Problem Based Learning Neurologic Physical Therapy Lebanon Valley College Center for Excellence in Teaching Learning March 22 2007 Philip Blatt PT by wiy19586

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									  Problem-Based Learning &
  Neurologic Physical Therapy

           Lebanon Valley College
Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning
               March 22, 2007
           Philip Blatt, PT, Ph.D., NCS
                Assistant Professor
          Department of Physical Therapy
“We only think when we are confronted with
 problems.”
                                     John Dewey
“Conflict is the gadfly of
thought. It stirs us to
observation and memory. It
instigates to invention.”
                 John Dewey
                                 “Barrage of information to the
                                 point of overkill…we are
                                 taking notes provoking writers
                                 cramps.”

                                “No clear picture of the need to
                                 know information separated
                                 from the nice to know.”

 “The volume of information limits our ability to interact
  because we are focused on scribing every word for fear of
  missing anything important.”


“Formal learning experiences reinforced
 feelings of inadequacy and failure.”
                          “More patient contact”…
                           missing sense of real-life
                           experience.

                          “Promote integrative
                           thinking - making the shift
                           from fact-spewers to fact-
                           chewers.”



“Testing in a board-like format”… fear that they were
 not being prepared for the board examinations.
“It is absolutely essential that the oppressed
participate in the revolutionary process with an
increasingly critical awareness of their role as
subjects of the transformation.”
                                        Paulo Freire
   To PBL, or not to PBL, that was
           the question.
• What are the overall goals of
  the program?
• What are the specific
  instructional goals of this
  particular course?
• At what stage in their learning
  do students take this particular
  course?
           http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/pbls/writing/intro.htm (P.K. Rangachari)
           Problems, Problems…
• How long should this problem be?
• How can I ensure that students do
  not miss key concepts?
• How can I make this problem
  interesting, challenging?
• How much data do I provide?
• How "open-ended" should this
  problem be?


         http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/pbls/writing/intro.htm (P.K. Rangachari)
             Problems, Problems…
• Will your questions increase the
  learner's will as well as capacity to
  learn?
• Will they help to give him a sense
  of joy in learning?
• Will they help to provide the
  learner with confidence in his
  ability to learn?


               Postman, N. Teaching as a Subversive Activity, 1969.
                             Problems, Problems…

• In order to get answers, will the learner be
  required to make inquiries? (Ask further
  questions, clarify terms, make observations,
  classify data, etc?)
• Does each question allow for alternative
  answers (which implies alternative modes
  of inquiry)?
               Postman, N. Teaching as a Subversive Activity, 1969.
      Problems, Problems…

• Will the process of answering the
  questions tend to stress the
  uniqueness of the learner?
• Would the answers help the learner to
  sense and understand the universals
  in the human condition and so
  enhance his ability to draw closer to
  other people?

            Postman, N. Teaching as a Subversive Activity, 1969.
                     Example - One
Linda Rizzo is a 25-year-old nurse who was a restrained passenger in a head-on motor
vehicle accident in which the driver (her friend) was kill ed. She sustained a depressed
skull fracture and a right acetabular fracture. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in the field
        nd
was 7 a Linda was Life-Lioned to the trauma center. GCS at the EMD was 4. An
emergent CT showed subarachnoid blood and enlarged ventricles with midline shift.
Linda underwent a right frontal craniotomy of the hematoma. She was intubated and had
a diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) to investigate and control internal bleeding. She
was found to have a cardiac contusion. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was 300 mm Hg, and
an extraventricular drain (EVD) was placed. Seven days later she was still unable to be
extubated succe  ssfully and a tracheostomy was performed. She requires deep suctioning
every 1-2 hours to manage copious secretions. Her ICP is currently 15 mm Hg, HR 92,
SAO2 97%. GCS 3, level 1 Ranchos Los Amigos Sca        le.

