long as you tell who
                                                              the author is. Using someone else’s exact words
You should feel that a gesture, such as a pointed             and pretending that they are your own is called
finger or a clenched fist, is necessary to express            plagiarism.
your idea. Work toward a natural look as you
make gestures and movements to emphasize                      You should also be able to back up what you say.
points.                                                       If you state that there are 150,000 mockingbirds in
                                                              Alabama, you should tell the source of your
E. Stage Fright                                               information. You want to be believable, a person
It is only natural to be fearful. You care what the           to be trusted for accurate information. One of the
audience thinks of you and everyone is looking at             most common faults is failing to acknowledge
you. Stage fright is a physical and mental fear that          sources or to make statements of fact without
causes your heart to quicken because you are                  proper evidence of research.
breathing faster. Relax – your audience wishes
you well and wants you to do a good job!
                        For More Information, go to:                              5
                                 Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

        Above and Beyond                               • Ask someone to provide you with
                                                         instructions on how to get
All 4-H projects should be taken                         somewhere or how to complete a
“above and beyond” just being a                          task. Don’t ask questions. Using
short-term activity. Awards and                          only the information provided,
recognition throughout Alabama 4-H                       complete the task or follow the
are not based on how well you do in                      directions. What words or phrases
competitive events; they are based                       helped you or kept you from
on your all-round community service,                     completing the task?
leadership, and project work.                          • Investigate the different types of
                                                         speeches. Select one and prepare
Here are a few ideas for taking your                     a speech to present to your club or
interest in Public Speaking to a level                   family.
where you can both grow as a person                    • Observe speeches and informal
and have an impact on the lives of                       talks on C-SPAN or other television
others:                                                  stations. What makes you warm-up
• Evaluate sermons or other                              to the speaker? What makes the
   speeches that you hear. Keep a                        speech believable?
   record of what kept you interested,                 • Get together with your friends to
   what the strong points were, and                      practice telling jokes or funny
   what could have been improved.                        stories, just like you are “stand-up
• Video tape yourself presenting                         comedians.” Make a video: “Live
   your speech. Discuss with your                        From 4-H!” Include some friends
   adult helper the strengths and                        who are musicians or magicians.
   weaknesses of your speech.                          • Volunteer to work with younger
• Prepare a speech to present to a                       children in your local 4-H club or an
   city council or community                             after school program to prepare
   administrator requesting local                        and write speeches.
   funding to support the 4-H                          • Present a speech on 4-H to a
   program.                                              school group or a civic club.
• Write a catchy jingle or public                      • Learn to use PowerPoint or other
   service announcement for your                         tools that can strengthen your
   local radio station to promote 4-H.
• Make a list of the things you can do
   to make a good first impression.
• Keep a record in your journal of
   interactions you have with other
   people. Did you use good eye
   contact? Did you listen well or
   interrupt? Did you smile?
• speeches.

                 For More Information, go to:                6
                                       Speak Up Alabama – February 1, 2006

                                   Speak-Up Alabama! Score Sheet
Participant #: _______
Date: ______________

                                Event: ___ Persuasive            ___ Informative
          Level: ___ Junior (Ages 9-13)         ___ Senior I (Ages 14-15)          ___ Senior II (Ages 16-19)

                                                                             Possible            Awarded
I. Content
Research. Demonstrates adequate research on the topic.
Cites references.
Clarity. The presentation is understandable. The topic is
clearly stated. The speech is appropriate for the category.
 Organization. The speech is organized logically and
II. Degree to which the speech explores the problems and opportunities of youth, families, and
Importance and appropriateness of the issue                                    10

III. Oral Presentation Skills

Voice Clarity                                                                  10

Use of Correct Grammar                                                         10

Correct Pronunciation                                                          10

Appropriate Emphasis                                                           10

Posture                                                                        10

Confidence                                                                     10

Total Points Awarded                                                           100

Total time of speech:          MIN,            SEC
[Limits are 3- 5 minutes for Juniors. Limits are 5 - 8 minutes for Seniors.]
Deduct 3 points for each 30 seconds over or under limits.
Total Points Subtracted
                                                    Total Score       Possible = 100

Judges’ Comments

                      For More Information, go to:                              7

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