Public Speaking Communication Notes by cib68395


									Public Speaking
Communication Notes

communication – the process of creating understanding through the exchange of
messages (simply talking is not communicating unless the person with whom you are
talking understands or shares your message’s meaning or intent)

communication process – communication is an ongoing activity
   • When you open your mouth to speak is not the beginning of the speech – the
     brainstorming preparation is the beginning
   • The end of your speech is after the discussion and reflection about your speech –
     not when you stopped talking
   • You may alter the way you give a speech based on audience reaction, facial
     expression etc. (ie. You may tell your best friend how the dining room window
     got broken differently than how you tell your parents)

Sender – the person who has a message to communicate

Receiver – the object of the message, whether the speaker is talking to one person or to a
large audience

Message – the idea the sender wants the receiver to understand

Feedback – occurs when a receiver responds either verbally or nonverbally to a message;
makes communication a circular process that has no beginning or end.

Verbal communication – any communication, spoken or written, that uses words

Nonverbal communication – communication that doesn’t use words (facial expressions,
gestures, vocal inflection, head movements, laughter, or silence)

Context –
   • physical (place speech takes place)
   • social (relationship between the speaker and audience; roles people assume,
      acceptable behavior for situation)
   • psychological (attitudes and behaviors of those involved; formal/casual,
      humorous/serious, friendly/hostile)
   • time elements (time the communication occurs) in which communication takes

method – the means (channel or medium) the speaker uses to communicate the message

Interference – anything that prevents effective communication; it can occur at any point
in the process
Intrapersonal communication – communication that takes place within yourself (thinking,
talking out loud to yourself on some occasions)

Interpersonal communication – communication between people (formal/informal, 2 or 3

Small group communication – interaction among four to twelve individuals (problem
solving sessions, meetings)

Public speaking – one person communicating with many; a continuous presentation by
one individual in a face-to-face situation with an audience

Mass communication – electronic and print technologies send messages to large numbers
of people, often at the same time (television, radio, newspapers, magazines, record

S: Situation – what is the situation in which you are giving the speech?

P: Purpose – Why is the speaker giving the speech? What does he hope to

A: Audience – What are the demographics of the audience? Why is the audience
there? Are they educated?

M: Method – how the speaker goes about meeting his goal given a particular audience
in a particular situation; you must analyze the three other aspects in order to determine
your method of delivery

Rhetoric – the art of speaking and writing well (use spam in order to achieve this)

Methods of Persuasion


Inartistic – draw upon information found in libraries, newspapers, interviews etc.

Artistic – invented, ‘thought up’
    • logos – appeals to the audience’s rationality (those who do not treat their
        audiences as thinkers are frequently ineffective)
   •   pathos – appeals to the audience’s emotions (some speeches are dominated by this
       because humans are not just rational thinking machines)
   •   ethos – appeal based on the speaker’s character (expertise, perceived good
       intentions, trustworthiness)

expertise – how well the speaker understands the subject of the speech

perceived good intentions – audience’s perception of the speaker’s purpose or intent; if
the audience thinks the speaker has good reasons for speaking and is trying to accomplish
good things, the audience is more likely to listen and trust)

trustworthiness – is the speaker known to tell the truth? Can the audience believe the
speaker (ie. How often do you trust a product endorsed by a celebrity? Should we?)

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