Linda is non-weight bearing on the right with 60-degree hip flexion precautions. She
remains on mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy and is on 6 liters of supplemental
oxygen. She is seven days post injury. You have a Ņ Evaluate and TreatÓorder.
                                                    PT
             Lind Rizzo - Objectives
1. Describe common mechanisms of injury (coup vs. contrecoup lesions) and
pathophysiology associated with brain damage in closed head injury (CHI) (e.g. focal,
hematoma, fracture) vs. diffuse (ischemia, anoxia, axonal shearing/injury; primary
(parenchymal damage) vs. secondary (intracerebral hemorrhage, brain shift, anoxia,
increased intracranial pressure).
2. Describe important diagnostic tests such as CT scan and examination/ assessment
under medical model for head injury and other common injuries related to trauma.
3. Understand the significance of ICP for the patient as well as PT precautions, know
safe limits.
4. Describe acute medical management of CHI, including PT precautions for
craniotomy and EVD.
5. Review and discuss implications of the ventilator and tracheostomy for respiratory
status as well as how to manage this during PT treatment (lines, coughing, suctioning,
etc.)
6. Describe and recognize the implications for prognosis of the GCS and Ranchos
Scale and how these are utilized by therapists.
7. Develop and implement a plan for prioritized physical therapy examination and plan
of care including coma stimulation, importance of early mobilization, family
education, management of secondary complications and utilizing the best available
evidence for this patient including potential equipment needs and discharge planning.
8. Group reaction and reflections on the dynamics of the context for patient-
practitioner interaction.
                         Example - Two
Joseph Taylor is a 48-year-old electrician who lives with his wife and 14-year-old daughter in
a single-family home that they have owned for 10 years. He is a typical husband and father,
independent in all activities of daily living and devoted to his family. He particularly enjoys
his daily 5-mile run with his daughter, who is training to make the high school cross-country
team next year. He also likes spending some time on his own fishing at the local lake. He and
his wife enjoy a weekly night out every Friday. He is the primary caretaker of the house and
yard, often doing the major repairs such as painting and renovations.
He battled a bout of flu during the winter and, just as he was feeling better, he began to
experience significant generalized muscle weakness, malaise, fever, and some parasthesia in
his hands. Initially, he thought he was having a recurrence of the flu.
His symptoms rapidly progressed over a 48-hour period to the point that he was having
difficulty breathing. He contacted his physician who told him to go to the emergency room
and that he would meet him there. After examination and some laboratory tests, his physician
diagnosed him with Guillain-Barre syndrome and he was admitted to the intensive care unit
(ICU). The progressive nature of the acute phase of this disorder resulted in his respiratory
status becoming so compromised that he was intubated after 12 hours in the ICU. He began to
regain some strength and was extubated 2 days after his admission. He spent 4 more days on
the neurological floor of the hospital and was then discharged to your inpatient rehabilitation
facility with orders for OT and PT evaluation and treatment to regain maximum mobility.
          Joseph Taylor - Objectives
1) Systematize an aggressive plan of care to meet the patient’s goals within
the context of the physiologic limits of Guillian-Barre Syndrome. (i.e. using
the literature how quickly and using what specific techniques can your group
generate a plan of care to address this patient’s goals?)
2) Design a treatment session based on the above techniques lasting 30
minutes for this patient and practice the above techniques with your group
members.
3) If both occupational and physical therapy were involved with this patient,
what would you see as the role for each discipline to provide an appropriate,
comprehensive treatment program? How might we work together with OT
with this patient? Be specific because the insurance company is not going to
pay for duplication of services!
4) What portion of the plan of care would you delegate to an assistant?
Provide a rationale for your answer and guidance to the assistant.
5) What activities would you use to address this patient’s values? Who is this
patient? What roles and activities are important to him?
                                               Now What?!?!?
                                          • Look for phenomena requiring
                                            explanation by brainstorming
                                          • Investigate previous knowledge and
                                            experience
                                          • Formulate shared learning objectives
                                          • Independent study
                                          • Report results
                                                – (Steps 1-5 are iterative)
                                          • Explain the essence of the case
                                          • Reflect & evaluate

“Knowledge rests not upon truth alone, but upon error
also.”
                                                                Carl Jung
              Maudsley G. Roles & responsibilities of the PBL tutor, BMJ, 1999.
Group Process
• Roles
  – Chair
  – Scribe
  – Minutes-Secretary
  – “Troller”
  – Group Member

          “Education is a social process. Education is growth.
           Education is, not a preparation for life; education is life
           itself.”
     Neuromuscular Rehabilitation
      Problem-Based Component
• Six case modules
  – 2 weeks each
• Discussion Boards
• Summary Review
• Online Board
  Examination
• Peer-Review
  – Midterm & Final

                      “Creativity requires the courage to let go of
                      certainties.”
                                                               Erich Fromm
                                      “It is hard to believe that my tuition
                                       is paying for Dr. Blatt’s salary and
                                       he only taught one lecture in 16
                                       weeks.”

                                      “Don’t make the PBL cases so out-
                                       of-the-ordinary – give us cases of
                                       diagnoses we will actually see
                                       more often. Give us the diagnosis
                                       right off the bat so that the focus
                                       is on treating; not diagnosing.”

                                      “I do feel that Dr. Blatt is very
                                       knowledgeable, but I wish he
                                       shared his knowledge with us.”



“There are three musts that hold us back: I must do
 well. You must treat me well. And the world must be
 easy.”
“I have learned that I can not learn
 it all and that is okay.”               “I felt challenged, I felt like I was
                                          doing something clinically relevant
“I have learned to use my peers as a      and most of all I was learning
 place to obtain knowledge and ask        neuroscience/ rehabilitation.”
 for help.”
                                         “I have learned not to back down
“I have learned that I have all the       from my opinions and beliefs.”
 skills to obtain the skills to
 approach and treat my patients.”




 “The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and
  change.”
                                                                     Carl Rogers
The new education has as its purpose the development of a new
kind of person, one who--as a result of internalizing a different
series of concepts--is an actively inquiring, flexible, creative,
innovative, tolerant, liberal personality who can face uncertainty
and ambiguity without disorientation, who can formulate viable
new meanings to meet changes in the environment which threaten
individual and mutual survival. The new education, in sum, is new
because it consists of having students use the concepts most
appropriate to the world in which we all must live. All of these
concepts constitute the dynamics of the quest-questioning,
meaning-making process that can be called "learning how to learn."

Neil Postman (Teaching as a Subversive Activity, 1969)
Frustration once felt
We finally pruned and
sprout
To now go forth whole

								
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